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Books > Hindu > The Art of Teaching (A Guide For Training Our Children in Krsna Consciousness)
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The Art of Teaching (A Guide For Training Our Children in Krsna Consciousness)
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The Art of Teaching (A Guide For Training Our Children in Krsna Consciousness)
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From the Jacket

 

"Those early days in Gita-Nagari were difficult for both me, as teacher, and my students. I was untrained and inexperienced, and I lacked teaching skills. Among my many vows of that period was to help train teachers so they would not need to learn as I was learning-the hard way, through trial and error. One result, therefore, of those early days of teaching is this book, The Art of Teaching."

Back of the Book

The Art of Teaching weaves together contemporary teaching strategies and the traditional Vedic system. The book includes more than 500 references from Srila Prabhupada's books, conversations, and letters, resulting in a volume of theoretical and practical information in harmony with Krsna consciousness.

The Art of Teaching will assist all who teach Krsna consciousness to others: academic and asrama teachers, parents, administrators, and preachers in general.

"If the children are given a Krsna conscious education from early childhood, then there is great hope for the future of the world."

-Srila Prabhupada

"Srila Prabhupada was an ideal teacher… His life and accomplishments trace the success of a teacher-exemplar, a master of the principles and techniques of effective teaching."

-Bhurijana Dasa

 

Foreword

This volume titled The Art of Teaching by Bhurijana dasa is firmly grounded in Krsna consciousness as formulated by Srila Prabhupada. In addition to the weightier and more studied speeches and writings, Bhurijana dasa draws on Srila Prabhupada's letters and conversations, which gives his rendition of Srila Prabhupada's thought a welcome immediacy and accessibility. The anecdotal and other narrative illustrations, drawn from sacred literature and living experience also make the book very readable.

Many renditions of ancient thought are encapsulated exclusively in the original contexts in which they were formulated. Sometimes, it has been difficult to relate such substance and form to queries arising from a modern world. It would appear that Bhurijana dasa was aware of such a quandary, for in imparting the art of teaching of traditional wisdom and spirituality he has also judiciously taken up knowledge, skills, and sensitivities articulated in more recent times. He has skillfully carried out an exercise in discrimination. What he has done has been to sift through modern thought relevant to teaching and he has extracted only those elements that are appropriate for the exposition of traditional thought. This welding of ancient ideals with modern techniques and skills, in The Art of Teaching, is a major contribution to making the techniques of teaching Krsna consciousness a science to be learned by Srila Prabhupada's followers.

For the general public with a spiritual orientation, this book also has an appeal. Modern books on education, at the very most, speak of the Educated Man as the ideal. One searches in vain for statements to the effect that education has also to do with wisdom or God consciousness; and if at all one comes across such a statement, the accompanying discussion usually attempts to prove that nothing is really different because Higher Consciousness-all this in the name of "being one with the other", a breaking down of boundaries. The end-result is often a degrading of all ideals. So, for the spiritually oriented reader, it is a breath of fresh air to encounter a book that shows how it is possible to grasp the best that the modern world can offer and harness it in the transmission of God consciousness, and, in this instance, of Krsna consciousness.

In essence this book argues that the best forms of teaching are through both precept and example. It is a message that lies close to my heart. The most effective teacher, I believe, is one who has a clear view of the ultimate purpose of life, which is supported by deep knowledge and understanding and is manifested in his personal and social life. Any serious contradiction between his or her beliefs and practice will render that person ineffective as an exemplar of the purported spirituality and wisdom. This does not mean that teachers are born perfect; it means that to be effective teachers need to strive for congruence of belief and personal habit. Unless we embody the values we propound, youthful minds will quickly sniff us out and instinctively recognize the contradictions in us. More seriously, our students will stop believing in us even before they formally recognize they are doing so. And that would be a tragedy. But if they sense that we, as teachers, are ourselves actively groping towards living out the values we are trying to impart to them, they will respect us and wish to emulate us, while forgiving us our minor transgressions. In addition, if we are warm towards our students, always helping them up when they stumble, they will unconsciously learn to trust us with good reason, even love us. It always impresses me to hear the disciples of Srila Prabhupada talking of him with deep warmth and love, and I conclude that theirs must be a reciprocal warmth, that they, in turn are radiating what they received form him. The taught part of the teaching experience supports that which is caught in the process of associating with the teachers and elders. Students do learn even when no formal teaching takes place, for they are unselfconsciously and constantly learning form the example of the teachers' and other elders' lives.

The book's strongest point, in a sense, is to be found in the numerous direct quotations of Srila Prabhupada used to show what he really was a great teacher. Prabhupada's followers will be delighted to see their guru using expert teaching techniques time and time again to convey the principle of Vedic knowledge. These give the book both life and spiritual potency. In addition, it is also pleasing to see that Bhurijana has reminded us of Srila Prabhupada's specific instructions on teaching by including quotes compiled by His Holiness Jagadisa Goswami in his now out-of-print book: Srila Prabhupada on Gurukula.

The Art of Teaching is versatile and practical. Theoretical points are given practical application. As Prabhupada reminds us, "everything should be practical." The contents of this book have already been tested in classes given in the Vaisnava Institute for Higher Education in Vrndavana. The success of these lesions along with their active use by the very teachers trained by Bhurijana, have led to the demand for this book to be published in its present form.

The book can serve a variety of devotees interested in teaching Krsna consciousness. Beginning teachers with little other resource on which to fall back will find guidance. Bhurijana was himself in such a situation, when I first met him. He so much wanted to spread the teachings of Srila Prabhupada to gurukula students but felt inadequate to the task because, he felt, he had not had adequate professional training as a teacher. When put into contact with friends of mine who were in teacher training, Bhurijana proved from the start a sensitive and discriminating student. He absorbed the best and most appropriate and left aside, without negativity, that which was not useful. In the many discussions I was privileged in having with him both in Melbourne, and in Vrndavana, Bhurijana's passionate commitment to his teacher, Srila Prabhupada, and his teachings, was a reminder to me of what the correct orientation of pupil to teacher should be. One cannot be good teacher who has not first learnt to be a good pupil.

For his warmth and the living example of his struggle to embody the values he esposes, I am both humbled and honored to be his friend: I admire his mind, but first I admire his big heart.

Preface

In May of 1976, Srila Prabhupada instructed me to work with gurukula. I arrived in August at Gita-Nagari, ISKCON's farm in Pennsylvania, for my first teaching assignment. Jagadisa met me at the Harrisburg airport, and it was late at night by the time we drove past the ISKCON Farm sign, turned right up the slight hill at the entrance to the property, and pulled into the gravel driveway of a newly constructed house. We entered the building walked through a passage-like hallway, and flicked on the light in a room that served both as academic classroom and gurukula asrama.

I immediately beheld a large, wood-walled, linoleum-floored room carpeted with the whimsical pattern of eight young bodies, half in and half out of their sleeping bags. As we entered, several boys turned over in their sleep. I moved to a window, appreciating Gita-Nagari's fresh country air and wondering, "What will my new service be like? Can I really teach gurukula?" But these questions, nourished by the fragrant and cool air, were cut by a practical thought: "It's late and we have to wake up early to care for the boys." I then took rest.

At about midnight, Siddha Baba, one of the boys, suddenly stood up straight and threw up all over the room. Jagadisa and I also awoke, comforted the boy, and cleaned up. The others slept on, oblivious.

The next morning I awoke, eager to begin, and especially curious to meet Premananda, an eight-year old boy who was the first male child born to ISKCON devotees. We woke the boys and directed them to bathe. I then noticed Premananda struggling to tie his dhoti. "You're not a baby. You can do it, Prem," I joked. Premananda burst into tears.

Later, during mangala-arati, I observed Jagadisa admonishing the boys, "Chant! Chant!" A chill went up my spine. "Must I do that? During mangala-arati?"

