Sign In
Forgot password?
Enter your username or email to reset and email yourself your password
Sign In
Welcome . For your security, please choose your password.
Sign In
For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy
Sign up
for saving your wish list, viewing past orders
receiving discounts and lots more...
Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.


Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
Your Cart (0)

Living Like Trees: The Hindu and Buddhist Ideal of Sharing

Article of the Month - November 2006
Viewed 36243 times since 2nd Oct, 2008

Fielding Hall, a British official in nineteenth-century Burma, once asked for a bill at what he had taken to be a village restaurant, and found that he had been fed as a guest in a private house. Little did he know that the simple-minded folk were just practicing one of Buddhism's fundamental ethical imperatives - the gesture of unconditioned giving.

Indeed, the primary activity which a Buddhist learns to develop is unselfish sharing, which forms a basis for further moral and spiritual development. If the key to any religion is held in its stories, Buddhist literature, abounding in such narratives, gives ample evidence of the high esteem this particular trait is held in.

Dana: Giving and Getting in Pali Buddhism
Dana: Giving and Getting in Pali Buddhism






Dana or generosity is encouraged as an essential attitude, which is the best way of offsetting the human tendency of individual self-centeredness and attachment. It is also regarded as a basic form of renunciation, open to both - the layperson and the monk.






Thus says the ancient Buddhist Canon:

'Like a jar of water, when overturned, empties all its contents, never to receive them back, thus should one give away without regard to money, fame, one's progeny, or even our own body to anybody who approaches us with a wish list.' (Introduction to Jataka)

Throughout the Jataka Stories, the first injunction when any discourse is delivered is to give donations to the poor, food to guests and support and honor to holy men. In Hinduism too, the gift of food is considered especially virtuous because:

'Life is sustained by food and food is life, thus, to give food to others is like giving life to them.' (Mahabharata: 13.63.26)

The hospitality has to be all embracing, and the guest, whoever she or he may be, has to be welcomed with open arms:

Even if the lowliest of the low arrives as a guest, the householder should welcome him. (Mahabharata: 14.92)

In the timeless text, The Bhagavata Purana, an instructive episode is narrated where Krishna, playing with his famished friends, is addressed thus by the latter:

"O Krishna, like you have annihilated mighty demons tormenting us, so also save us from these pangs of hunger."

Krishna, ever the fulfiller of his devotees' needs, answered:

"Go to the nearby hall where learned Brahmins are performing a great ritual to attain heaven. Tell them that you have been sent by me and request them to give you some cooked rice."

Obeying the instructions, the young lads went over to the hermitage, prostrated them before the priests and requested:

"Venerable saints, we are the servants of Lord Krishna who is playing with us nearby. He is now hungry and has asked us to seek food from you - the true knowers of Dharma."

Ignorantly engaged in toilsome rituals and acts of everyday life, yet vainglorious of their textual wisdom, the Brahmins, though they heard the solicitations of the lord, who out of Grace send his friends for food to them, did not heed to their needs.

Disappointed, they reported what had happened to Krishna, who laughing out aloud said: "Now go to the affectionate wives of these Brahmins and ask the same of them. They will definitely feed you to your heart's content."

To those pious women the lads respectfully submitted: "Salutations to you virtuous ladies. We have been deputed by Lord Krishna to seek food for our hungry group."

No sooner had they heard that the lord was so near, giving them an opportunity to fulfill his and his followers' hunger, the Brahmin women immediately gathered sumptuous food in large vessels and like rivers rushing towards the ocean, eagerly reached out to Krishna welcoming him through the gates of their eyes, establishing him into their hearts.

Krishna and His Friends Enjoy the Meal
Krishna and His Friends Enjoy the Meal






Krishna first made his friends feast on the food and only afterwards did he partake it himself.







Later, the saints, remembering their uncharitable behavior, lamented: "Alas, we have disregarded the lord who has taken the form of a human being. All our knowledge, vows and pure birth are useless, because due to pride, we were unable to recognize the divinity in humanity." (Bhagavata Purana: 10.23)

This simple narrative has a profound implication, alerting us to the realization that if we are lucky enough to have somebody needful at our threshold, it is perhaps god himself who has condescended to bless us. Thus is it said:

'With a guest come all the gods. If a guest is honored, so are they; if he goes away disappointed, they are disappointed too.' (Mahabharata: 14.92)

Significantly, the word used for guest in Sanskrit is 'atithi', 'tithi' meaning date and the prefix 'a' negating it. Therefore, one who arrives unexpectedly without prior date or appointment is the guest extolled here:

Krishna Washes the Feet of His Guest Sudama
Krishna Washes the Feet of His Guest Sudama







'An athithi is an occasion for heaven, and all gods are satisfied when he is satisfied.' (Mahabharata: 14.92)






The Bhagavad Gita calls such an unsolicited opportunity to perform one's duty (made available by chance and not effort), a direct gateway to heaven (2.32).

