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Art of Mithila
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From the back of the Book

Of all art-style of the Indian subcontinent, the art of Mithila (indigenous to the cross-border area of Bihar, India and Nepal) is one of the most popular and endearing-with its distinctive and individualized cartoonist figures. The art of Mithila has enjoyed a recent revival and many Maithili women have been encouraged to express themselves in this medium which traditionally adorns their stucco homes. The Art of Mithila by Dr. Srivastava is a comprehensive study on Mithila art from the earliest time from a historic and cultural perspective. The book is devoted exdusively to the analysis in detail of different aspects of the Art of Mithila and its position in Indian art: There is also a selected bibliography and a useful index.

The Art of Mithila should be of interest to anyone-layman or art student-who appreciates Mithila art and would like to gain a further insight.

About the Author

Kamal Shankar Srivastava was born in Varanasi. He received his M. A. degree in Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology, followed by post-graduate degree in Museology from Banaras Hindu University Varanasi in 1981, when he was awarded Gold Medal for his meritorious performance. In 1985, he was awarded a Ph.D. degree from Banaras Hindu University. He received the first D. Litt. Degree in History from L. N. Mithila University Darbhanga on his post-doctoral thesis entitled "ART OF MITHILA (from the earliest time to the Mediaeval period in 1994)". He is a life fellow of the Numismatics Society of India, Museum Association of India, Indian Social Science Academy, and Bihar Puravid Parishad, Patna. He is also an Executive Member of the Centre for Buddhist Culture, Patna. He has to his credit several research papers and articles. He is the author of following books:

1. The Elephant in early Indian Art (from Indus Valley Civilisation to A. D. 650)
2. A Survey of Buddhist Sculptures of Magadha
3. History of Magadha
4. The Art of Magadha

Since 1984 he is serving in the Bihar Administrative Service.

About the Book

The Art of Mithila (from the earliest time to Mediaeval Period) by Dr. Srivastava is mainly based upon his post-doctoral dissertation approved for the degree of Doctor of Literature (D. Litt.) by the L. N. Mithila University, Darbhanga. The work consists of following chapters:

1. Introduction
2. Mithila in Literature
3. Mithila in Ancient India
4. The Art of Mithila through the ages
5. Conclusion

The work contains an exhaustive but selected bibliography and a useful index. It is fully illustrated (having 64 illustrations in 32 plates). The work is devoted exclusively to the analysis in detail of various aspects of the Art of Mithila and its role in Indian art, with many good illustrated examples from earliest times through to the mediaeval period.

 

Foreword

Many parts •of India have excelled remarkably in the field of art and architecture and immense studies have been made, but no regular study has been made on the north- eastern parts of India, in particular Mithila. Mithila has so far been utterly neglected as a field of investigation by scholars, archaeologists and art historians, although it has been widely known as a great seat of culture from extremely ancient days.

An attempt has been made in the following pages to investigate in detail the various aspects of ''The Art of Mithila," meticulously selecting examples from the earliest times to the mediaeval period. The study involves a search to identify the Mithila area in the visual art of Indian heritage. Though there are some works, in particular "Mithila Art and Architecture" by Dr. Vijaykanta Mishra; "Early Sculpture of Bihar" by Dr. C.P. Sinham, "Madhubani Painting" by Dr. Upendra Thakur, "Economic History of Mithila" by Dr. Md. Aqueque, "Early History of Videha", "An early history of Vaishali" by Dr. Yogendra Mishra, Darbhanga District Gazetteer, Excavation of Vaishali, stray articles and also some reports, which deal with the Mithila art to some extent. but no detailed has yet been undertaken which reviews this region of Mithila, its position and its role in Indian Art and Architecture. That is why in the course of my investigation, I have utilized relevant literary, historical and archaeological data as far as practicable. It is believed that every aspect of the Mithila region and its role in Indian art has been analyzed in detail.

The opening chapter deals with the introductory information regarding Mithila. Then follow two chapters which deal with Mithila in literature and in Ancient India. In the next chapter. the art of Mithila through the ages has been described. The last chapter deals with conclusion. To conclude a notion, the help of a number of illustrations has been taken. It may be added here that on some points I have complete different views from established authorities. Since certain new materials have come up for consideration, I have been able to throw new light on a number of points that have deserved more attention than they have received earlier.

