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Books > Philosophy > Aparokshanubhuti or Self-Realization of Sri Sankaracharya (Shankaracharya)
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Aparokshanubhuti or Self-Realization of Sri Sankaracharya (Shankaracharya)
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Aparokshanubhuti or Self-Realization of Sri Sankaracharya (Shankaracharya)
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Description

About the Book:

It is one of the most important works of Shankaracharya on Advaita philosophy. The central theme of the book is the identity of the individual self and Universal self. This identity is realized through the removal of the ignorance that hides the truth, by the light of Vichara or enquiry alone. To those who have neither the time nor the opportunity to go through the classical works of Shankara, this book will be an invaluable guide in their quest after spiritual truth.

 

Preface

Such treatises as aim at serving as introductions to a more advanced study of a system of philosophy are generally known as 'Prakarana Granthas' Besides giving an outline of the system, each of them emphasizes some one or other of the main features. Aparoksanubbuti is one such little manual, which, while presenting a brief description of Vedanta, deals specially with that aspect of it which relates to the realization (Anubhuti) of the highest Truth. Such realization, unlike the knowledge of objects through sense-perception or inference, is an immediate and direct perception of one's own Self, which is here indicated by the word .Aparoksa.

The central theme of the book is the identity of the jivatman (individual self) and Paramatman (Universal Self). This identity is realized through the removal of the ignorance that hides the truth, by the light of Vicenquireara or enquiry alone (verse 11). To enable the mind to embark on such an investigation into truth, certain disciplines are laid down, which are not peculiar to Vedanta, but are indispensable for all such enquiries into the highest Truth. The book then gives a description of one who has attained this realization and of the nature of his life. Then follows a discussion on Prarabdha, the momentum of past actions. The author contends that after realization, when ignorance with all its effects entirely disappears, the question of the survival of the body for working out Prarabdha is altogether out of place; and the Shruti sometimes speaks of it only to explain to the ignorant the apparent behaviour of a man of realization, who, so far as he himself is concerned, is ever immersed in the Supreme Truth.

Verses 100 to 129 deal specially with the fifteen stages through which the seeker after Truth passes- which, by the way, are similar to those experienced by a Raja-Yogin: but the two are entirely different. Then is the oneness of cause and effect-the Absolute and the manifested universe-which is wound up with the culminating thought of the Vedanta philosophy that all that is visible and invisible is in reality the one eternal Atman, which is Pure Consciousness (verse 141).

The authorship of the book is generally attributed to Sri Sankaracarya, Even if this be disputed, the teachings are undoubtedly Advaitic. To those, therefore, who have neither the time nor the opportunity to go through the classical works of Sankaracarya, a treatise like the pre- sent one will be an invaluable guide in their quest after spiritual truths.

It may be mentioned here that verses 89 to 98 occur with slight variations also in the Nadabindu Upanisad (21-29) and verses 102 to 136, 140 and 142, in the Tejabindu Upanisad (15-51).

Translations of the book into English and some Indian vernaculars have already been published. But the need having been expressed by some beginners for word-for-word equivalents and notes in English, a fresh attempt is being made to meet these require- ments. The author acknowledges his indebtedness to the existing translations as well as to the commentary of Vidyaranya. It is hoped that the book will be of use to those for whom it is intended.

 

CONTENTS

 