Our experience of the world is one of interdependence, and we do not exist as isolated elements but are related to each other as many strands of a fabric. Hindu and Buddhist texts provide structures through which trustworthy views of this experience can be developed, recognizing that such interdependence is not just of the nature of the body, but at a deeper level, of human social life. Such an outlook involves not only accommodation, but also slowly but steadily cultivates in us the ideal of renunciation, defined as the abandonment of material things over to someone else, and which is a necessary first step towards Nirvana or Moksha.

Shasha Jataka: Just to the left of the Fire 
can be Seen the Hare Ready to Jump Into the Flames (Guntur, Andhra Pradesh)
Shasha Jataka: Just to the left of the Fire can be Seen the Hare Ready to Jump Into the Flames (Guntur, Andhra Pradesh)

In fact, the quality of giving is one of the virtues perfected over numerous lifetimes by Buddha in his bodhisattva phase, before the final culmination into Nirvana, after he has given up all attachment. This is symbolized by the sacrifice of his own body when he has nothing else to offer an unexpected guest. In the Jataka Tale entitled 'Shasha Jataka' (story no. 316), the Buddha is born as a rabbit, and unable to present any other food to a Brahmin come home, roasted himself in a fire. Later of course, it turns out that his guest is but god testing his resolve.

A similar message is given by the story of King Shibi in the Jataka Mala, who having given away all his wealth, was still moved enough by small insects hovering around him, and inflicted several wounds on his body to feed the mosquitoes. In another narrative from the same text, the bodhisattva throws himself in front of a hungry tigress, who, otherwise, was on the verge of consuming her own cubs. This is however not the only instance of the Buddha-To-Be sacrificing his physical body partly or fully and numerous tales abound in Buddhist Canonical literature illustrating this theme.

Buddha Discourses to Ananda
Buddha Discourses to Ananda






In the ancient Samadhiraja-Sutra, Buddha's principal disciple Ananda asks how a bodhisattva can cheerfully suffer the loss of his limbs etc and not feel any pain when he mutilates himself for the good of others.






The Buddha explained that intense compassion for mankind and the love of Bodhi (spiritual awakening), sustain and inspire a bodhisattva towards heroism, just as worldly men are inclined to enjoy sensual pleasures even when their bodies are burning with fever.

Before being so advanced spiritually so as to make these supreme sacrifices, the bodhisattva, in many of his live prior to Buddhahood, continued to cultivate the perfection (paramita) of Dana, experiencing greater pleasure in giving than those receiving it. When the action of giving is thus internalized in so profound a manner, becoming almost one's second, nay primary nature, Krishna compares such unselfish magnanimity with the inspiring life of trees:

"Have a look at these great blessed trees, who live only for the welfare of others, themselves facing the severity of stormy winds, heavy showers, heat and snow, all the while protecting us from them. The birth of trees is the most blessed in the world, as they contribute unreservedly to the well being of all creatures. Just as no needy person ever returns disappointed from the house of a benevolent individual, similarly do these trees do for those who approach them for shelter. All of their many parts - leaves, flowers, fruits, shadow, roots, bark, wood and fragrance, are useful to others. Indeed, there are many who live on this earth, but the birth of only those is successful, who, as far as possible, through their wealth, intellect, speech and lives, engage in acts conducive to the welfare of others." (Bhagavata Purana 10.22.32 - 35)

The Mahabharata asks us to embrace even one perceived to be an enemy, should he arrive at our threshold: 'Should even one's enemy arrive at the doorstep, he should be attended upon with respect. A tree does not withdraw its cooling shade even from the one who has come to cut it.' (12.146.5)

Santideva's Bodhicharyavatara (Original Sanskrit Text with English Tanslation and Exposition Based on Prajnakarmati's Panjika)
Santideva's Bodhicharyavatara (Original Sanskrit Text with English Tanslation and Exposition Based on Prajnakarmati's Panjika)







The Bodhichariyavatara, a classic in the world's religious literature, composed by the monk Shantideva (AD 685-763), describes in verse form the various steps to be taken by the bodhisattva on the path to Buddhahood.