I take this opportunity to express my profound respect to my previous supervisor for Ph.D., Dr. Neel Ratan Banerjee, Ex- Director, National Museum, New Delhi and my previous teacher (Guruji) Prof. Lallan Ji Gopal, Dept. of ALH.C. & Arch., B.H.D., Varanasi for their valuable guidance throughout the period of my study. The magnitude of my indebtedness to them is beyond words. My sincere thanks are also due to my supervisor Prof. Ram Kishor Sinha, Dept. of History, L.N.M. University, Darbhanga (Bihar), who was kind enough to guide me in my investigations. I am practically indebted to Dr. T.K. Biswas, Joint Director, Bharat Kala Bhavan, BHU and Dr. S.K. Shrivastava, Reader-cum-Dy. Director, Bharat Kala Bhavan, BHU, Varanasi for their valuable suggestions, and for supplying certain pertinent information concerning my research work. I acknowledge with thanks the help rendered to me from time to time by Prof. C.P. Jha, Dept. of History, Allahabad University, Allahabad, who had suggested that I should choose this topic for my D. Litt.

My special thanks are due to Prof. M.A Dhaky, Director (Research), Sri J.S. Yadav, Director (Library), Sri R. Sharma, Archivist of American Institute of Indian Studies (Centre for Art and Archeology) Ram Nagar, Varanasi, who supported and provided me the photographs to illustrate this work. I am also very much indebted to Dr. P. K. Jaiswal, Additional Director, Patna Museum, Patna, Dr. O.P. Pandey and Curatorial staff of Patna Museum, Patna, and Curatorial staff of Bharat Kala Bhawan, BHU, Varanasi, who helped me to obtain complete information about the artifacts and the relevant sites, co- operated with me in data collection and supplied relevant information regarding my research work. I am also grateful to my colleague Dr. B.R. Mani, Superintending Archaeologist, Archaeological Survey of India for valuable suggestions for this work.

I acknowledge the generous assistance provided to me by the Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi, AS.L (Museum Branch) Calcutta, American Institute of Indian Studies, Ram Nagar Varanasi, National Museum, New Delhi, Bharat Kala Bhawan, BHU, Asutosh Museum of India Art, University of Calcutta, State Museum, Lucknow and Allahabad Museum, Allahabad for allowing me to study their photographic collection and use their photographs for illustration in this work.

I am also very much indebted to Sri LB. Singh, Librarian, Bharat Kala Bhawan, and Sri S.C. Ghildiyal, Librarian, ALH.C. & Archaeology, BHU, Varanasi, who unhesitatingly allowed me to use the valuable collections of the libraries at their personal risk. I am also indebted to my revered elder brother Sri Ravi Shankar and Sri Vijay Shankar Srivastava, who rendered all possible assistance. I am indebted to Sri Amod Kumar Singh, who helped me to type my manuscript.

I express my thanks to Dept. of Personnel and Administrative Reforms, Govt. of Bihar, Patna, Sri Ramesh Abhishek, LAS., D.M. & Collector, Patna, Sri Ravindra Kumar Srivastava, LAS., D.M. & Collector, Vaishali, Sri AV. Naik, LAS., D.M. & Collector Madhubani, Sukhdeo Singh, LAS., Deputy Development Commissioner, Patna, Smt. Sujata Chaturvedi, LAS., who co-operated with me and also allowed me to submit this thesis for my D. Litt.

Last but not the least, I express my hearty thanks to my wife Mrs. Sangeeta Srivastava, who encouraged me and dedicated her own time to complete my work. I am also indebted to both my sons, Master Rishabh Kamal and Master Tushit Kamal, who allowed me to divide my time between them and this .. work.

Introduction

There are few regions of India possessing an ancient civilization like the land north of the Ganga, variously known as Videha, Tirabhukti or Mithila. Its history does not centre around feats of arms but around courts given to higher pursuits of learning. It was in the halls of the city of Mithila that some of the greatest and most unparalleled philosophical discussions ever attempted in the history of human thought were held. The extant remains of the cities of ancient kings still remind us of their glorious.1 [AD1]

Mithila, the ancient country of the Mithilas, is bounded on the north by the Himalayas and on the east, south and west by the rivers Kosi (Kaushiki), Ganga and Gandaki, respectively. The land of Mithila comprised the present districts of Champaran, Samastipur, parts of the district of Monghyr, Begusarai, Bhagalpur and Purnea and Tarai under Nepal lying between the districts and the lower ranges of the Himalayas. It is a well-marked natural region whose size has varied through the ages. From the foothills of the Himalayas in the north to the Ganga in the south, it is 100 miles broad, and from the Mahananda in the east to the Gandaki in the west it is 250 miles long. Its total area is 25,000 sq. miles approximately.