Ten days later, alone and caring for the boys myself, I found I was in fact admonishing the boys to chant during mangala-arati, but without the seasoned patience of Jagadisa. The following days, weeks, and months were filled with agony and ecstasy. The boys were sweet, rowdy, energetic, and independent-minded. I tried to focus my mind on Prabhupada's order for me to work with gurukula as well as his vision that young boys and girls, if trained properly in Krsna consciousness, could save both themselves and the world. As I attempted to train the boys, they, all experienced gurukula students, began my first teacher training course-mostly by showing me what would not work. Yet gradually, our schools asrama life and academics began to gel.

But those early days of teaching in Gita-Nagari were difficult for both me and the boys. (O early students, please forgive me! I was untrained, inexperienced, and lacked teaching skill!) Few in our Gita-Nagari community appreciated the austerities of the service: teaching the asrama skills, supervising the morning program, organizing and teaching academics (with no standard schedule, no curriculum, and no textbooks), crowded and austere living and teaching facilities, and the help of only my wife (who was also caring for our 18-month-old daughter).

Among my many vows of this period, one was to help train gurukula teachers so they would not need to learn as I was learning-through trial and error. One result, therefore, of those early days of teaching at Gita-Nagari is this book, compiled after ten years of teaching in gurukula, eighteen years of associating with gurukulas, ten casual and three intense years of academic research (a complete bibliography is included after the appendixes), three semesters of running teacher training courses in Vrndavana, and twenty-seven years of practicing and teaching Krsna consciousness. In addition, I've spent considerable time observing and discussing teaching with patient and dedicated devotee and nondevotee teachers (my two sisters are both teachers-it's in my blood-and they were among the patient and the dedicated who helped). I also met with professors of teacher training at Colu7mbia University in New York, the University of London ("The trouble with you Americans is that you wish to convert everything into a scientific equation. Teaching isn't reducible in that fashion. It simply is effective communication between two individuals"), and especially in LaTrobe University in Melbourne.

The principles described in The Art of Teaching are widely applicable. After examining Srila Prabhupada's conversation transcripts as well as his books, such as Srimad-Bhagavatam and Caitanya-caritamrta, I found ample examples of Prabhupada himself using these principles while instructing and training. I have therefore included many quotes from Srila Prabhupada to illustrate teaching principles and techniques. The inclusion of these quotes adds both spiritual potency and Sastric validity to The Art of Teaching.

Our hope is that The Art of Teaching will thus prove helpful for aspiring, new and experienced academic and asrama teachers. In addition, parents, temple administrators, and preachers will discover useful principles.

No book, including The Art of Teaching, will magically solve all the problems that confront teachers, especially new teachers. Teachers must still struggle through success and failure to gain experience and earn their expertise. We hope The Art of Teaching will add a fragrant and favorable breeze to shorten and lighten that journey.

 

Introduction

Years ago, Indian passports included a space for the passport holder’s occupation. Therein, Srila Prabhupada noted his own occupation as Teacher. we followers of Srila Prabhupada, whether in the classroom, at home, on the streets distributing books, in the office managing temple, or even working privately as a businessman, aspire to follow Srila Prabhupada as teachers of Krsna consciousness. The Art of Teaching, therefore, is written in one sense directly to teachers and parents, yet, in an-other sense, it offers advice on teaching to all members of our Society.

Each of the five sections of The Art of Teaching can be read independently. Yet, our recommendation is that you read this book sequentially, in its entirety, and then refer back to specific sections as you find the need. Gurukula teachers and parents should find all sections relevant; other devotees-managers, preachers, etc.-may choose sections to read that are specifically related to their services.

The essential principle of Krsna Conscious teaching is the teacher’s Krsna consciousness. Teaching, therefore, is preaching-by words and ultimately by example. We establish this priority in the first chapter entitled, “Teaching By Example.”

Without discipline there is no question of being a disciple, and with-out fully accepting the position of disciple, there is no question of becoming Krsna conscious. Chapter 2, “Introduction to the Art of Discipline,” describes the three critical ingredients needed for maintaining proper discipline: qualified teachers, qualified parents, and a supportive culture. This chapter also provides an overview of Krsna conscious discipline by presenting a collection of quotes from Srila Prabhupada.

Chapter3 explains six management principles for teachers. As management in Krsna’s service is spiritual, not material, teachers should master these management principles to maximize the effectiveness of their teaching.

In chapter 4, “Clarifying the Goal of Krsna Conscious Training,” we discuss the goal of gurukula: that our children choose to serve Krsna. We include here an analysis of a child’s psychology at different stages of his development. We also present teachers with principles to help them discriminate between which factors of the child’s development are, and are not, within their control. The chapter concludes with a discussion on balancing structure and freedom in Krsna conscious education.

In chapter 5 we explore the three modes of material nature. Our dealings with students, specifically the methods of discipline we use, reveal much about which modes we are influenced by.

Acknowledging the goal of gurukula, as we did in chapter 4, we begin chapter 6 with the premise that a teacher’s duty is to help his students achieve self-discipline. Here, we begin our shift from theory to practice. We hear about keeping order in the classroom and giving effective instructions. We then begin our discussion on using consequences-what happens as a result of students choosing to follow or not follow given instructions.

We further explore consequences in chapter 7 by discussing the consciousness that makes our use of consequences effective or ineffective. We also stress the need to continuously evaluate their effects. This chapter concludes with a compendium of many effective consequences.

Lest our discussion on discipline and consequences leads one to believe that an effective school atmosphere must be negative or oppressive, chapter 8 examines the use of positive reinforcement in creating a healthy, encouraging atmosphere for learning.

Despite our best efforts to create the right atmosphere, there will inevitably be problems. Therefore, chapter 9 examines three points: Kali’s effect on educational systems, the need for Vaisnava etiquette; and types of difficult students and ideas on how to help them.

Chapter 10 concludes the discussion on discipline with a “Discipline Sutra”: Individual personality + mercy - pride = confidence + humility. We then discuss in detail how teachers can help their students achieve the delicate balance between humility and self-confidence. If we help them succeed in this, we have done a great service.

Part II, “Learning Theory”, could also be titled: “How Knowledge Is Acquired.” Chapter 11 analyzes the function of the senses, mind, and intelligence in learning. Both Srimad-Bhagavatam and Srila Bhaktivinoda Thaknra provide us with valuable insights into the theory of how we learn. We end the chapter by practically applying this knowledge to teaching.

Chapter 12 explains two keys to increased memory: celibacy and the proper presentation of materials. Teaching relevant materials with review, repetition, and order will help students recall what they have been taught.

Since learning is the goal of teaching, teachers must first plan what they want their students to learn. Then they can decide how to teach it. Therefore, Part III is entitled “Principles of Structured Learning.”

Chapter 13 details the five aspects of a lesson plan: lesson objectives, materials, preparation, procedures, and evaluation.

Chapter 14 explores objectives, both long-range educational objectives and one-lesson instructional goals. Writing effective objectives can be tricky, but it is crucial.

Once our teaching objectives are clear, a teacher begins proceeding towards the goal-the subject of chapter 15. This chapter discusses specific methods to accomplish a teaching objective: lecturing, role playing, and a variety of learning activities such as debate, small group work, and tutoring.

Chapter 16 focuses on lecturing. Here we learn how to begin and end lectures effectively. We also discuss “teacher-liveliness”-techniques to keep students attentive during a lecture.

Chapter 17 demonstrates the importance of example, analogies, and stories, all of which Srila Prabhupada used extensively in his own teaching.

Although discussion could have been included in Part III as a method of instructing, we have devoted an entire section to this topic. Acquiring Vedic knowledge is generally equated with hearing from authority, but Srila Prabhupada used discussion to train his disciples during his morning walks and room conversations. He also wanted the GBC to make decisions by joint discussion.

Chapter 18 defines discussion, and examines the many advantages to using it.