Subject  
INVOCATION 1
INTRODUCTION 2
MEANS TO ACQUIRING SADHANCHATUSHTAYA (FOUR  
PRELIMINARY QUALIFICATIONS) 3
VAIRAGYA (DISPASSION) 4
VIVEKA (DISCRIMINATION 5
SAMA AND DAMA (INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL RES-  
TRAINT 6
UPARATI (EQUIPOISE OF THE MIND) AND TITIKSHA  
(FOREBEARANCE) 7
SRADDHA (FAITH) AND SAMADHANA (CONCENTRA-  
TION) 8
MUMUKSHUTA (YEARNING FOR LIBERATION) 9
THE NECESSITY OF DISCRIMINATION 10-11
THE NATURE OF DISCRIMINATION 12-16
THE NATURE OF IGNORANCE 17-21
THE SELF-EFFULGENT NATURE OF THE ATMAN 22
THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE BODY AND THE  
ATMAN THROUGH IGNORANCE 23
THE NATURE OF KNOWLEDGE 24-28
REFUTATION OF SUNYAVADA (NIHILISM) 29
DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN THE ATMAN AND THE  
BODY 30-40
FUTILITY OF SUCH DISCRIMINATION EXCEPT BY  
DENYING THAT THE BODY IS THE ATMAN 41-42
DIVISION IN CONSCIOUSNESS IS INADMISSIBLE 43
PURE CONSCIOUSNESS APPEARS AS THE WORLD  
THROUGH IGNORANCE 44
THE WORLD, HAVING BRAHMAN AS ITS MATERIAL  
CAUSE, IS IDENTICAL WITH IT 45
THE IDEA OF THE PERVADED AND THE PERVADING  
IS ILLUSORY 46
THE REFUTATION OF VARIETY BY THE SRUTI 47
MAYA (NESCIENCE) IS THE CAUSE OF THESE VARIETIES 48
ALL BEINGS ARE BRAHMAN 49
BRAHMAN AS THE SUBSTRATUM OF ALL NAMES,  
FORMS, ETC. 50
EVERYTHING HAVING EMANATED FROM BRAHMAN  
HAS THE NATURE OF BRAHMAN 51
THE IDEA OF DIFFERENCE CAUSES FEAR 52
IGNORANCE, THE CAUSE OF DUALITY, DISAPPEARS  
THROUGH THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE NON-DUAL  
ATMAN 53-54
IDENTIFICATION OF JIVATMAN AND PARAMATMAN  
ON THE STRENGTH OF THE SRUTI 55
FALSITY OF THE THREE STATES, WAKING, DREAM  
AND SLEEP, AND THE REALITY OF CONSCIOUS-  
NESS THE WITNESS 56-58
JIVAHOOD IS SUPERIMPOSED ON BRAHMAN-  
ILLUSTRATIONS 59-62
THE APPEARANCE OF THE ATMAN AS THE UNI-  
VERSE-ILLUSTRATIONS 63-64
BRAHMAN AS THE SUBSTRATUM OF ALL ACTIONS 65
BRAHMAN, THE CAUSE, IS INSEPARABLE FROM THE WORLD, ITS EFFECT 66-67
ATMAN APPEARS TO BE PURE TO THE WISE AND  
IMPURE TO THE IGNORANT 68
THE DIVISION INTO THE SELF AND NON-SELF IS  
FUTILE 69
THE ATMAN APPEARS AS THE BODY THROUGH  
IGNORANCE-ILLUSTRATIONS 70-86
ADHYASA (SUPERIMPOSITION) AND ITS DISAPPEAR-  
ANCE THROUGH KNOWLEDGE 87
THE BODY, A NON-ENTITY, IS NOT THE ATMAN 88
KNOWLEDGE AND PRARABDHA (MOMENTUM OF  
PAST WORK) 89
REFUTATION OF PRARABDHA 90
PRARABDHA CANNOT EXIST AFTER THE DAWN OF  
KNOWLEDGE 91
WHAT IS PRARABDHA 92
THE BODY, BEING A SUPERIMPOSTION, CANNOT  
HAVE REAL BIRTH 93
WITH THE DESTRUCTION OF IGNORANCE THE  
WORLD IS ALSO DESTROYED 94
THE WORLD APPEARS THROUGH IGNORANCE 95
WHEN THE SUBSTRATION IS KNOWN, THE SUPER-  
IMPOSED (UNIVERSE) DISAPPEARS 96
PRARABDHA IS SPOKEN OF BY THE SRUTI FOR THE  
IGNORANT 97
TEXT CITED IN REFUTATION OF PRARABDHA 98
PRARABDHA INVOLVES CONTRADICTIONS AND GOES  
COUNTER TO VEDANTIC CONCLUSIONS 99
FIFTEEN STEPS TO THE ATTAINMENT OF KNOWLEDGE 100
CONSTANT PRACTICE OF THE STEPS ENJOINED 101
THE ENUMERATION OF THE STEPS 102-103
YAMA (RESTRAINT OF THE SENSES) 104
NIYAMA (RESTRAINT OF THE MIND) 105
TYAGA (RENUNCIATION) 106
MAUNA (SILENCE) 107-109
VIJANA-DESHA (A SOLITARY PLACE) 110
KALA (TIME) 111
ASANA (POSTURE) 112
SIDDHASANA (A PARTICULAR YOGIC POSTURE) 113
MULABANDHA(`RESTRAINING ROOT`) 114
DEHASAMYA(EQUIPOISE OF THE LIMBS 115
DRIK-SHTHITI (FIXING THE VISION 116-117
PRANAYAMA (CONTROL OF THE VITAL FORCES) 118
RECHAKA (EXHALING) AND PURAKA(INHALING) 119
KUMBHAKA(HOLDING THE BREATH) 120
PRATYAHARA(WITHDRAWAL OF THE MIND) 121
DHARANA(CONCENTRATION) 122
DHYANA(MEDITATION) 123
SAMADHI(ABSORPTION) 124
PRACTICE OF MEDITATION TILL IT HAS BECOME  
ONE'S SECOND NATURE 125
THE STATE OF A MAN OF PERFECTION 126
OBSTACLES TO MEDITATION 127-128
MEDITATION OF BRAHMAN ENJOINED 129
CONDEMNATION OF THOSE WHO GIVE UP THE  
THOUGHT OF BRAHMAN 130
THOSE WHO MEDITATE OF BRAHMAN ARE ALONE  
VIRTUOUS 131-132
CONDEMNATION OF VAIN ARGUMENTATORS 132
MERE RATIOCINATION IS OF NO AVAIL 133
CONSTANT THOUGHT OF BRAHMAN URGED 134
THE RELATION BETWEEN THE CAUSE AND THE EFFECT 135
WHEN EVERYTHING IS DENIED REALITY RE-  
MAINS AT THE END 136
THE MEANS OF ATTAINING THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF  
BRAHMAN 137
DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN THE CAUSE AND THE  
EFFECT 138-139
THE EFFICACY OF MEDITATION 140
THE MEDITATION ON THE ATMAN 141
THE FELICITY ATTAINABLE BY A MAN OF KNOWLEDGE 142
A BEGINNER SHOULD PRACTISE THIS RAJA-YOGA  
ALONG WITH HATHA-YOGA 143
MAN OF MATURE MIND CAN REALIZE THE TRUTH  
THROUGH THIS RAJA-YOGA ALONE 144