The most ancient name for this region available in literature is Videha .This term is used in three senses – (1) the Videha tribe which inhabited the area east of the Gandaka; (2) the Videhan state (with its capital at Mithila usually identified with Janakpur in the Nepalese Terai, situated at a distance of 14 miles from Jayanagar Railway Station on the Indo-Nepal border); and (3) Videha as a geographical term which included the Vaishali State also, along with the Videhan state, within its borders. It was in this sense that Kundagrama (near Vaishali), the birthplace of Mahavira, is the place in Videha , and that the mothers of Mahavira and Ajatasatru, who were the sister and daughter respectively of Chetaka, the Lichhavi leader of Vaishali are called Videhanadatta5 and Vedehi (Vaidehi), respectively.

There is no controversy whatsoever with regard to its northern and southern frontiers. The Sadanira river acted as the boundary between Videha or Vaishali and its western neighbour Kosala; but its identification has been a matter of some dispute. It is identified by the Indian lexicographers with Karatoya (modern Kurattee, which flows through the Bogra district in Bangladesh), but this seems to be too far east. On the grounds that the Mahabharata distinguishes the Gandaki from the Sadanira, it is held by Oldenberg and Pargiter that the Sadanira, was the Rapti. But the authors of the Vedic Index question the truth of the Epic tradition and agree with Weber in taking it to be the Gandaki (the Kondochates of the Greek geographers).

The Sandanira flows from the northern (Himalya) mountain and formed the boundary between Kosala and Videha and its waters are never exhausted. This last item of information from the Satapatha-Brahaman shows that it must correspond to the great Gandaki of the present day. The boundaries of Videha land are also indicated in the Saktisangamatantra a late work: "From the banks of the Gandaki to the forest of Champa, the country is called Videha, also known as Tairabhukti.

From the Gupta period (4th-5th countries AD.) Onwards, the Vaishali -Videha region came to be known as Tirabhukti (or Tairabhukti in some texts). This name is found on some of the Basarh seals 19 as on e of the provinces of the Gupta empire. The Brhad-Visnupurana20 known the very sacred country of Tairabhukti which extended from the Ganges to the Himalayas and from the Kausiki to the Gandaki. Vamana, who lived in the 8th cent. AD, mentions Tirabhukti in his linganusana, while this is offered as a synonym for Videha (or Vaideha) in the Trikandasesha written by Pursushottamadeva in about the 12th cent. The inclusion of Vaishali in Tirabhukti is proved by an inscription of the 12th cent. AD. Which reads as Tirabhuktau-Vaishali. The Vividhatirthakalpa, a Jaina work of the 14th cent. AD., by Jinaprabha Suri, records the name of the region as Tirabhukti of this region as shown before, of the Bhrangaduta (17th cent. AD.) , says the Tirabhukti is so called because it extends up to the bank of the river Ganges. The name of the present Tirhut Division is reminiscent of ancient Tirabhukti.

Mithila as the name of the region of Videha or Tirabhukti appears to be of very recent origin. In ancient literature it is the name of the capital of the Videhan state. Only the Brhad-Visnuprna seems to refer to Mithilabhumi as Chanda Jha This famous poet of Tirhut described the boundaries of Mithila in a metrical form saying that it was bounded on the south, east, west and north by the Ganges, the Kausiki stream, the Gandaki and the mighty Himavat respectively. We prefer Videha of Tirabhukti to Mithila as a regional name.

According to the geographical conceptions of the Brahmans and Jains, Videha (Mithila) was situated just to the east of the Kosala and the Sadanira and included Vaishali and Kundgrama The Buddhist conception of Videha seems to differ from the above, because the Buddhists mention Vaishali or Vaijirattha (Vriggi-rastra) and Videha as two district geographical entities. But sometimes they interchange Vaishali and Videha. For example, Ajatasatru, son of a Vaishali princes, is called Vaidehiputra in Buddhist literature. Here Videha is used in a sense in which it is the eastern neighbour of Vaishali.