It calls the bodhisattva as one without attachment to specific individuals, but who perceives all creatures with benevolence like a father his son. There is a beautiful passage in the Bhagavata Purana complementing the above ideal:

Man has right over only that much wealth as is enough to satisfy his hunger. He who lays a claim on the surplus is a thief and deserves punishment. One should look upon beasts, camels, donkeys, monkeys, rats, creatures who crawl on the earth (serpents etc), birds and mosquitoes like one's own sons, and these should therefore not be driven out of the house or fields if they enter and begin to eat, for what indeed is the difference between them and his sons? (7.14.8 - 9)

This is perhaps akin to Mahatma Gandhi's concept of trusteeship, where anyone with wealth in excess of his basic needs realizes himself to be only a trustee of his prosperity, and who understands that his continuation in the office depends only on his overseeing that it is judiciously shared amongst all shareholders.

The Bodhichariyavatara takes even a deeper perspective, laying special emphasis on placing oneself in the position of others (par-atma-parivartana), in order to promote selflessness (an-atman) and compassion (karuna): 'Whoever wishes for salvation should practice the supreme mystery - the exchanging of himself and the other.' (8.120)

Governed by this high ideal, such selfless giving does not expect anything in return. It is perhaps only a way of saying thanks to the one god who has created us all in equality. According to Krishna, a sharing which wants its price is but mere shop keeping:

"Those who love only when loved, their whole enterprise is based on selfishness. It is only giving and taking. It is nor a joining of hearts, neither Dharma. This love is just for self-interest and nothing else. Those who show affection to even those who do not reciprocate their love are like parents, full of karuna. Here lies pure and spotless Dharma." (Bhagavata Purana 10.32.17 - 18)

What all these instances suggest is that the sense of giving is not mere alms giving or charity, but a sharing of what one has been given, in the awareness that one's life is connected with other beings. Hospitality is one such expression of this realization, beyond mere ritual etiquette:

Even if he diligently studies the Veda day after day, but fails to welcome his guest, then the life of such a Brahmin is in vain. If one wishes to reap the fruits of ritual rites, then let one attend upon a guest who arrives hungry and thirsty at his doorstep with food and respect. (Mahabharata: 14.92)

Equally important with the act of giving is the attitude, the feeling with which the offerings are made. The word used for ritual giving in Sanskrit, is 'Dana', whose meanings are sharing, communicating, imparting, paying back (as a debt), restoring, and adding to. The ancient tradition of holistic healing, Ayurveda, speaks of four kinds of defects which can afflict cooked food:

1). The Defect of Time (Kala Dosha) - The food that has been kept for too long.

2). The Defect of Flavor (Rasa Dosha) - That which has lost its taste.

3). The Defect of Company (Samsarga Dosha): Touched by unclean hands, or in which some insect has fallen

4). The Defect of Sentiment (Bhava Dosha) - That which is offered with ill grace or without affection. Such a food is not food, it is poison and the worst out of the four categories.

In Buddhist Ethics too, the overall focus is on the psychological aspects of an action, that is, on the intention or volition (chetana) behind it. The Kathavatthu of the Pali Canon holds that Dana is not only the act of giving and gift itself, but the mental state of liberality as well. Thus it is not the absolute size of the gift that is noteworthy, but its proportion out of one's own stock, that characterizes the 'abundance' of a gift.

King Rantideva Worships God Come in the Form of Man and His Dogs
King Rantideva Worships God Come in the Form of Man and His Dogs

The story of King Rantideva illustrates one such episode, where this monarch, having given away all his wealth, fell on to days of hardship, and had to go even without water for a stretch of forty-eight days. However, on the morning of the forty-ninth, he managed to get a meal of rice cooked in butter. As soon as the family sat down to break their fast, a Brahmin guest arrived, and the family, visualizing god in everything, received him with reverence and gave him a share. Before they could partake of the remaining food, another stranger, this time a Shudra, knocked at their door. He was also lovingly given a portion of the meal. After him came a stranger with his dogs, requesting to be fed along with his hounds. The householder dutifully bowed before the god arrived in the form of the dogs and their master. Lastly, only water having remained, that too was asked by for by a parched Chandala (keeper of funeral grounds). King Rantideva, observing the latter's plight said: I do not seek from The Almighty Lord any kind of special powers. I would rather prefer to dwell in all beings and undergo their sufferings myself, relieving them of their miseries. By offering water to this unfortunate person, ally my thirst, exhaustion, distress and hunger have been quenched." Later, the family was blessed with a vision (darshan) of the lord himself, who extolled their sacrifice, which consisted of all they possessed.

