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An Account of the Different Existing Systems of Sanskrit Grammar
An Account of the Different Existing Systems of Sanskrit Grammar
Description
Foreword

India can rightly boast of an age old tradition of studies in human speech in different perspectives. It is no wonder that of the six ancillary sastras of exergetic studies in the Vedic lore, four ones viz, Siksa(Phonetics & Phonology), Nirukta (Etymology)Chandas (Metrics ) and Vyakarana (Grammar)address themselves to linguistic analysis of the textual language of the Vedas. While each of them has developed in phases codified in different texts, Vyakarana has got the unique position of a chequred history of evolution through a considerable number of schools, pre-Paninian, Paninian and post-Paninian, each having a vast literature comprising sutra text, commenlaries and sub-commentaries, scholia, appendix and the like panini’s school itself extends over two millennia and its developed in different sub-schools to cater to the needs of the days. Buddhist grammarians of Bengal, for instance, came forward and helped in ushering in an era of Paninian studies through writings by Maitreya Raksita, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva saranadeva tec. During the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries after Chirst. A plethora of post-Paninian schools also came up under various circumstances, vied with each other and still derived benefit from the neighbouring schools to complete the circle of individual systems with an eye to the new linguistic data gathered from a living human tongue. The Katantra school sprang in the South and expanded its horizon at two other extreme parts of the Indian sub-continent viz. Bengal and Kashmir. Even the Bengal school had at least two sub-schools headed by Panji and Parisista. Jain grammarians of the Western part of India flourished under three heads viz. Haima, Sakatayana and Jainendra. The Jaumara school has its root at the Saiva sect of the Madhyadesa, through it flourished thereafter on the soil of Bengal and Orissa. Bopadeva’s Mugdhabodha too experienced a long journey from the land of its origin viz. Magdhabodha to reach Bengal where several commentaries were authored for completing the system. Eastern India, in fact, was the breeding ground of some other schools of Sanskrit grammar viz. Supadma, H arinamamrta, Sarasvata, Prayogaratnamala and the like. While many of the works belonging to these schools have been edited and studied, many more are still lying in manuscript form to see the light of the day. With on-going researches in these areas, the horizon of Sanskrit grammars is vastly expanding day by day.

Many decades back, Sri S.K. Belvalkar prepared a short compendium of this literature under the caption viz. Systems of Sanskrit Grammar to make us aware of this treasure. Studies have been advancing since then and of the later contributions to this arena, Sabdasastrer Itihas in Bengali by Kalijivana Devasarman (1995) is singularly commendable. Belvalkar’s work, however, has not lost its relevance till now. Every scholar of Sanskrit grammar is sure to benefit from this pioneering work. Unfortunately it has been out of print for some years. It is heartening to note that publisher has now come forward for a reprint of the book. I welcome this venture and wish it all success.