Contents

 

  About the author vii
  About the book viii
  Foreword ix-xii
  Journals / reports consulted xiii
  Museums / Establishments / Sites consulted xiv
Chapter i Introduction 1 - 18
Chapter ii Mithila in Literature 19 - 45
Chapter iii Mithila in Ancient India 46 - 75
Chapter iv Art of Mithila through the ages 76 - 140
Chapter v Mithila - Painting - A Survey 141- 151
Chapter vi Conclusion 152 - 157
  Bibliography 158 - 163
  Abbreviations 164
Sample Pages









Art of Mithila

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1999
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From the back of the Book

Of all art-style of the Indian subcontinent, the art of Mithila (indigenous to the cross-border area of Bihar, India and Nepal) is one of the most popular and endearing-with its distinctive and individualized cartoonist figures. The art of Mithila has enjoyed a recent revival and many Maithili women have been encouraged to express themselves in this medium which traditionally adorns their stucco homes. The Art of Mithila by Dr. Srivastava is a comprehensive study on Mithila art from the earliest time from a historic and cultural perspective. The book is devoted exdusively to the analysis in detail of different aspects of the Art of Mithila and its position in Indian art: There is also a selected bibliography and a useful index.

The Art of Mithila should be of interest to anyone-layman or art student-who appreciates Mithila art and would like to gain a further insight.

About the Author

Kamal Shankar Srivastava was born in Varanasi. He received his M. A. degree in Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology, followed by post-graduate degree in Museology from Banaras Hindu University Varanasi in 1981, when he was awarded Gold Medal for his meritorious performance. In 1985, he was awarded a Ph.D. degree from Banaras Hindu University. He received the first D. Litt. Degree in History from L. N. Mithila University Darbhanga on his post-doctoral thesis entitled "ART OF MITHILA (from the earliest time to the Mediaeval period in 1994)". He is a life fellow of the Numismatics Society of India, Museum Association of India, Indian Social Science Academy, and Bihar Puravid Parishad, Patna. He is also an Executive Member of the Centre for Buddhist Culture, Patna. He has to his credit several research papers and articles. He is the author of following books:

1. The Elephant in early Indian Art (from Indus Valley Civilisation to A. D. 650)
2. A Survey of Buddhist Sculptures of Magadha
3. History of Magadha
4. The Art of Magadha

Since 1984 he is serving in the Bihar Administrative Service.

About the Book

The Art of Mithila (from the earliest time to Mediaeval Period) by Dr. Srivastava is mainly based upon his post-doctoral dissertation approved for the degree of Doctor of Literature (D. Litt.) by the L. N. Mithila University, Darbhanga. The work consists of following chapters:

1. Introduction
2. Mithila in Literature
3. Mithila in Ancient India
4. The Art of Mithila through the ages
5. Conclusion

The work contains an exhaustive but selected bibliography and a useful index. It is fully illustrated (having 64 illustrations in 32 plates). The work is devoted exclusively to the analysis in detail of various aspects of the Art of Mithila and its role in Indian art, with many good illustrated examples from earliest times through to the mediaeval period.

 

Foreword

Many parts •of India have excelled remarkably in the field of art and architecture and immense studies have been made, but no regular study has been made on the north- eastern parts of India, in particular Mithila. Mithila has so far been utterly neglected as a field of investigation by scholars, archaeologists and art historians, although it has been widely known as a great seat of culture from extremely ancient days.

An attempt has been made in the following pages to investigate in detail the various aspects of ''The Art of Mithila," meticulously selecting examples from the earliest times to the mediaeval period. The study involves a search to identify the Mithila area in the visual art of Indian heritage. Though there are some works, in particular "Mithila Art and Architecture" by Dr. Vijaykanta Mishra; "Early Sculpture of Bihar" by Dr. C.P. Sinham, "Madhubani Painting" by Dr. Upendra Thakur, "Economic History of Mithila" by Dr. Md. Aqueque, "Early History of Videha", "An early history of Vaishali" by Dr. Yogendra Mishra, Darbhanga District Gazetteer, Excavation of Vaishali, stray articles and also some reports, which deal with the Mithila art to some extent. but no detailed has yet been undertaken which reviews this region of Mithila, its position and its role in Indian Art and Architecture. That is why in the course of my investigation, I have utilized relevant literary, historical and archaeological data as far as practicable. It is believed that every aspect of the Mithila region and its role in Indian art has been analyzed in detail.