Chapter 19 explains the essential elements of discussion: choosing topics, beginning, controlling and monitoring, questioning, responding to answers, and ending.

Chapter 20 covers the elements of a good question. Questions should be clear, purposeful, naturally spoken, brief, and thought-provoking. The chapter ends by describing the four kinds of questions used when leading a discussion.

Chapter 2l takes question from the context of discussion and divides them into two general categories: lower- and higher-order cognitive questions. Higher-order cognitive questions test more than rote memorization; they probe a student’s actual understanding and push him to deepen that understanding.

Part V examines another role of the teacher: a concerned well-wisher and counselor of the student.

Sometimes a teacher has to be an assertive disciplinarian and some-times a concerned listener. Chapter 22 gives us guidelines to discern when to play each role. This chapter also deals with a difficult question: must we, as concerned teachers, feel anxious over a student’s problem which is beyond our power to change? We discuss acknowledging our limitations, especially when dealing with unsurrendered students. We also discuss stances we can take to help our students make progress.

Too often we give advice to troubled students before understanding the nature of their problems. Chapter 23 explains the need to first listen and then counsel. This chapter provides details on improving listening skills and creating a favorable atmosphere for open discussion and problem solving.

To complete The Art of Teaching, I have compiled seven appendixes :

In appendix I, “Srila Prabhupada’s Quotes on Gurukula,” you will find quotes from Srila Prabhupada’s books, conversations, and letters that were originally compiled by His Holiness Jagadisa Goswami.

Appendix II, “Preaching is the Essence,” describes the need for teachers to preach to their students by carefully studying and explaining the sastra. Included are many sample quotes from Srila Prabhupada’s books, useful for both spiritual and academic teaching.

“Elevation to Goodness.” appendix III, is an essay written about the relationship between cultivating the mode of goodness and teaching Krsna consciousness.

Appendix IV, “Becoming Gurus for Our Children,” requests those who train students-whether as parents or teachers-to view their responsibility as on par with guruship.

Appendix V explains the need for developing an asrama curriculum. Included is a sample curriculum I developed while teaching at Gita-nagari.

Appendix VI contains study questions for each chapter in this book. We have included these to help the reader comprehend and retain the lessons as well as to serve those using this to train their teachers.

Finally, appendix VII provides basic information we all should know about protecting our children from abuse.

 

Contents

 

Foreword by Prof. Vin D'Cruz, La Trobe University xvii
Preface and Acknowledgments xxi
Introduction xxv
Part I: Organization and Discipline  
CHAPTER 1: Teaching by Example 3
Setting a Good Example 3
Awareness of Example 5
What is Learned from Example? 5
Imitative Learning 5
Inferential Learning 6
Factors Affecting the Influence of the Teacher 8
Ways of Teaching by Example 10
Demonstration 10
Modeling Krsna conscious thinking 10
Modeling beliefs 11
Modeling curiosity and interest in learning 12
Socialization through modeling 13
CHAPTER 2: Introduction to the Art of Discipline 15
Discipline: A Prerequisite to Krsna Consciousness 15
Three Ingredients Combined Bring Uniform Pressure 17
Ingredient one: qualified teachers 18
Ingredient two: qualified parents 18
Ingredient three: a culture supportive of Krsna consciousness 20
Great Obstacles to Overcome 21
An Overview of Discipline 22
Quotes from Srila Prabhupada on Discipline 23
CHAPTER 3: Six Effective Management Principles 29
Management: Material or Spiritual? 29
Principle One: Cultivate the Mode of Goodness 30
Principle Two: Preach Strongly, Yet Be Sensitive 32
Principle Three: Keep Strong Krsna Conscious Relationships 34
Principle Four: Start and End All Activities Carefully 35
A careful start 35
…An effective ending 36
Principle five: Make Sure Your Procedures are Efficient 36
Principle Six: Handle Basic Disruptions Without Losing Momentum 38
CHAPTER 4: Clarifying the Goal of Krsna Conscious Training 41
Increasing a Student's Desire to Serve Krsna 41
Some psychology to help our children correctly choose Krsna 43
The challenge of the hourglass 45
How to do It? 47
Factors beyond a teacher's control 47
Factors within a teacher's grasp 47
Separating Principles and Techniques 49
Incontravenable 51
Contravenable 51
Balancing Structure and Freedom 51
Krsna-Centered Education 52
A Krsna-Centered Perspective on Discipline 53
Techniques for Handling Disruptive Behavior 54
Which Road to Take? 56
CHAPTER 5: Teaching and Disciplining in the Modes of Material Nature 59
Teaching in the Mode of Ignorance 60
Teaching in the Mode of Passion 61
Teaching in the Mode of Goodness 62
Hostility 63
Non-Assertiveness 65
Assertiveness 66
Teachers Must Get Their Needs Met 68
Handling the stress of teaching 69
A group meeting can be helpful 72
Observe an expert teacher 73
CHAPTER 6: The Road to Self-Discipline 75
Sense and Mind Control 75
Creating a Basic Classroom Structure 77
Get their attention, then instruct 78
Implementing the structure 78
Requesting behavior changes 78
The rule of escalation 79
Using hints, questions, i-messages and demands 79
Adding power to direct statements of instruction 79
Using consequences 80
Instructional statements and resulting consequences 80
Using choice when presenting demands 83
The broken record 85
CHAPTER 7: Using and Misusing Consequences While Disciplining 89
Child is the Father of Man 89
Evoking Consequences: The Consciousness Counts 90
Tolerance and anger 91
Consequences Support the Basic Classroom Structure 92
Plan consequences in advance 93
Ten Hints to Help You Choose an Effective Consequence 94
Ideas for other consequences 103
Applying Consequences to Devotional Activities 105
Has My Discipline Been Effective? 107
CHAPTER 8: The Power of the Positive 111
Engendering a Positive and Encouraging Atmosphere 113
Reinforcement should be immediate 116
The importance of encouragement 116
The essence of encouragement 117
Some dangers of praise 119
Varieties of Positive Reinforcement 119
Verbal motivators 120
Nonverbal motivators 121
Notes, award certificates, prizes and rewards: use cautiously 121
Are rewards bribery? 125
Consequences, Praise, Prizes, and Rewards in Perspective 126
CHAPTER 9: Dealing With Difficult Students 127
Kali-yuga and the Decline of Authority 127
Kali's Promise Delivered to the Educational System 129
Varna-sankara: Kali's students 129
Dealing with Difficult Students 130
Don't allow good children to become spoiled 130
Authority in our Schools 131
Etiquette is Not "Superficial Niceties" 132
Ideas for etiquette 133
The attitude and behavior of a student toward his teacher 133
Specific rules of etiquette 134
The results of following these rules of etiquette 135
Rules of Vaisnava Etiquette from Srila Prabhupada 136
Altering a Difficult Student's Self-image 137
The importance of keeping high expectations 138
Difficult students may need individual "prescriptions" 139
Some varieties of problem mentalities 140
Assorted tips in dealing with difficult students 144
Using a Planned Confrontation 147
Planning and executing a confrontation 147
Avoid Unplanned Confrontations 148
CHAPTER 10: Creating an Environment for Effective Discipline 151
A Discipline Sutra 151
Definitions 152
Humility is Essential for Devotees 152
We Cannot Allow Students to Fail 154
Hints for creating a successful environment 155
Part II: Learning Theory  
CHAPTER 11: How We Obtain Knowledge 165
Functions of the senses 167
Functions of the mind 167
Functions of the intelligence 167
Functions of the senses 168
Functions of the mind 168
Functions of the intelligence 169
Practical Application of Learning Theory 170
Regulate intake of information through the senses 170
Difficulties in remembrance are often retrieval problems 171
CHAPTER 12: Improving Memory in the Age of Forgetfulness 173
Kali-yuga-The Iron Age of Forgetfulness 173
The Importance of Memory 173
Principle One: Celibacy-The Prime Factor 174
Principle Two: Present Materials in a Way that Helps Rememberance 175
Recall codes and clues 176
Relevant learning 177
Review 178
Repetition and practice 178
Learning activities 180
Storage, order, and structure of memory 181
Using advanced organizers 184
Part III: Principles of Structured Learning  
CHAPTER 13: Introduction to Lesson Plans 189
Basic Elements of the Lesson Plan 189
Tips on writing lesson plans 191
CHAPTER 14: The Key to Lesson Planning: Clarifying Objectives 193
What Am I Teaching? 193
Writing Instructional Objectives 196
Implicit vs. explicit instructional objectives 196
Writing Explicit Instructional Objectives 197
Practicing Instructional Objectives 198
Summary of Writing Effective Explicit Instructional Objectives 199
CHAPTER 15: Proceeding Towards the Objectives 201
Objectives 201
Ways of Proceeding 204
Lecturing: The Traditional Procedure 205
Variations on Lecturing 207
Challenging 207
Demonstrating 208
Questioning 208
Discussion 210
Point on Lecturing 212
Role Playing 215
Learning Activities 216
Tutoring as a learning activity 219
Group learning activities 220
CHAPTER 16: Holding Students' Attention During Lectures 223
Set, Closure, Evaluation, and Liveliness 223
Catching student attention with set 223
Hints on set 225
Summing Up With Closure 227
Hints on closure 229
Set and closure appraisal guide 230
Evaluation: An Ongoing Process 230
Evaluation Within a Planned Lesson 231
Teacher Liveliness 234
The teacher's voice 234
Silence 235
Movement 235
Gestures 236
Eye contact and eye movements 236
Focusing 236
Switching sensory channels 236
CHAPTER 17: The Power and Use of Examples, Analogies, and Stories 239
Examples 240
Analogies 241
Stories 242
What Makes a Good Story? 247
Choosing a story to tell 248
Learning the story 248
Aids and techniques for story-telling 249
Part IV: Teaching Through Discussions  
CHAPTER 18: Uses of Discussion 255
The Basic Means of Instruction: Lecture or Discussion? 255
What is a Discussion? 257
Discussion: Pros and Cons 259
Teachers Leading Class Discussions 260
CHAPTER 19: The Basics of Discussion 263
The Topic 263
The Beginning 264
Making Sure the Discussion Begins 265
The power of waiting 265
Responding to silence 265
Encouraging further response 266
Basic Points on Controlling a Discussion 267
Further discussion guidelines 269
Directing and distributing Questions 272
Avoid Questions that "Pull Teeth" 273
Pausing 273
Questions Can be Sequenced 274
Responding to Answers 275
Address Your Question First to the Entire Class 276
Ending a Discussion 276
CHAPTER 20: Asking Effective Questions 279
What Makes a Good Question? 280
Good questions are clear 281
Good questions are purposeful 282
Good questions are naturally spoken 282
Good questions are brief 283
Good questions are thought-provoking 284
Using Questions to Lead Discussion 285
Focusing questions 285
Foundation questions 286
Extending questions 287
Lifting questions 288
Summary 289
CHAPTER 21: An Analysis of Questions 291
Lower and Higher Order Cognitive Questions 291
An Analysis of Questions 292
Non-questions 292
Lower-order cognitive questions 293
Higher-order cognitive questions 293
Lower-Order Cognitive Questions 293
Memory questions 293
Translation questions 294
Application questions 295
Higher-Order Cognitive Questions
Analysis questions 295
Synthesis questions 296
Evaluation questions 297
Part V: Improving Communications:
The First Step in Solving Problems
 
