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Books > Ayurveda > The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Part-II Volume-I) (Formulations)
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The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Part-II Volume-I)
(Formulations)
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Part-II Volume-I) (Formulations)
Description
From the Jacket

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Pt. II (formulations) Vol. I is a legal document of standards for the quality of Ayurvedic formulations included therein (under the Drug and Cosmetic Act, 1940). This volume comprises 50 monographs on compound formulations. Each monograph contains the definition, formulation composition, indicating the official Ayurvedic name equivalent Botanical name, part used, and their proportion in the formulation. This also includes method of preparation and description of the product. The identification of product includes microscopy of the ingredients, thin Layer Chromatographic (TLC) and chemical tests. The physico-chemical parameter contains loss of drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractives, water soluble extractives, pH etc. the indications, therapeutic uses and daily dose along with Anupan is also indicated in the monograph.

This volume is first publication of its kind, wherein the pharmacopoeial standards of multiple ingredients formulations have been scientifically described. The standards have been consciously kept modest so that the implementation by the manufacturing companies becomes easily acceptable in order to maintain quality control and batch to batch Ayurveda uniformity. However, the efforts of the manufacturer should be to maintain higher standards of quality than described in this book.

The appendix of this volume contains the details of protocol used in the determination of various scientific standards as well as methods of testing. References of the Ayurvedic literature in its original form are also added in order to authenticate the Ayurvedic standards referred in each monograph. In the appendix, Ayurvedic definition and method of Sodhana etc. are also given. This book in general is more user friendly for the manufactures, scientists and students, teachers involved in the standardization of Ayurvedic formulations.

This book is included in the first schedule of Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940. Manufacturers are required to follow pharmacopoeial standards and these are mandatory requirements under the Act. Users are welcome to give their suggestions on these monographs so that these suggestions are evaluated and followed in the forthcoming volumes of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Part II (formulations).

Foreword

The Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940 was amended in 1964 to bring within its purview the drugs of Indian Systems of Medicine (Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha). For the implementation of the Act and Rules framed there under it was considered necessary to work out the standards for the drugs of these systems.

Ayurvedic material medica contains a large number of formulations, most of which are compound formulations. Accordingly, the Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, realized the need for developing pharmacopoeial standards for the Ayurvedic formulations and initiated a project on the "Development of standards of method of preparation, pharmacopoeial standards and shelf life studies of Ayurvedic classical compound formulations". The Standardisation of Method of Preparation (SMP) of compound formulations involves many basic sciences like Ayurvedic pharmacy, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. Considering the depth of scientific knowledge and skills involved, the expertise of many reputed laboratories of the CSIR, PLIM, CCRAS and other laboratories of Universities and ASU manufacturing units were roped in for this effort in 2003. Publication of this Volume-I of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-II (Formulations) is in a sense culmination of the process which was started in 2003. The work of these laboratories was closely monitored by a group of experts of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee at regular intervals.

This volume is a result of untiring effort and hardwork of scientists from different laboratories and members of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee and I place on record the appreciation of Department of AYUSH for their efforts. The First volume of the pharmacopoeial standards of compound Ayurvedic formulations has provided lot of learning to all the collaborating scientists and I am sure they will utilize the expertise gained for completing the work of laying down pharmacopoeial standards for most widely used classical Ayurvedic formulations in the next two years. I am confident that coromatographic fingerprints of Ayurvedic compound formulations would be made more precise.

I am certain that Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-II, Volume-II will be welcomed by scientists and researchers, regulatory authorities and Ayurvedic manufacturing units alike and their suggestions for improvement in the subsequent editions would prove very valuable.