The opening chapter deals with the introductory information regarding Mithila. Then follow two chapters which deal with Mithila in literature and in Ancient India. In the next chapter. the art of Mithila through the ages has been described. The last chapter deals with conclusion. To conclude a notion, the help of a number of illustrations has been taken. It may be added here that on some points I have complete different views from established authorities. Since certain new materials have come up for consideration, I have been able to throw new light on a number of points that have deserved more attention than they have received earlier.

I take this opportunity to express my profound respect to my previous supervisor for Ph.D., Dr. Neel Ratan Banerjee, Ex- Director, National Museum, New Delhi and my previous teacher (Guruji) Prof. Lallan Ji Gopal, Dept. of ALH.C. & Arch., B.H.D., Varanasi for their valuable guidance throughout the period of my study. The magnitude of my indebtedness to them is beyond words. My sincere thanks are also due to my supervisor Prof. Ram Kishor Sinha, Dept. of History, L.N.M. University, Darbhanga (Bihar), who was kind enough to guide me in my investigations. I am practically indebted to Dr. T.K. Biswas, Joint Director, Bharat Kala Bhavan, BHU and Dr. S.K. Shrivastava, Reader-cum-Dy. Director, Bharat Kala Bhavan, BHU, Varanasi for their valuable suggestions, and for supplying certain pertinent information concerning my research work. I acknowledge with thanks the help rendered to me from time to time by Prof. C.P. Jha, Dept. of History, Allahabad University, Allahabad, who had suggested that I should choose this topic for my D. Litt.

My special thanks are due to Prof. M.A Dhaky, Director (Research), Sri J.S. Yadav, Director (Library), Sri R. Sharma, Archivist of American Institute of Indian Studies (Centre for Art and Archeology) Ram Nagar, Varanasi, who supported and provided me the photographs to illustrate this work. I am also very much indebted to Dr. P. K. Jaiswal, Additional Director, Patna Museum, Patna, Dr. O.P. Pandey and Curatorial staff of Patna Museum, Patna, and Curatorial staff of Bharat Kala Bhawan, BHU, Varanasi, who helped me to obtain complete information about the artifacts and the relevant sites, co- operated with me in data collection and supplied relevant information regarding my research work. I am also grateful to my colleague Dr. B.R. Mani, Superintending Archaeologist, Archaeological Survey of India for valuable suggestions for this work.

I acknowledge the generous assistance provided to me by the Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi, AS.L (Museum Branch) Calcutta, American Institute of Indian Studies, Ram Nagar Varanasi, National Museum, New Delhi, Bharat Kala Bhawan, BHU, Asutosh Museum of India Art, University of Calcutta, State Museum, Lucknow and Allahabad Museum, Allahabad for allowing me to study their photographic collection and use their photographs for illustration in this work.

I am also very much indebted to Sri LB. Singh, Librarian, Bharat Kala Bhawan, and Sri S.C. Ghildiyal, Librarian, ALH.C. & Archaeology, BHU, Varanasi, who unhesitatingly allowed me to use the valuable collections of the libraries at their personal risk. I am also indebted to my revered elder brother Sri Ravi Shankar and Sri Vijay Shankar Srivastava, who rendered all possible assistance. I am indebted to Sri Amod Kumar Singh, who helped me to type my manuscript.

I express my thanks to Dept. of Personnel and Administrative Reforms, Govt. of Bihar, Patna, Sri Ramesh Abhishek, LAS., D.M. & Collector, Patna, Sri Ravindra Kumar Srivastava, LAS., D.M. & Collector, Vaishali, Sri AV. Naik, LAS., D.M. & Collector Madhubani, Sukhdeo Singh, LAS., Deputy Development Commissioner, Patna, Smt. Sujata Chaturvedi, LAS., who co-operated with me and also allowed me to submit this thesis for my D. Litt.