CHAPTER 22: Who Takes Responsibility for Students' Problems? 303
Surrender: The First Step in Education 303
A Teacher's View of Student Behavior 307
Considerations in Acceptable and Unsatisfactory Behavior 308
Individuality of teachers 308
Teachers should cultivate tolerance and compassion 309
Time, Place, and Circumstance 310
Individuality of students 311
Keeping the Balance 312
Limitations for a teacher 312
Who Owns the Problems Caused by Student Behavior? 313
The No-Problem Area 314
The Importance of Problem Ownership 315
Two Kinds of Students 315
A typical situation 317
Conclusion 318
CHAPTER 23: Developing The Ability to Listen 321
The Well-Wishing Friend 321
Stumbling Blocks 322
Stages of Listening 326
Passive listening 326
Listening with nonjudgmental acknowledgments 328
Invitations for deeper communication 328
Responding With Understanding 329
Practical tips in conversation 333
Know when to stop 334
Poor substitutes for responding with understanding 334
A Word of Caution 336
Appendixes  
APPENDIX I: SRILA PRABHUPADAS QUOTES ON GURUKULA 341
Optional Study Assignment 343
Gurukula: Its Importance 344
APPENDIX Ic: The Basic Gurukula Program 371
Optional Study Assignment 371
Academics 375
Facilities 379
Personnel 379
Parents 380
Operation 384
APPENDIX II: Preaching is the Essence 387
Preaching to Students 387
The Quality of the Teaching/Preaching 389
Prabhupada Quotes: General Preaching Points 390
Prabhupada Quotes: Preaching in the Content Areas 397
Appendix III: Elevation to Goodness 409
APPENDIX IV: Becoming Gurus for Our Children 419
Who Holds the Responsibility? 419
Understanding the Mentality Needed to Become Trained 420
But Who is Actually Training Our Gurukula Children? 421
The Parents Retake the Authority 422
Delegation of Authority to a Qualified Teacher 422
Conclusion: The Challenge-Filling the Need 423
APPENDIX V: Developing an Asrama Curriculum 425
The Need for an Asrama Curriculum 425
A Secondary Reason: Asrama Teachers Should Teach 425
When and Where to Teach 426
Out of the Classroom into the Temple: A Word on Positive Reinforcement 426
In Summary 427
An Asrama Curriculum 428
1. Srila Prabhupada 428
2. The Gurukula Asrama 432
3. Visiting Krsna's temple 444
APPENDIX VI: Questions 449
Chapter One: Teaching By Example 449
Chapter Two: Introduction to the Art of Discipline 450
Chapter Three: Six Effective Management Principles 450
Chapter Four: Clarifying the Goal of Krsna Conscious Training 451
Chapter Five: Teaching and Disciplining in the Modes of Nature 452
Chapter Six: The Road to Self-Discipline 452
Chapter Seven: Using and Misusing Consequences While Disciplining 453
Chapter Eight: The Power of the Positive 454
Chapter Nine: Dealing with Difficult Students 454
Chapter Ten: Creating an Environment for Effective Discipline 455
Chapter Eleven: How We Obtain Knowledge 456
Chapter Twelve: Improving Memory in the Age of forgetfulness 456
Chapter Thirteen: Introduction to Lesson Plans 457
Chapter Fourteen: The Key to Lesson Planning: Clarifying Objectives 457
Chapter Fifteen: Proceeding Toward the Objectives 458
Chapter Sixteen: Holding Students' Attention During Lectures 458
Chapter Seventeen: The Power and Use of Examples, Analogies, and Stories 459
Chapter Eighteen: Uses of Discussion 460
Chapter Nineteen: The Basics of Discussion 460
Chapter Twenty: Asking Effective Questions 460
Chapter Twenty One: An Analysis of Questions 461
Chapter Twenty Two: Who Takes Responsibility for Students' Problems? 465
Chapter Twenty Three: Developing the Ability to Listen 465
APPENDIX VII: Protecting Children from Abuse 467
The Child Protection Team 468
A: Prevention 468
B: Complaint Procedure 468
C: Action 468
Child Protection Program For Schools 469
Screening of Staff and Students 472
Definitions of Child Abuse 474
Who the Abusers Are 474
Identifying Abuse 475
Monitoring Suspected Cases 476
Responding to a Child's Disclosure 478
Counseling 478
Bibliography 481
Index 483
Sample Pages





















The Art of Teaching (A Guide For Training Our Children in Krsna Consciousness)

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1995
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From the Jacket

 

"Those early days in Gita-Nagari were difficult for both me, as teacher, and my students. I was untrained and inexperienced, and I lacked teaching skills. Among my many vows of that period was to help train teachers so they would not need to learn as I was learning-the hard way, through trial and error. One result, therefore, of those early days of teaching is this book, The Art of Teaching."