References and Further Reading:

Post a Comment
Post Review
  • Thank you immensely for this particuarly wonderful article this month in regard to Buddhist and Hindu sharing. It was beautiful and illuminating. I shall do more of the suggested reading listed at the end of the article. Please continue your wonderful work.
    by Pamela St. George on 10th Dec 2006
  • Your article isobeautifully expresses the wonderful principle of ATITHIDEVO BHAVA - which we as children saw our elders practicing in daily life !
    If only we could re-learn all our forgotten ideals of life !
    Thank you for such enlightening and elevating articles.
    by PANT VIJAYA on 22nd Nov 2006
  • As always I enjoyed your lucid and enlightening presentation. Many thanks.

    If only we (HIndus or Buddhists)practiced even a fraction of this attitude, how wonderful it would be!
    by Mukunda Rao on 19th Nov 2006
  • Dear Datha Nitin Kumar,

    I would like to congratulate you for your excellent work, it is always a great pleasure to read and study the articles you write, and all what it can be found in the site.

    by Jean-Luc M.J. Antoine on 16th Nov 2006
I received the 2 sarees and the DVDs. You truly are a treasure house for the music and other related things. You have gotten me an array of CDs,books,DVDs and not least of all beautiful sarees. All always packed with care, delivered in a timely, no hassle fashion. Your business is very trustworthy and I am so glad to have when I need to look for something.
Prashanti, USA
Hello, Just a short feedback on your new website layout: the old one was better than most of what you come across on the www, but you've managed to make it even better. I very much like the new look of the book pages and 'my gallery' pages. Thanks again for offering me a look inside the books. It's a big help for finding out if it's really what I want. Everything is perfect: the presentation of the items, your way of handling the orders, and the fast and always diligently packed parcels. Thanks to all at Exotic India, Walter
thank you sooo much for the speedy delivery!! within two days I am already wearing my beautiful Exotic Indian shawl!! thanks so much
Pat Demaret
This is the second time I am ordering kurta. The first time it was in July of 2015. The whole transaction was very smooth, and I received my order in USA within a week's tme from India. it was faster than some of the local orders that I have placed. Thank you for your efficiency.
Prabha, USA
I like Exotic India and have had a great experience so far with your books / shipping etc. Please keep it up!
Sriram, USA
Thanks to all the staff at Exotic Art for helping me acquire these wonderful books from the holy land of Bharata Varsha. Happy new year to you all and all glories to Sri Krsna, peace...
J. Idehen, UK
Exotic India is a fine organization to do business with. I have had the best trading experience and the very best customer service. The communication I have had with Vipin K. is of the highest quality; my questions and requests were quickly and professionally answered and fulfilled. A special thanks to the artist Kailash Raj for the beautiful art he produces; I have certainly been enriched by the way his art exemplifies the stories they tell. Many Thanks to all concerned.
W. J. Barnett, USA
My beautiful shawl arrived today. Thank you so much for this lovely shawl. Really, it is nicer than the photograph. I hope you and yours have a very Happy New Year and much prosperity in the New Year. With gratitude
Tom Anderson, Canada
An excellent website, as always. I do not even mention its content, which is beautiful beyond words, but I am merely referring to the great functionality and optimal design of your website. Links always work, the information is accurate and complete, images are very clear, including scanned content of your books. A pleasure to purchase from you.
Oreste, USA
I just wanted to extend my profound thanks to you for expediting my order. It was so well packaged and all import processes taken care of so the beautiful statue arrived in fabulous condition. It looks truly wonderful and I am so happy to have Lord Ganesh take pride of place in my home. Thank you again for your superb service. Best regards
Nikki Grainger
Subscribe to our newsletter and discounts
Share with friends
Related Links