Last but not the least, I express my hearty thanks to my wife Mrs. Sangeeta Srivastava, who encouraged me and dedicated her own time to complete my work. I am also indebted to both my sons, Master Rishabh Kamal and Master Tushit Kamal, who allowed me to divide my time between them and this .. work.

Introduction

There are few regions of India possessing an ancient civilization like the land north of the Ganga, variously known as Videha, Tirabhukti or Mithila. Its history does not centre around feats of arms but around courts given to higher pursuits of learning. It was in the halls of the city of Mithila that some of the greatest and most unparalleled philosophical discussions ever attempted in the history of human thought were held. The extant remains of the cities of ancient kings still remind us of their glorious.1 [AD1]

Mithila, the ancient country of the Mithilas, is bounded on the north by the Himalayas and on the east, south and west by the rivers Kosi (Kaushiki), Ganga and Gandaki, respectively. The land of Mithila comprised the present districts of Champaran, Samastipur, parts of the district of Monghyr, Begusarai, Bhagalpur and Purnea and Tarai under Nepal lying between the districts and the lower ranges of the Himalayas. It is a well-marked natural region whose size has varied through the ages. From the foothills of the Himalayas in the north to the Ganga in the south, it is 100 miles broad, and from the Mahananda in the east to the Gandaki in the west it is 250 miles long. Its total area is 25,000 sq. miles approximately.

The most ancient name for this region available in literature is Videha .This term is used in three senses – (1) the Videha tribe which inhabited the area east of the Gandaka; (2) the Videhan state (with its capital at Mithila usually identified with Janakpur in the Nepalese Terai, situated at a distance of 14 miles from Jayanagar Railway Station on the Indo-Nepal border); and (3) Videha as a geographical term which included the Vaishali State also, along with the Videhan state, within its borders. It was in this sense that Kundagrama (near Vaishali), the birthplace of Mahavira, is the place in Videha , and that the mothers of Mahavira and Ajatasatru, who were the sister and daughter respectively of Chetaka, the Lichhavi leader of Vaishali are called Videhanadatta5 and Vedehi (Vaidehi), respectively.

There is no controversy whatsoever with regard to its northern and southern frontiers. The Sadanira river acted as the boundary between Videha or Vaishali and its western neighbour Kosala; but its identification has been a matter of some dispute. It is identified by the Indian lexicographers with Karatoya (modern Kurattee, which flows through the Bogra district in Bangladesh), but this seems to be too far east. On the grounds that the Mahabharata distinguishes the Gandaki from the Sadanira, it is held by Oldenberg and Pargiter that the Sadanira, was the Rapti. But the authors of the Vedic Index question the truth of the Epic tradition and agree with Weber in taking it to be the Gandaki (the Kondochates of the Greek geographers).

The Sandanira flows from the northern (Himalya) mountain and formed the boundary between Kosala and Videha and its waters are never exhausted. This last item of information from the Satapatha-Brahaman shows that it must correspond to the great Gandaki of the present day. The boundaries of Videha land are also indicated in the Saktisangamatantra a late work: "From the banks of the Gandaki to the forest of Champa, the country is called Videha, also known as Tairabhukti.

From the Gupta period (4th-5th countries AD.) Onwards, the Vaishali -Videha region came to be known as Tirabhukti (or Tairabhukti in some texts). This name is found on some of the Basarh seals 19 as on e of the provinces of the Gupta empire. The Brhad-Visnupurana20 known the very sacred country of Tairabhukti which extended from the Ganges to the Himalayas and from the Kausiki to the Gandaki. Vamana, who lived in the 8th cent. AD, mentions Tirabhukti in his linganusana, while this is offered as a synonym for Videha (or Vaideha) in the Trikandasesha written by Pursushottamadeva in about the 12th cent. The inclusion of Vaishali in Tirabhukti is proved by an inscription of the 12th cent. AD. Which reads as Tirabhuktau-Vaishali. The Vividhatirthakalpa, a Jaina work of the 14th cent. AD., by Jinaprabha Suri, records the name of the region as Tirabhukti of this region as shown before, of the Bhrangaduta (17th cent. AD.) , says the Tirabhukti is so called because it extends up to the bank of the river Ganges. The name of the present Tirhut Division is reminiscent of ancient Tirabhukti.