Back of the Book

The Art of Teaching weaves together contemporary teaching strategies and the traditional Vedic system. The book includes more than 500 references from Srila Prabhupada's books, conversations, and letters, resulting in a volume of theoretical and practical information in harmony with Krsna consciousness.

The Art of Teaching will assist all who teach Krsna consciousness to others: academic and asrama teachers, parents, administrators, and preachers in general.

"If the children are given a Krsna conscious education from early childhood, then there is great hope for the future of the world."

-Srila Prabhupada

"Srila Prabhupada was an ideal teacher… His life and accomplishments trace the success of a teacher-exemplar, a master of the principles and techniques of effective teaching."

-Bhurijana Dasa

 

Foreword

This volume titled The Art of Teaching by Bhurijana dasa is firmly grounded in Krsna consciousness as formulated by Srila Prabhupada. In addition to the weightier and more studied speeches and writings, Bhurijana dasa draws on Srila Prabhupada's letters and conversations, which gives his rendition of Srila Prabhupada's thought a welcome immediacy and accessibility. The anecdotal and other narrative illustrations, drawn from sacred literature and living experience also make the book very readable.

Many renditions of ancient thought are encapsulated exclusively in the original contexts in which they were formulated. Sometimes, it has been difficult to relate such substance and form to queries arising from a modern world. It would appear that Bhurijana dasa was aware of such a quandary, for in imparting the art of teaching of traditional wisdom and spirituality he has also judiciously taken up knowledge, skills, and sensitivities articulated in more recent times. He has skillfully carried out an exercise in discrimination. What he has done has been to sift through modern thought relevant to teaching and he has extracted only those elements that are appropriate for the exposition of traditional thought. This welding of ancient ideals with modern techniques and skills, in The Art of Teaching, is a major contribution to making the techniques of teaching Krsna consciousness a science to be learned by Srila Prabhupada's followers.

For the general public with a spiritual orientation, this book also has an appeal. Modern books on education, at the very most, speak of the Educated Man as the ideal. One searches in vain for statements to the effect that education has also to do with wisdom or God consciousness; and if at all one comes across such a statement, the accompanying discussion usually attempts to prove that nothing is really different because Higher Consciousness-all this in the name of "being one with the other", a breaking down of boundaries. The end-result is often a degrading of all ideals. So, for the spiritually oriented reader, it is a breath of fresh air to encounter a book that shows how it is possible to grasp the best that the modern world can offer and harness it in the transmission of God consciousness, and, in this instance, of Krsna consciousness.

In essence this book argues that the best forms of teaching are through both precept and example. It is a message that lies close to my heart. The most effective teacher, I believe, is one who has a clear view of the ultimate purpose of life, which is supported by deep knowledge and understanding and is manifested in his personal and social life. Any serious contradiction between his or her beliefs and practice will render that person ineffective as an exemplar of the purported spirituality and wisdom. This does not mean that teachers are born perfect; it means that to be effective teachers need to strive for congruence of belief and personal habit. Unless we embody the values we propound, youthful minds will quickly sniff us out and instinctively recognize the contradictions in us. More seriously, our students will stop believing in us even before they formally recognize they are doing so. And that would be a tragedy. But if they sense that we, as teachers, are ourselves actively groping towards living out the values we are trying to impart to them, they will respect us and wish to emulate us, while forgiving us our minor transgressions. In addition, if we are warm towards our students, always helping them up when they stumble, they will unconsciously learn to trust us with good reason, even love us. It always impresses me to hear the disciples of Srila Prabhupada talking of him with deep warmth and love, and I conclude that theirs must be a reciprocal warmth, that they, in turn are radiating what they received form him. The taught part of the teaching experience supports that which is caught in the process of associating with the teachers and elders. Students do learn even when no formal teaching takes place, for they are unselfconsciously and constantly learning form the example of the teachers' and other elders' lives.

The book's strongest point, in a sense, is to be found in the numerous direct quotations of Srila Prabhupada used to show what he really was a great teacher. Prabhupada's followers will be delighted to see their guru using expert teaching techniques time and time again to convey the principle of Vedic knowledge. These give the book both life and spiritual potency. In addition, it is also pleasing to see that Bhurijana has reminded us of Srila Prabhupada's specific instructions on teaching by including quotes compiled by His Holiness Jagadisa Goswami in his now out-of-print book: Srila Prabhupada on Gurukula.

The Art of Teaching is versatile and practical. Theoretical points are given practical application. As Prabhupada reminds us, "everything should be practical." The contents of this book have already been tested in classes given in the Vaisnava Institute for Higher Education in Vrndavana. The success of these lesions along with their active use by the very teachers trained by Bhurijana, have led to the demand for this book to be published in its present form.

The book can serve a variety of devotees interested in teaching Krsna consciousness. Beginning teachers with little other resource on which to fall back will find guidance. Bhurijana was himself in such a situation, when I first met him. He so much wanted to spread the teachings of Srila Prabhupada to gurukula students but felt inadequate to the task because, he felt, he had not had adequate professional training as a teacher. When put into contact with friends of mine who were in teacher training, Bhurijana proved from the start a sensitive and discriminating student. He absorbed the best and most appropriate and left aside, without negativity, that which was not useful. In the many discussions I was privileged in having with him both in Melbourne, and in Vrndavana, Bhurijana's passionate commitment to his teacher, Srila Prabhupada, and his teachings, was a reminder to me of what the correct orientation of pupil to teacher should be. One cannot be good teacher who has not first learnt to be a good pupil.

For his warmth and the living example of his struggle to embody the values he esposes, I am both humbled and honored to be his friend: I admire his mind, but first I admire his big heart.

Preface

In May of 1976, Srila Prabhupada instructed me to work with gurukula. I arrived in August at Gita-Nagari, ISKCON's farm in Pennsylvania, for my first teaching assignment. Jagadisa met me at the Harrisburg airport, and it was late at night by the time we drove past the ISKCON Farm sign, turned right up the slight hill at the entrance to the property, and pulled into the gravel driveway of a newly constructed house. We entered the building walked through a passage-like hallway, and flicked on the light in a room that served both as academic classroom and gurukula asrama.

I immediately beheld a large, wood-walled, linoleum-floored room carpeted with the whimsical pattern of eight young bodies, half in and half out of their sleeping bags. As we entered, several boys turned over in their sleep. I moved to a window, appreciating Gita-Nagari's fresh country air and wondering, "What will my new service be like? Can I really teach gurukula?" But these questions, nourished by the fragrant and cool air, were cut by a practical thought: "It's late and we have to wake up early to care for the boys." I then took rest.

At about midnight, Siddha Baba, one of the boys, suddenly stood up straight and threw up all over the room. Jagadisa and I also awoke, comforted the boy, and cleaned up. The others slept on, oblivious.

The next morning I awoke, eager to begin, and especially curious to meet Premananda, an eight-year old boy who was the first male child born to ISKCON devotees. We woke the boys and directed them to bathe. I then noticed Premananda struggling to tie his dhoti. "You're not a baby. You can do it, Prem," I joked. Premananda burst into tears.

Later, during mangala-arati, I observed Jagadisa admonishing the boys, "Chant! Chant!" A chill went up my spine. "Must I do that? During mangala-arati?"