Sample Pages






Aparokshanubhuti or Self-Realization of Sri Sankaracharya (Shankaracharya)

Item Code:
IDF820
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2014
Publisher:
ISBN:
9788175051072
Language:
Text, with word-for-word Translation, English Rendering and Comments
Size:
7.0" X 4.7"
Pages:
78
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 65 gms
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About the Book:

It is one of the most important works of Shankaracharya on Advaita philosophy. The central theme of the book is the identity of the individual self and Universal self. This identity is realized through the removal of the ignorance that hides the truth, by the light of Vichara or enquiry alone. To those who have neither the time nor the opportunity to go through the classical works of Shankara, this book will be an invaluable guide in their quest after spiritual truth.

 

Preface

Such treatises as aim at serving as introductions to a more advanced study of a system of philosophy are generally known as 'Prakarana Granthas' Besides giving an outline of the system, each of them emphasizes some one or other of the main features. Aparoksanubbuti is one such little manual, which, while presenting a brief description of Vedanta, deals specially with that aspect of it which relates to the realization (Anubhuti) of the highest Truth. Such realization, unlike the knowledge of objects through sense-perception or inference, is an immediate and direct perception of one's own Self, which is here indicated by the word .Aparoksa.

The central theme of the book is the identity of the jivatman (individual self) and Paramatman (Universal Self). This identity is realized through the removal of the ignorance that hides the truth, by the light of Vicenquireara or enquiry alone (verse 11). To enable the mind to embark on such an investigation into truth, certain disciplines are laid down, which are not peculiar to Vedanta, but are indispensable for all such enquiries into the highest Truth. The book then gives a description of one who has attained this realization and of the nature of his life. Then follows a discussion on Prarabdha, the momentum of past actions. The author contends that after realization, when ignorance with all its effects entirely disappears, the question of the survival of the body for working out Prarabdha is altogether out of place; and the Shruti sometimes speaks of it only to explain to the ignorant the apparent behaviour of a man of realization, who, so far as he himself is concerned, is ever immersed in the Supreme Truth.