Mithila as the name of the region of Videha or Tirabhukti appears to be of very recent origin. In ancient literature it is the name of the capital of the Videhan state. Only the Brhad-Visnuprna seems to refer to Mithilabhumi as Chanda Jha This famous poet of Tirhut described the boundaries of Mithila in a metrical form saying that it was bounded on the south, east, west and north by the Ganges, the Kausiki stream, the Gandaki and the mighty Himavat respectively. We prefer Videha of Tirabhukti to Mithila as a regional name.

According to the geographical conceptions of the Brahmans and Jains, Videha (Mithila) was situated just to the east of the Kosala and the Sadanira and included Vaishali and Kundgrama The Buddhist conception of Videha seems to differ from the above, because the Buddhists mention Vaishali or Vaijirattha (Vriggi-rastra) and Videha as two district geographical entities. But sometimes they interchange Vaishali and Videha. For example, Ajatasatru, son of a Vaishali princes, is called Vaidehiputra in Buddhist literature. Here Videha is used in a sense in which it is the eastern neighbour of Vaishali.

Contents

 

  About the author vii
  About the book viii
  Foreword ix-xii
  Journals / reports consulted xiii
  Museums / Establishments / Sites consulted xiv
Chapter i Introduction 1 - 18
Chapter ii Mithila in Literature 19 - 45
Chapter iii Mithila in Ancient India 46 - 75
Chapter iv Art of Mithila through the ages 76 - 140
Chapter v Mithila - Painting - A Survey 141- 151
Chapter vi Conclusion 152 - 157
  Bibliography 158 - 163
  Abbreviations 164
Sample Pages









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  • Dear Madam, Sir,
    Can you send me this book to Nepal?
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The Modern Women as Durga
Madhubani Painting on Hand Made Paper
Folk Painting from the Village of Madhubani (Bihar)
Artist: Kamlesh Rai
20 inch x 28 inch
Item Code: DN41
$225.00$168.75
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Lord Ganesha
Madhubani Painting on Hand Made Paper
Folk Painting from the Village of Madhubani (Bihar)
Artist: Vandana Devi
20 inch x 28 inch
Item Code: DH84
$175.00$131.25
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An Episode from the Ramayana
Madhubani Painting on Hand Made Paper
Folk Painting from the Village of Madhubani (Bihar)
Artist: Hira Devi
28 inch x 20 inch
Item Code: DK11
$175.00$131.25
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The Glory That Was Mithila
by Trilokanatha Jha
Hardcover (Edition: 1998)
Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan
Item Code: NAE529
$18.00$13.50
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Folk Festivals of Mithila
by Ram Dayal Rakesh
Paperback (Edition: 1998)
Book Faith India
Item Code: IDI955
$15.00$11.25
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Mithila Rising
by Narendra Jha
Hardcover (Edition: 2014)
Sasta Sahitya Mandal Prakashan
Item Code: NAK798
$25.00$18.75
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जमुनी: Jamuni
Item Code: NZF115
$18.00$13.50
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Our Nandi sculpture arrived today and it surpasses all expectations - it is wonderful. We are not only pleasantly surprised by the speed of international delivery but also are extremely grateful for the care of your packaging. Our sculpture needed to travel to an off-lying island of New Zealand but it arrived safely because of how well it had been packaged. Based upon my experience of all aspects of your service, I have no hesitation in recommending Exotic India.
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Thank you for having such a great website. I have given your site to all the people I get compliments on your merchandise.
Pat, Canada.
Love the website and the breadth of selection. Thanks for assembling such a great collection of art and sculpture.
Richard, USA
Another three books arrived during the last weeks, all of them diligently packed. Excellent reading for the the quieter days at the end of the year. Greetings to Vipin K. and his team.
Walter
Your products are uncommon yet have advanced my knowledge and devotion to Sanatana Dharma. Also, they are reasonably priced and ship quickly. Thank you for all you do.
Gregory, USA
Thank you kindly for the Cobra Ganesha from Mahabalipuram. The sculpture is exquisite quality and the service is excellent. I would not hesitate to order again or refer people to your business. Thanks again.
Shankar, UK
The variety, the quality and the very helpful price range of your huge stock means that every year I find a few new statues to add to our meditation room--and I always pick up a few new books and cds whenever I visit! keep up the good work!
Tim Smith, USA
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