"Whenever he gets the time, he should go and live amongst people who have given up worldly life…. A wise person should serve his body and family only to the extent that is functionally necessary…. The person who lays claim on the surplus wealth is nothing but a thief…. He should share all objects of enjoyment with everyone, right down to dogs, sinners…. Such is the attachment to one’s wife….How despicable is this body, which if buried is going to become the food of worms, or excreta if eaten by animals….Since a son is to thus revere his elders even after their death, what to say that he is expected to serve them when they are alive…. The person wishing to follow the path of dharma should steer clear of the five forms of Adharma."
Narada Teaches Yuddhishtra a Householder’s Dharma
"The Bhagavad Gita, while describing the qualities of a wise person says…. This verse is vividly illustrated in the story of king Rantideva occurring in the Srimad Bhagavatam…. He did not believe in hoarding, was above all attachments and was highly patient…. They were all trembling due to starvation and thirst….bowed to the dogs and their owner…. What I want is only this: That I be able to go and live in the hearts of all beings and undergo sufferings on their behalf, so that they may become free from all miseries."
An Example of Living Vedanta: The Story of King Rantideva
"We assume that our happiness is the result of an interaction with external objects…. Suppose that an individual is deprived of sleep and food and pleasurable objects for a long time and then all of them are simultaneously offered to him…. Actually, seeking the answer to this question is the most significant pursuit in life…. The veil comes up again and the duality returns…. In this background, we can now analyse the nature of dukha (grief)."
Ananda: Understanding the True Nature of Happiness
"But to pull this statement out of context and give it as an advice for anyone is far from correct…. But how is one to recognise the guru? Obviously, he will be able to understand the difficulties of the disciples and clarify to them the meaning of the scriptures on the basis of logic and experience…. They will have to search in their own neighbourhood only….The guru chosen by him should be at least better than himself!…. Of course, if the ideal guru whose features have been enumerated in the beginning is available, then the sadhaka should immediately go and surrender to him…. It is just like going to another teacher for higher education, after completing the education in a school."
The Qualities of a Guru and How to Find One
"Actually, the one who worships Bhagwan Vishnu should get rich and the one who worships Shiva should become an avadhuta like Him…. Then he works hard again to acquire wealth. I render all his efforts futile…. However, Bhagawan Vishnu is not like that, it takes longer to please Him…. As a consequence, they later harassed the great God Himself…. On the seventh day, he bathed in the holy waters of Kedarnath and began to cut his head with an axe to offer into the fire…. The boy bowed respectfully before the demon and asked…. No one who commits sin against a great person can be safe and happy in this world."
Shiva and Vishnu: A Unique Aspect of Their Worship
Show More
Others Viewing
Plain Pathani Kurta Salwar with Thread Embroidery on Neck
Plain Pathani Kurta Salwar with Thread Embroidery on Neck
Pure Cotton
Plain Pathani Kurta Salwar with Thread Embroidery on Neck
Sum (Cultures of Rhythm) (Audio CD)
Caraka Samhita: Sutrasthana (The Only Edition with English Translation of Commentary Ayurveda Dipika by Cakrapani)
Caraka Samhita: Sutrasthana (The Only Edition with English Translation of Commentary Ayurveda Dipika by Cakrapani)
Dr. P.V. Tewari
Caraka Samhita: Sutrasthana (The Only Edition with English Translation of Commentary Ayurveda Dipika by Cakrapani)
Orange-Rust Digital Printed Lord Buddha Cushion Cover from Gujarat
Orange-Rust Digital Printed Lord Buddha Cushion Cover from Gujarat
15.0 in x 15.0 in
Orange-Rust Digital Printed Lord Buddha Cushion Cover from Gujarat
आधुनिक भारत के निर्माता काका साहब कालेलकर: Builders of Modern India (Kaka Saheb Kalelkar)
आधुनिक भारत के निर्माता काका साहब कालेलकर: Builders of Modern India (Kaka Saheb Kalelkar)
रविन्द्र केलेकर (Ravindra Kelekar)
आधुनिक भारत के निर्माता काका साहब कालेलकर: Builders of Modern India (Kaka Saheb Kalelkar)
श्रीविद्या साधना Sri Vidya Sadhana (In Hindi)
श्रीविद्या साधना Sri Vidya Sadhana (In Hindi)
श्रीविद्या साधना Sri Vidya Sadhana (In Hindi)
Show More
TRUSTe online privacy certification
All rights reserved. Copyright 2016 © Exotic India
Exotic India
A-16/1 Wazirpur Industrial Estate Delhi - 110052 India
- Phone: +919953839642