Verses 100 to 129 deal specially with the fifteen stages through which the seeker after Truth passes- which, by the way, are similar to those experienced by a Raja-Yogin: but the two are entirely different. Then is the oneness of cause and effect-the Absolute and the manifested universe-which is wound up with the culminating thought of the Vedanta philosophy that all that is visible and invisible is in reality the one eternal Atman, which is Pure Consciousness (verse 141).

The authorship of the book is generally attributed to Sri Sankaracarya, Even if this be disputed, the teachings are undoubtedly Advaitic. To those, therefore, who have neither the time nor the opportunity to go through the classical works of Sankaracarya, a treatise like the pre- sent one will be an invaluable guide in their quest after spiritual truths.

It may be mentioned here that verses 89 to 98 occur with slight variations also in the Nadabindu Upanisad (21-29) and verses 102 to 136, 140 and 142, in the Tejabindu Upanisad (15-51).

Translations of the book into English and some Indian vernaculars have already been published. But the need having been expressed by some beginners for word-for-word equivalents and notes in English, a fresh attempt is being made to meet these require- ments. The author acknowledges his indebtedness to the existing translations as well as to the commentary of Vidyaranya. It is hoped that the book will be of use to those for whom it is intended.

 

CONTENTS

 

Subject  
INVOCATION 1
INTRODUCTION 2
MEANS TO ACQUIRING SADHANCHATUSHTAYA (FOUR  
PRELIMINARY QUALIFICATIONS) 3
VAIRAGYA (DISPASSION) 4
VIVEKA (DISCRIMINATION 5
SAMA AND DAMA (INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL RES-  
TRAINT 6
UPARATI (EQUIPOISE OF THE MIND) AND TITIKSHA  
(FOREBEARANCE) 7
SRADDHA (FAITH) AND SAMADHANA (CONCENTRA-  
TION) 8
MUMUKSHUTA (YEARNING FOR LIBERATION) 9
THE NECESSITY OF DISCRIMINATION 10-11
THE NATURE OF DISCRIMINATION 12-16
THE NATURE OF IGNORANCE 17-21
THE SELF-EFFULGENT NATURE OF THE ATMAN 22
THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE BODY AND THE  
ATMAN THROUGH IGNORANCE 23
THE NATURE OF KNOWLEDGE 24-28
REFUTATION OF SUNYAVADA (NIHILISM) 29
DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN THE ATMAN AND THE  
BODY 30-40
FUTILITY OF SUCH DISCRIMINATION EXCEPT BY  
DENYING THAT THE BODY IS THE ATMAN 41-42
DIVISION IN CONSCIOUSNESS IS INADMISSIBLE 43
PURE CONSCIOUSNESS APPEARS AS THE WORLD  
THROUGH IGNORANCE 44
THE WORLD, HAVING BRAHMAN AS ITS MATERIAL  
CAUSE, IS IDENTICAL WITH IT 45
THE IDEA OF THE PERVADED AND THE PERVADING  
IS ILLUSORY 46
THE REFUTATION OF VARIETY BY THE SRUTI 47
MAYA (NESCIENCE) IS THE CAUSE OF THESE VARIETIES 48
ALL BEINGS ARE BRAHMAN 49
BRAHMAN AS THE SUBSTRATUM OF ALL NAMES,  
FORMS, ETC. 50
EVERYTHING HAVING EMANATED FROM BRAHMAN  
HAS THE NATURE OF BRAHMAN 51
THE IDEA OF DIFFERENCE CAUSES FEAR 52
IGNORANCE, THE CAUSE OF DUALITY, DISAPPEARS  
THROUGH THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE NON-DUAL  
ATMAN 53-54