Ten days later, alone and caring for the boys myself, I found I was in fact admonishing the boys to chant during mangala-arati, but without the seasoned patience of Jagadisa. The following days, weeks, and months were filled with agony and ecstasy. The boys were sweet, rowdy, energetic, and independent-minded. I tried to focus my mind on Prabhupada's order for me to work with gurukula as well as his vision that young boys and girls, if trained properly in Krsna consciousness, could save both themselves and the world. As I attempted to train the boys, they, all experienced gurukula students, began my first teacher training course-mostly by showing me what would not work. Yet gradually, our schools asrama life and academics began to gel.

But those early days of teaching in Gita-Nagari were difficult for both me and the boys. (O early students, please forgive me! I was untrained, inexperienced, and lacked teaching skill!) Few in our Gita-Nagari community appreciated the austerities of the service: teaching the asrama skills, supervising the morning program, organizing and teaching academics (with no standard schedule, no curriculum, and no textbooks), crowded and austere living and teaching facilities, and the help of only my wife (who was also caring for our 18-month-old daughter).

Among my many vows of this period, one was to help train gurukula teachers so they would not need to learn as I was learning-through trial and error. One result, therefore, of those early days of teaching at Gita-Nagari is this book, compiled after ten years of teaching in gurukula, eighteen years of associating with gurukulas, ten casual and three intense years of academic research (a complete bibliography is included after the appendixes), three semesters of running teacher training courses in Vrndavana, and twenty-seven years of practicing and teaching Krsna consciousness. In addition, I've spent considerable time observing and discussing teaching with patient and dedicated devotee and nondevotee teachers (my two sisters are both teachers-it's in my blood-and they were among the patient and the dedicated who helped). I also met with professors of teacher training at Colu7mbia University in New York, the University of London ("The trouble with you Americans is that you wish to convert everything into a scientific equation. Teaching isn't reducible in that fashion. It simply is effective communication between two individuals"), and especially in LaTrobe University in Melbourne.

The principles described in The Art of Teaching are widely applicable. After examining Srila Prabhupada's conversation transcripts as well as his books, such as Srimad-Bhagavatam and Caitanya-caritamrta, I found ample examples of Prabhupada himself using these principles while instructing and training. I have therefore included many quotes from Srila Prabhupada to illustrate teaching principles and techniques. The inclusion of these quotes adds both spiritual potency and Sastric validity to The Art of Teaching.

Our hope is that The Art of Teaching will thus prove helpful for aspiring, new and experienced academic and asrama teachers. In addition, parents, temple administrators, and preachers will discover useful principles.

No book, including The Art of Teaching, will magically solve all the problems that confront teachers, especially new teachers. Teachers must still struggle through success and failure to gain experience and earn their expertise. We hope The Art of Teaching will add a fragrant and favorable breeze to shorten and lighten that journey.

 

Introduction

Years ago, Indian passports included a space for the passport holder’s occupation. Therein, Srila Prabhupada noted his own occupation as Teacher. we followers of Srila Prabhupada, whether in the classroom, at home, on the streets distributing books, in the office managing temple, or even working privately as a businessman, aspire to follow Srila Prabhupada as teachers of Krsna consciousness. The Art of Teaching, therefore, is written in one sense directly to teachers and parents, yet, in an-other sense, it offers advice on teaching to all members of our Society.

Each of the five sections of The Art of Teaching can be read independently. Yet, our recommendation is that you read this book sequentially, in its entirety, and then refer back to specific sections as you find the need. Gurukula teachers and parents should find all sections relevant; other devotees-managers, preachers, etc.-may choose sections to read that are specifically related to their services.

The essential principle of Krsna Conscious teaching is the teacher’s Krsna consciousness. Teaching, therefore, is preaching-by words and ultimately by example. We establish this priority in the first chapter entitled, “Teaching By Example.”

Without discipline there is no question of being a disciple, and with-out fully accepting the position of disciple, there is no question of becoming Krsna conscious. Chapter 2, “Introduction to the Art of Discipline,” describes the three critical ingredients needed for maintaining proper discipline: qualified teachers, qualified parents, and a supportive culture. This chapter also provides an overview of Krsna conscious discipline by presenting a collection of quotes from Srila Prabhupada.

Chapter3 explains six management principles for teachers. As management in Krsna’s service is spiritual, not material, teachers should master these management principles to maximize the effectiveness of their teaching.

In chapter 4, “Clarifying the Goal of Krsna Conscious Training,” we discuss the goal of gurukula: that our children choose to serve Krsna. We include here an analysis of a child’s psychology at different stages of his development. We also present teachers with principles to help them discriminate between which factors of the child’s development are, and are not, within their control. The chapter concludes with a discussion on balancing structure and freedom in Krsna conscious education.

In chapter 5 we explore the three modes of material nature. Our dealings with students, specifically the methods of discipline we use, reveal much about which modes we are influenced by.

Acknowledging the goal of gurukula, as we did in chapter 4, we begin chapter 6 with the premise that a teacher’s duty is to help his students achieve self-discipline. Here, we begin our shift from theory to practice. We hear about keeping order in the classroom and giving effective instructions. We then begin our discussion on using consequences-what happens as a result of students choosing to follow or not follow given instructions.

We further explore consequences in chapter 7 by discussing the consciousness that makes our use of consequences effective or ineffective. We also stress the need to continuously evaluate their effects. This chapter concludes with a compendium of many effective consequences.

Lest our discussion on discipline and consequences leads one to believe that an effective school atmosphere must be negative or oppressive, chapter 8 examines the use of positive reinforcement in creating a healthy, encouraging atmosphere for learning.

Despite our best efforts to create the right atmosphere, there will inevitably be problems. Therefore, chapter 9 examines three points: Kali’s effect on educational systems, the need for Vaisnava etiquette; and types of difficult students and ideas on how to help them.

Chapter 10 concludes the discussion on discipline with a “Discipline Sutra”: Individual personality + mercy - pride = confidence + humility. We then discuss in detail how teachers can help their students achieve the delicate balance between humility and self-confidence. If we help them succeed in this, we have done a great service.

Part II, “Learning Theory”, could also be titled: “How Knowledge Is Acquired.” Chapter 11 analyzes the function of the senses, mind, and intelligence in learning. Both Srimad-Bhagavatam and Srila Bhaktivinoda Thaknra provide us with valuable insights into the theory of how we learn. We end the chapter by practically applying this knowledge to teaching.

Chapter 12 explains two keys to increased memory: celibacy and the proper presentation of materials. Teaching relevant materials with review, repetition, and order will help students recall what they have been taught.

Since learning is the goal of teaching, teachers must first plan what they want their students to learn. Then they can decide how to teach it. Therefore, Part III is entitled “Principles of Structured Learning.”

Chapter 13 details the five aspects of a lesson plan: lesson objectives, materials, preparation, procedures, and evaluation.

Chapter 14 explores objectives, both long-range educational objectives and one-lesson instructional goals. Writing effective objectives can be tricky, but it is crucial.

Once our teaching objectives are clear, a teacher begins proceeding towards the goal-the subject of chapter 15. This chapter discusses specific methods to accomplish a teaching objective: lecturing, role playing, and a variety of learning activities such as debate, small group work, and tutoring.

Chapter 16 focuses on lecturing. Here we learn how to begin and end lectures effectively. We also discuss “teacher-liveliness”-techniques to keep students attentive during a lecture.

Chapter 17 demonstrates the importance of example, analogies, and stories, all of which Srila Prabhupada used extensively in his own teaching.

Although discussion could have been included in Part III as a method of instructing, we have devoted an entire section to this topic. Acquiring Vedic knowledge is generally equated with hearing from authority, but Srila Prabhupada used discussion to train his disciples during his morning walks and room conversations. He also wanted the GBC to make decisions by joint discussion.

Chapter 18 defines discussion, and examines the many advantages to using it.

Chapter 19 explains the essential elements of discussion: choosing topics, beginning, controlling and monitoring, questioning, responding to answers, and ending.