Contents

… …
1.Grammatical speculations in India :Their extent and value 1
2. Early grammatical speculations : In the Vedas, 1
3. In the Brahmanas, and 3
4. In allied works 4
5. The predecessors of Yaska 4
6. Yaska’s successors 6
7. Nature of Yaska’s work 8
8. Yaska’s successors 9
9. The so-called Aindra treatises 10
10. The School of Panini 12
11. Panini’s date 13
12. The view that Panini cannot be placed before B.C. 350 examined 15
13. Known facts about Panini’s life 18
14. Character of Panini’s work 19
15. Technical devices used by Panini 22
16. Treatises accessory to Panini’s Ashtadhyayi 25
17. Katyayana: His date 28
18. Nature of Katyayana’s vartikas to Panini’s grammar 29
19. Vartikakaras before and after katyayana 31
20. Patanjali: His date and personal history 32
21. The Vyakarana – Mahabhashya as marking the end of the first period in the history of the paniniya school 34
22. Chandragomin and his work 34
23. The Kasika of Jayaditya and Vamana 35
24. The indebtedness of the Kasika to Chandragomin 37
25. Jinendrabuddhi’s Nyasa on the Kasika 38
26. Haradatta’s Padamanjari on the Kasika 39
27. Bhartrihari’s Vakyapadiya 40
28. Kaiyyata’s Pradipa as making the end of second period in the history of the Paniniya school41
29. Recasts of the Ashtadhyayi: The Rupamala 43
30. Ramachandra’s Prakriya-kaumudi, and its commentaries 45
31. Bhattoji’s Siddhanta-kaumudi and other works 46
32. The works of Nagesa and of Vaidyanatha Payagunda 49
33. Grammatical works outside the Dikshita school 50
34. A bridgements and mannals 51
35. Later history of treatises accessory to Panini’s grammar 51
36. Dhatupatha 51
37. Ganapatha 53
38. Linganusasana 53
39. Unadipatha 54
40. Paribhashas 54
41. Resume of the history of the Panniya school 55
42. The Chandra school 57
43. The date of Chandragomin 58
44. Nature of his work 59
45. Accessory treatises of the Chandra grammar 60
46. Later history of the Chandra school 61
47. The Jainendra school 62
48. Date of the Jainendra Vyakarana 64
49. Its character, and 65
50. Later history 66
51. The Sakatayana School 68
52. Its founder not the ancient Sakatayana but his modern name sake 68
53. Character of Sakatayana’s Sabdannsasana 69
54. Other works of this school 71
55. Its later history 71
56. The Hemachandra school 73
57. Life of Hemachandra 73
58. Nature of Hemachandra’s Sabdannsasana 75
59. Treatises accessory to the Sabdannsasana 77
60. Commentaries on the Sabdannsasana 78
61. Digests, manuals, and other miscellaneous works79
62. Conclusion of the Hemachandra school80
63. The Katantra school81
64. Traditional account about Sarvavarman, the founder of the school82
65. Evidence for later interpolations in the Katantra Sutrapatha83
66. Nature of Sarvavarman’s work86
67. Early history of the school87
68. Durgasimha and his vritti…87
69. Commentaries on Durgasimha’s vritti…88
70. Treatises accessory to the Katantra89
71. History of the katantra school in Bengal90
72. History of the katantra school in Kasmira91
73. The Sarasvata school: its date91
74. Special features of the sarasvata93
75. Its traditional founder95
76. Sarasvata- prakriya of Anubhutisvarupacharya96
77. Commentators of Sarasvata-prakriya96
78. Commentators of the Sarasvata independently of the Prakriya 102
79. Treatises accessory to the Sarasvata103
80. General review of the history of the Sarasvata school103
81. The school of Bopadeva…104
82. Date of Bopadeva104
83. Object of Bopadeva’s Mugdhabodha105
84. Later history of the school107
85. Supplements and accessory treatises of the Mugdhabodha108
86. The Jaumara school of Kramadisvara…108
87. Its special features109
88. Commentaries on the Jaumara109
89. Its present status…110
90. The Saupadma school of Padmanabhadatta111
91. Its special features111
92. Commentaries on the Saupadma112
93. Treatises accessory to the Saupadma112
94. Its present status…113
95. Later sectarian schools113
96. Harinamamrita113
97. Prabodhaprakasa114
98. Lesser Manuals and school books115
99. Conclusion 116

An Account of the Different Existing Systems of Sanskrit Grammar

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Foreword

India can rightly boast of an age old tradition of studies in human speech in different perspectives. It is no wonder that of the six ancillary sastras of exergetic studies in the Vedic lore, four ones viz, Siksa(Phonetics & Phonology), Nirukta (Etymology)Chandas (Metrics ) and Vyakarana (Grammar)address themselves to linguistic analysis of the textual language of the Vedas. While each of them has developed in phases codified in different texts, Vyakarana has got the unique position of a chequred history of evolution through a considerable number of schools, pre-Paninian, Paninian and post-Paninian, each having a vast literature comprising sutra text, commenlaries and sub-commentaries, scholia, appendix and the like panini’s school itself extends over two millennia and its developed in different sub-schools to cater to the needs of the days. Buddhist grammarians of Bengal, for instance, came forward and helped in ushering in an era of Paninian studies through writings by Maitreya Raksita, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva saranadeva tec. During the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries after Chirst. A plethora of post-Paninian schools also came up under various circumstances, vied with each other and still derived benefit from the neighbouring schools to complete the circle of individual systems with an eye to the new linguistic data gathered from a living human tongue. The Katantra school sprang in the South and expanded its horizon at two other extreme parts of the Indian sub-continent viz. Bengal and Kashmir. Even the Bengal school had at least two sub-schools headed by Panji and Parisista. Jain grammarians of the Western part of India flourished under three heads viz. Haima, Sakatayana and Jainendra. The Jaumara school has its root at the Saiva sect of the Madhyadesa, through it flourished thereafter on the soil of Bengal and Orissa. Bopadeva’s Mugdhabodha too experienced a long journey from the land of its origin viz. Magdhabodha to reach Bengal where several commentaries were authored for completing the system. Eastern India, in fact, was the breeding ground of some other schools of Sanskrit grammar viz. Supadma, H arinamamrta, Sarasvata, Prayogaratnamala and the like. While many of the works belonging to these schools have been edited and studied, many more are still lying in manuscript form to see the light of the day. With on-going researches in these areas, the horizon of Sanskrit grammars is vastly expanding day by day.