IDENTIFICATION OF JIVATMAN AND PARAMATMAN  
ON THE STRENGTH OF THE SRUTI 55
FALSITY OF THE THREE STATES, WAKING, DREAM  
AND SLEEP, AND THE REALITY OF CONSCIOUS-  
NESS THE WITNESS 56-58
JIVAHOOD IS SUPERIMPOSED ON BRAHMAN-  
ILLUSTRATIONS 59-62
THE APPEARANCE OF THE ATMAN AS THE UNI-  
VERSE-ILLUSTRATIONS 63-64
BRAHMAN AS THE SUBSTRATUM OF ALL ACTIONS 65
BRAHMAN, THE CAUSE, IS INSEPARABLE FROM THE WORLD, ITS EFFECT 66-67
ATMAN APPEARS TO BE PURE TO THE WISE AND  
IMPURE TO THE IGNORANT 68
THE DIVISION INTO THE SELF AND NON-SELF IS  
FUTILE 69
THE ATMAN APPEARS AS THE BODY THROUGH  
IGNORANCE-ILLUSTRATIONS 70-86
ADHYASA (SUPERIMPOSITION) AND ITS DISAPPEAR-  
ANCE THROUGH KNOWLEDGE 87
THE BODY, A NON-ENTITY, IS NOT THE ATMAN 88
KNOWLEDGE AND PRARABDHA (MOMENTUM OF  
PAST WORK) 89
REFUTATION OF PRARABDHA 90
PRARABDHA CANNOT EXIST AFTER THE DAWN OF  
KNOWLEDGE 91
WHAT IS PRARABDHA 92
THE BODY, BEING A SUPERIMPOSTION, CANNOT  
HAVE REAL BIRTH 93
WITH THE DESTRUCTION OF IGNORANCE THE  
WORLD IS ALSO DESTROYED 94
THE WORLD APPEARS THROUGH IGNORANCE 95
WHEN THE SUBSTRATION IS KNOWN, THE SUPER-  
IMPOSED (UNIVERSE) DISAPPEARS 96
PRARABDHA IS SPOKEN OF BY THE SRUTI FOR THE  
IGNORANT 97
TEXT CITED IN REFUTATION OF PRARABDHA 98
PRARABDHA INVOLVES CONTRADICTIONS AND GOES  
COUNTER TO VEDANTIC CONCLUSIONS 99
FIFTEEN STEPS TO THE ATTAINMENT OF KNOWLEDGE 100
CONSTANT PRACTICE OF THE STEPS ENJOINED 101
THE ENUMERATION OF THE STEPS 102-103
YAMA (RESTRAINT OF THE SENSES) 104
NIYAMA (RESTRAINT OF THE MIND) 105
TYAGA (RENUNCIATION) 106
MAUNA (SILENCE) 107-109
VIJANA-DESHA (A SOLITARY PLACE) 110
KALA (TIME) 111
ASANA (POSTURE) 112
SIDDHASANA (A PARTICULAR YOGIC POSTURE) 113
MULABANDHA(`RESTRAINING ROOT`) 114
DEHASAMYA(EQUIPOISE OF THE LIMBS 115
DRIK-SHTHITI (FIXING THE VISION 116-117
PRANAYAMA (CONTROL OF THE VITAL FORCES) 118
RECHAKA (EXHALING) AND PURAKA(INHALING) 119
KUMBHAKA(HOLDING THE BREATH) 120
PRATYAHARA(WITHDRAWAL OF THE MIND) 121
DHARANA(CONCENTRATION) 122
DHYANA(MEDITATION) 123
SAMADHI(ABSORPTION) 124
PRACTICE OF MEDITATION TILL IT HAS BECOME  
ONE'S SECOND NATURE 125
THE STATE OF A MAN OF PERFECTION 126
OBSTACLES TO MEDITATION 127-128
MEDITATION OF BRAHMAN ENJOINED 129
CONDEMNATION OF THOSE WHO GIVE UP THE  
THOUGHT OF BRAHMAN 130
THOSE WHO MEDITATE OF BRAHMAN ARE ALONE  
VIRTUOUS 131-132
CONDEMNATION OF VAIN ARGUMENTATORS 132
MERE RATIOCINATION IS OF NO AVAIL 133
CONSTANT THOUGHT OF BRAHMAN URGED 134
THE RELATION BETWEEN THE CAUSE AND THE EFFECT 135
WHEN EVERYTHING IS DENIED REALITY RE-  
MAINS AT THE END 136
THE MEANS OF ATTAINING THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF  
BRAHMAN 137
DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN THE CAUSE AND THE  
EFFECT 138-139
THE EFFICACY OF MEDITATION 140
THE MEDITATION ON THE ATMAN 141
THE FELICITY ATTAINABLE BY A MAN OF KNOWLEDGE 142
A BEGINNER SHOULD PRACTISE THIS RAJA-YOGA  
ALONG WITH HATHA-YOGA 143
MAN OF MATURE MIND CAN REALIZE THE TRUTH  
THROUGH THIS RAJA-YOGA ALONE 144

Sample Pages






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