Chapter 20 covers the elements of a good question. Questions should be clear, purposeful, naturally spoken, brief, and thought-provoking. The chapter ends by describing the four kinds of questions used when leading a discussion.

Chapter 2l takes question from the context of discussion and divides them into two general categories: lower- and higher-order cognitive questions. Higher-order cognitive questions test more than rote memorization; they probe a student’s actual understanding and push him to deepen that understanding.

Part V examines another role of the teacher: a concerned well-wisher and counselor of the student.

Sometimes a teacher has to be an assertive disciplinarian and some-times a concerned listener. Chapter 22 gives us guidelines to discern when to play each role. This chapter also deals with a difficult question: must we, as concerned teachers, feel anxious over a student’s problem which is beyond our power to change? We discuss acknowledging our limitations, especially when dealing with unsurrendered students. We also discuss stances we can take to help our students make progress.

Too often we give advice to troubled students before understanding the nature of their problems. Chapter 23 explains the need to first listen and then counsel. This chapter provides details on improving listening skills and creating a favorable atmosphere for open discussion and problem solving.

To complete The Art of Teaching, I have compiled seven appendixes :

In appendix I, “Srila Prabhupada’s Quotes on Gurukula,” you will find quotes from Srila Prabhupada’s books, conversations, and letters that were originally compiled by His Holiness Jagadisa Goswami.

Appendix II, “Preaching is the Essence,” describes the need for teachers to preach to their students by carefully studying and explaining the sastra. Included are many sample quotes from Srila Prabhupada’s books, useful for both spiritual and academic teaching.

“Elevation to Goodness.” appendix III, is an essay written about the relationship between cultivating the mode of goodness and teaching Krsna consciousness.

Appendix IV, “Becoming Gurus for Our Children,” requests those who train students-whether as parents or teachers-to view their responsibility as on par with guruship.

Appendix V explains the need for developing an asrama curriculum. Included is a sample curriculum I developed while teaching at Gita-nagari.

Appendix VI contains study questions for each chapter in this book. We have included these to help the reader comprehend and retain the lessons as well as to serve those using this to train their teachers.

Finally, appendix VII provides basic information we all should know about protecting our children from abuse.

 

Contents

 

Foreword by Prof. Vin D'Cruz, La Trobe University xvii
Preface and Acknowledgments xxi
Introduction xxv
Part I: Organization and Discipline  
CHAPTER 1: Teaching by Example 3
Setting a Good Example 3
Awareness of Example 5
What is Learned from Example? 5
Imitative Learning 5
Inferential Learning 6
Factors Affecting the Influence of the Teacher 8
Ways of Teaching by Example 10
Demonstration 10
Modeling Krsna conscious thinking 10
Modeling beliefs 11
Modeling curiosity and interest in learning 12
Socialization through modeling 13
CHAPTER 2: Introduction to the Art of Discipline 15
Discipline: A Prerequisite to Krsna Consciousness 15
Three Ingredients Combined Bring Uniform Pressure 17
Ingredient one: qualified teachers 18
Ingredient two: qualified parents 18
Ingredient three: a culture supportive of Krsna consciousness 20
Great Obstacles to Overcome 21
An Overview of Discipline 22
Quotes from Srila Prabhupada on Discipline 23
CHAPTER 3: Six Effective Management Principles 29
Management: Material or Spiritual? 29
Principle One: Cultivate the Mode of Goodness 30
Principle Two: Preach Strongly, Yet Be Sensitive 32
Principle Three: Keep Strong Krsna Conscious Relationships 34
Principle Four: Start and End All Activities Carefully 35
A careful start 35
…An effective ending 36
Principle five: Make Sure Your Procedures are Efficient 36
Principle Six: Handle Basic Disruptions Without Losing Momentum 38
CHAPTER 4: Clarifying the Goal of Krsna Conscious Training 41
Increasing a Student's Desire to Serve Krsna 41
Some psychology to help our children correctly choose Krsna 43
The challenge of the hourglass 45
How to do It? 47
Factors beyond a teacher's control 47
Factors within a teacher's grasp 47
Separating Principles and Techniques 49
Incontravenable 51
Contravenable 51
Balancing Structure and Freedom 51
Krsna-Centered Education 52
A Krsna-Centered Perspective on Discipline 53
Techniques for Handling Disruptive Behavior 54
Which Road to Take? 56
CHAPTER 5: Teaching and Disciplining in the Modes of Material Nature 59
Teaching in the Mode of Ignorance 60
Teaching in the Mode of Passion 61
Teaching in the Mode of Goodness 62
Hostility 63
Non-Assertiveness 65
Assertiveness 66
Teachers Must Get Their Needs Met 68
Handling the stress of teaching 69
A group meeting can be helpful 72
Observe an expert teacher 73
CHAPTER 6: The Road to Self-Discipline 75
Sense and Mind Control 75
Creating a Basic Classroom Structure 77
Get their attention, then instruct 78
Implementing the structure 78
Requesting behavior changes 78
The rule of escalation 79
Using hints, questions, i-messages and demands 79
Adding power to direct statements of instruction 79
Using consequences 80
Instructional statements and resulting consequences 80
Using choice when presenting demands 83
The broken record 85
CHAPTER 7: Using and Misusing Consequences While Disciplining 89
Child is the Father of Man 89
Evoking Consequences: The Consciousness Counts 90
Tolerance and anger 91
Consequences Support the Basic Classroom Structure 92
Plan consequences in advance 93
Ten Hints to Help You Choose an Effective Consequence 94
Ideas for other consequences 103
Applying Consequences to Devotional Activities 105
Has My Discipline Been Effective? 107
CHAPTER 8: The Power of the Positive 111
Engendering a Positive and Encouraging Atmosphere 113
Reinforcement should be immediate 116
The importance of encouragement 116
The essence of encouragement 117
Some dangers of praise 119
Varieties of Positive Reinforcement 119
Verbal motivators 120
Nonverbal motivators 121
Notes, award certificates, prizes and rewards: use cautiously 121
Are rewards bribery? 125
Consequences, Praise, Prizes, and Rewards in Perspective 126
CHAPTER 9: Dealing With Difficult Students 127
Kali-yuga and the Decline of Authority 127
Kali's Promise Delivered to the Educational System 129
Varna-sankara: Kali's students 129
Dealing with Difficult Students 130
Don't allow good children to become spoiled 130
Authority in our Schools 131
Etiquette is Not "Superficial Niceties" 132
Ideas for etiquette 133
The attitude and behavior of a student toward his teacher 133
Specific rules of etiquette 134
The results of following these rules of etiquette 135
Rules of Vaisnava Etiquette from Srila Prabhupada 136
Altering a Difficult Student's Self-image 137
The importance of keeping high expectations 138
Difficult students may need individual "prescriptions" 139
Some varieties of problem mentalities 140
Assorted tips in dealing with difficult students 144
Using a Planned Confrontation 147
Planning and executing a confrontation 147
Avoid Unplanned Confrontations 148
CHAPTER 10: Creating an Environment for Effective Discipline 151
A Discipline Sutra 151
Definitions 152
Humility is Essential for Devotees 152
We Cannot Allow Students to Fail 154
Hints for creating a successful environment 155
Part II: Learning Theory  
CHAPTER 11: How We Obtain Knowledge 165
Functions of the senses 167
Functions of the mind 167
Functions of the intelligence 167
Functions of the senses 168
Functions of the mind 168
Functions of the intelligence 169
Practical Application of Learning Theory 170
Regulate intake of information through the senses 170
Difficulties in remembrance are often retrieval problems 171
CHAPTER 12: Improving Memory in the Age of Forgetfulness 173
Kali-yuga-The Iron Age of Forgetfulness 173
The Importance of Memory 173
Principle One: Celibacy-The Prime Factor 174
Principle Two: Present Materials in a Way that Helps Rememberance 175
Recall codes and clues 176
Relevant learning 177
Review 178
Repetition and practice 178
Learning activities 180
Storage, order, and structure of memory 181
Using advanced organizers 184
Part III: Principles of Structured Learning  
CHAPTER 13: Introduction to Lesson Plans 189
Basic Elements of the Lesson Plan 189
Tips on writing lesson plans 191
CHAPTER 14: The Key to Lesson Planning: Clarifying Objectives 193
What Am I Teaching? 193
Writing Instructional Objectives 196
Implicit vs. explicit instructional objectives 196
Writing Explicit Instructional Objectives 197
Practicing Instructional Objectives 198
Summary of Writing Effective Explicit Instructional Objectives 199
CHAPTER 15: Proceeding Towards the Objectives 201
Objectives 201
Ways of Proceeding 204
Lecturing: The Traditional Procedure 205
Variations on Lecturing 207
Challenging 207
Demonstrating 208
Questioning 208
Discussion 210
Point on Lecturing 212
Role Playing 215
Learning Activities 216
Tutoring as a learning activity 219
Group learning activities 220
CHAPTER 16: Holding Students' Attention During Lectures 223
Set, Closure, Evaluation, and Liveliness 223
Catching student attention with set 223
Hints on set 225
Summing Up With Closure 227
Hints on closure 229
Set and closure appraisal guide 230
Evaluation: An Ongoing Process 230
Evaluation Within a Planned Lesson 231
Teacher Liveliness 234
The teacher's voice 234
Silence 235
Movement 235
Gestures 236
Eye contact and eye movements 236
Focusing 236
Switching sensory channels 236
CHAPTER 17: The Power and Use of Examples, Analogies, and Stories 239
Examples 240
Analogies 241
Stories 242
What Makes a Good Story? 247
Choosing a story to tell 248
Learning the story 248
Aids and techniques for story-telling 249
Part IV: Teaching Through Discussions  
CHAPTER 18: Uses of Discussion 255
The Basic Means of Instruction: Lecture or Discussion? 255
What is a Discussion? 257
Discussion: Pros and Cons 259
Teachers Leading Class Discussions 260
CHAPTER 19: The Basics of Discussion 263
The Topic 263
The Beginning 264
Making Sure the Discussion Begins 265
The power of waiting 265
Responding to silence 265
Encouraging further response 266
Basic Points on Controlling a Discussion 267
Further discussion guidelines 269
Directing and distributing Questions 272
Avoid Questions that "Pull Teeth" 273
Pausing 273
Questions Can be Sequenced 274
Responding to Answers 275
Address Your Question First to the Entire Class 276
Ending a Discussion 276
CHAPTER 20: Asking Effective Questions 279
What Makes a Good Question? 280
Good questions are clear 281
Good questions are purposeful 282
Good questions are naturally spoken 282
Good questions are brief 283
Good questions are thought-provoking 284
Using Questions to Lead Discussion 285
Focusing questions 285
Foundation questions 286
Extending questions 287
Lifting questions 288
Summary 289
CHAPTER 21: An Analysis of Questions 291
Lower and Higher Order Cognitive Questions 291
An Analysis of Questions 292
Non-questions 292
Lower-order cognitive questions 293
Higher-order cognitive questions 293
Lower-Order Cognitive Questions 293
Memory questions 293
Translation questions 294
Application questions 295
Higher-Order Cognitive Questions
Analysis questions 295
Synthesis questions 296
Evaluation questions 297
Part V: Improving Communications:
The First Step in Solving Problems
 