Many decades back, Sri S.K. Belvalkar prepared a short compendium of this literature under the caption viz. Systems of Sanskrit Grammar to make us aware of this treasure. Studies have been advancing since then and of the later contributions to this arena, Sabdasastrer Itihas in Bengali by Kalijivana Devasarman (1995) is singularly commendable. Belvalkar’s work, however, has not lost its relevance till now. Every scholar of Sanskrit grammar is sure to benefit from this pioneering work. Unfortunately it has been out of print for some years. It is heartening to note that publisher has now come forward for a reprint of the book. I welcome this venture and wish it all success.

Contents

… …
1.Grammatical speculations in India :Their extent and value 1
2. Early grammatical speculations : In the Vedas, 1
3. In the Brahmanas, and 3
4. In allied works 4
5. The predecessors of Yaska 4
6. Yaska’s successors 6
7. Nature of Yaska’s work 8
8. Yaska’s successors 9
9. The so-called Aindra treatises 10
10. The School of Panini 12
11. Panini’s date 13
12. The view that Panini cannot be placed before B.C. 350 examined 15
13. Known facts about Panini’s life 18
14. Character of Panini’s work 19
15. Technical devices used by Panini 22
16. Treatises accessory to Panini’s Ashtadhyayi 25
17. Katyayana: His date 28
18. Nature of Katyayana’s vartikas to Panini’s grammar 29
19. Vartikakaras before and after katyayana 31
20. Patanjali: His date and personal history 32
21. The Vyakarana – Mahabhashya as marking the end of the first period in the history of the paniniya school 34
22. Chandragomin and his work 34
23. The Kasika of Jayaditya and Vamana 35
24. The indebtedness of the Kasika to Chandragomin 37
25. Jinendrabuddhi’s Nyasa on the Kasika 38
26. Haradatta’s Padamanjari on the Kasika 39
27. Bhartrihari’s Vakyapadiya 40
28. Kaiyyata’s Pradipa as making the end of second period in the history of the Paniniya school41
29. Recasts of the Ashtadhyayi: The Rupamala 43
30. Ramachandra’s Prakriya-kaumudi, and its commentaries 45
31. Bhattoji’s Siddhanta-kaumudi and other works 46
32. The works of Nagesa and of Vaidyanatha Payagunda 49
33. Grammatical works outside the Dikshita school 50
34. A bridgements and mannals 51
35. Later history of treatises accessory to Panini’s grammar 51
36. Dhatupatha 51
37. Ganapatha 53
38. Linganusasana 53
39. Unadipatha 54
40. Paribhashas 54
41. Resume of the history of the Panniya school 55
42. The Chandra school 57
43. The date of Chandragomin 58
44. Nature of his work 59
45. Accessory treatises of the Chandra grammar 60
46. Later history of the Chandra school 61
47. The Jainendra school 62
48. Date of the Jainendra Vyakarana 64
49. Its character, and 65
50. Later history 66
51. The Sakatayana School 68
52. Its founder not the ancient Sakatayana but his modern name sake 68
53. Character of Sakatayana’s Sabdannsasana 69
54. Other works of this school 71
55. Its later history 71
56. The Hemachandra school 73
57. Life of Hemachandra 73
58. Nature of Hemachandra’s Sabdannsasana 75
59. Treatises accessory to the Sabdannsasana 77
60. Commentaries on the Sabdannsasana 78
61. Digests, manuals, and other miscellaneous works79
62. Conclusion of the Hemachandra school80
63. The Katantra school81
64. Traditional account about Sarvavarman, the founder of the school82
65. Evidence for later interpolations in the Katantra Sutrapatha83
66. Nature of Sarvavarman’s work86
67. Early history of the school87
68. Durgasimha and his vritti…87
69. Commentaries on Durgasimha’s vritti…88
70. Treatises accessory to the Katantra89
71. History of the katantra school in Bengal90
72. History of the katantra school in Kasmira91
73. The Sarasvata school: its date91
74. Special features of the sarasvata93
75. Its traditional founder95
76. Sarasvata- prakriya of Anubhutisvarupacharya96
77. Commentators of Sarasvata-prakriya96
78. Commentators of the Sarasvata independently of the Prakriya 102
79. Treatises accessory to the Sarasvata103
80. General review of the history of the Sarasvata school103
81. The school of Bopadeva…104
82. Date of Bopadeva104
83. Object of Bopadeva’s Mugdhabodha105
84. Later history of the school107
85. Supplements and accessory treatises of the Mugdhabodha108
86. The Jaumara school of Kramadisvara…108
87. Its special features109
88. Commentaries on the Jaumara109
89. Its present status…110
90. The Saupadma school of Padmanabhadatta111
91. Its special features111
92. Commentaries on the Saupadma112
93. Treatises accessory to the Saupadma112
94. Its present status…113
95. Later sectarian schools113
96. Harinamamrita113
97. Prabodhaprakasa114
98. Lesser Manuals and school books115
99. Conclusion 116
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