CHAPTER 22: Who Takes Responsibility for Students' Problems? 303
Surrender: The First Step in Education 303
A Teacher's View of Student Behavior 307
Considerations in Acceptable and Unsatisfactory Behavior 308
Individuality of teachers 308
Teachers should cultivate tolerance and compassion 309
Time, Place, and Circumstance 310
Individuality of students 311
Keeping the Balance 312
Limitations for a teacher 312
Who Owns the Problems Caused by Student Behavior? 313
The No-Problem Area 314
The Importance of Problem Ownership 315
Two Kinds of Students 315
A typical situation 317
Conclusion 318
CHAPTER 23: Developing The Ability to Listen 321
The Well-Wishing Friend 321
Stumbling Blocks 322
Stages of Listening 326
Passive listening 326
Listening with nonjudgmental acknowledgments 328
Invitations for deeper communication 328
Responding With Understanding 329
Practical tips in conversation 333
Know when to stop 334
Poor substitutes for responding with understanding 334
A Word of Caution 336
Appendixes  
APPENDIX I: SRILA PRABHUPADAS QUOTES ON GURUKULA 341
Optional Study Assignment 343
Gurukula: Its Importance 344
APPENDIX Ic: The Basic Gurukula Program 371
Optional Study Assignment 371
Academics 375
Facilities 379
Personnel 379
Parents 380
Operation 384
APPENDIX II: Preaching is the Essence 387
Preaching to Students 387
The Quality of the Teaching/Preaching 389
Prabhupada Quotes: General Preaching Points 390
Prabhupada Quotes: Preaching in the Content Areas 397
Appendix III: Elevation to Goodness 409
APPENDIX IV: Becoming Gurus for Our Children 419
Who Holds the Responsibility? 419
Understanding the Mentality Needed to Become Trained 420
But Who is Actually Training Our Gurukula Children? 421
The Parents Retake the Authority 422
Delegation of Authority to a Qualified Teacher 422
Conclusion: The Challenge-Filling the Need 423
APPENDIX V: Developing an Asrama Curriculum 425
The Need for an Asrama Curriculum 425
A Secondary Reason: Asrama Teachers Should Teach 425
When and Where to Teach 426
Out of the Classroom into the Temple: A Word on Positive Reinforcement 426
In Summary 427
An Asrama Curriculum 428
1. Srila Prabhupada 428
2. The Gurukula Asrama 432
3. Visiting Krsna's temple 444
APPENDIX VI: Questions 449
Chapter One: Teaching By Example 449
Chapter Two: Introduction to the Art of Discipline 450
Chapter Three: Six Effective Management Principles 450
Chapter Four: Clarifying the Goal of Krsna Conscious Training 451
Chapter Five: Teaching and Disciplining in the Modes of Nature 452
Chapter Six: The Road to Self-Discipline 452
Chapter Seven: Using and Misusing Consequences While Disciplining 453
Chapter Eight: The Power of the Positive 454
Chapter Nine: Dealing with Difficult Students 454
Chapter Ten: Creating an Environment for Effective Discipline 455
Chapter Eleven: How We Obtain Knowledge 456
Chapter Twelve: Improving Memory in the Age of forgetfulness 456
Chapter Thirteen: Introduction to Lesson Plans 457
Chapter Fourteen: The Key to Lesson Planning: Clarifying Objectives 457
Chapter Fifteen: Proceeding Toward the Objectives 458
Chapter Sixteen: Holding Students' Attention During Lectures 458
Chapter Seventeen: The Power and Use of Examples, Analogies, and Stories 459
Chapter Eighteen: Uses of Discussion 460
Chapter Nineteen: The Basics of Discussion 460
Chapter Twenty: Asking Effective Questions 460
Chapter Twenty One: An Analysis of Questions 461
Chapter Twenty Two: Who Takes Responsibility for Students' Problems? 465
Chapter Twenty Three: Developing the Ability to Listen 465
APPENDIX VII: Protecting Children from Abuse 467
The Child Protection Team 468
A: Prevention 468
B: Complaint Procedure 468
C: Action 468
Child Protection Program For Schools 469
Screening of Staff and Students 472
Definitions of Child Abuse 474
Who the Abusers Are 474
Identifying Abuse 475
Monitoring Suspected Cases 476
Responding to a Child's Disclosure 478
Counseling 478
Bibliography 481
Index 483
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