Contents

LEGAL NOTICESPAGE
GENERAL NOTICES XII
PREFACE XXIII
INTRODUCTION XXX
MONOGRAPHS
Avaleha:
General Description 1
1Astangavaleha(A.F.I.- II) 2
2Bhallatakadi Modaka (A.F.I. - I)4
3Bilvadi Leha(A.F.I. - I) 7
4 Citraka Haritaki (A.F.I - I)10
5 Cyavanaprasa(A.F.I. - I) 13
6 Kalyanaka leha(A.F.I. - II) 17
7 Kusmandaka Rasayana(A.F.I. - I) 20
8 Mrdvikadi lehya(A.F.I. - I) 23
9 Puga Khanda(A.F.I. - I) 26
10 Suranavaleha(A.F.I. - I) 29
11 Vasavaleha(A.F.I. - I) 32
12 Vyaghri Haritaki(A.F.I. - II) 35
Curna:
General Description 38
13Amalakyadi Curna(A.F.I. – I)39
14 Avipattikara Curna(A.F.I. - I) 41
15 Balacaturbhadrika Curna(A.F.I. - I) 43
16 Eladi Curna(A.F.I. - I) 45
17Hingvastaka Curna(A.F.I. - I) 47
18 Navayasa Curna (A.F.I. - I)49
19 Nimbadi Curna(A.F.I. - I) 51
20 Pancasama Curna(A.F.I. - I) 53
21 Pusyanuga Curna(A.F.I. - I) 55
22 Talisadya Curna(A.F.I. - I) 57
23Vaisvanara Curna(A.F.I. - I) 59
Ghrta:
General Description 61
24Brahmi Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 63
25Dasamula Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 65
26Dasamulasatpalaka Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 68
27 Dhatryadi Ghrta(A.F.I. - I) 71
28Jatyadi Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 73
29Kalyanaka Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 75
30Pancagavya Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 78
31Pancatikta Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 80
32Phala Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 82
33Sarasvata Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 85
34Traikantaka Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 87
35 Triphala Ghrta(A.F.I. - I) 90
Guggulu: (A.F.I. - I)
General Description 93
36 Kaisora Guggulu (A.F.I. - I) 94
Gutika:
General Description 97
37 Maricadi Gutika (A.F.I. - I) 98
Kasara/Lavana
General Description100
38 Apamarga Ksara (A.F.I. - I) 101
39 Arka Lavana(A.F.I. - I) 103
40 Kalyanaka Ksara (A.F.I. - I) 105
41 Mulaka Ksara (A.F.I. - I) 107
42 Palasa Ksara (A.F.I. - I) 109
43 Yava Ksara (A.F.I. - I) 111
Taila:
General Description 113
44 Balaguducyadi Taila (A.F.I. - I) 115
45 Dhanvantara Taila (A.F.I. - I) 117
46 Gandharvahasta Taila (A.F.I. - I) 120
47 Kottamcukkadi Taila(A.F.I. - I) 122
48 Ksirabala Taila (A.F.I. - I) 124
49 Saindhavadi Taila(A.F.I. - I) 126
Lepa:
General Description 128
50 Darvi Malahara (Gel)(Based on Charaka Chi. 25/93) 129
APPENDIX-1. Apparatus for Tests & Assays 133
1.1 Nessler Cylinders 133
1.2 Sieves 133
1.3 Thermometers 134
1.4 UV Lamps134
1.5 Volumetric Glassware 135
1.6 Weights and Balances135
1.7 Muslin Cloth135
2.1 Microscopic Identification 136
2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data 140
2.2.1 Net Content140
2.2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data140
2.2.3 Total Ash140
2.2.4 Acid-Insoluble Ash140
2.2.5 Water-Soluble Ash140
2.2.6 Sulphated Ash140
2.2.7 Alcohol-Soluble Extractive141
2.2.8 Water-Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content)141
2.2.9 Ether-Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content)141
2.2.10 Moisture Content (Loss on Drying)141
2.2.11 Volatile Oil in Drugs142
2.2.12 Special Processes Used In Alkaloidal Assays143
2.2.13 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)144
2.2.14 Starch Estimation (Mont Gomery, 1957)146
2.2.15 Sugar Estimation (Mont Gomery, 1957)147
2.2.16 Fatty oil Estimation147
2.2.17 Protein Estimation (Lowry et al, 1951)147
2.2.18 Method for Alkaloid Estimation147
2.3 Limit Tests147
2.3.1 Limit Test for Arsenic148
2.3.2 Limit Test for Chlorides153
2.3.3 Limit Test for Heavy Metals153
2.3.4 Limit Test for Heavy Metals153
2.3.5 Limit Test for Lead156
2.3.6 Limit Test for Sulphates156
2.3.7 Heavy Metals by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry158
2.4 Microbial Limit Tests163
2.4.1 Total Aerobic Microbial Count172
2.4.2 Tests for Specified Micro-organisms175
2.5 Pesticide Residues179
2.5.1 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Pesticide Residues181
2.5.2 Test for Pesticides182
2.5.3 Quantitative Analysis183
2.6 Gas Chromatography186
2.7 Test for Aflatoxin188
APPENDIX – 3 Physical Tests and Determinations190
3.1 Refractive Index190
3.2 Weight per Millilitre and Specific Gravity190
3.3 Determination of pH Value191
3.4 Determination of Melting and Congealing Range191
3.4.1 Determination of Melting Range191
3.4.2 Determination of Congealing Range194
3.5 Determination of Boiling Range195
3.6 Determination of Optical Rotation 196
3.7 Determination of Viscosity198
3.8 Determination Total Solids199
3.9 Solubility in Water199
3.10 Determination of Saponification Value 199
3.11 Determination of Iodine Value200
3.12 Determination of Acid Value 201
3.13 Determination of Peroxide Value 201
3.14 Determination of Unsaponifiable Matter 202
3.15 Detection of Mineral Oil (Holde's Test)202
3.16 Rancidity Test (Kreis Test)203
3.17 Determination of Alcohol Content203
APPENDIX – 4. Reagents and Solution 207
APPENDIX – 5. Chemical Tests and Assays239
5.1.1. Estimation of Total Phenolics 239
5.1.2 Estimation of Total Tannins 239
5.1.3 Estimation of Sugars 240
5.1.3.1 Reducing Sugars 240
5.1.3.2. Total Sugars 240
5.1.3.3. Non-reducing Sugars 240
5.1.4. Estimation of Curcumin by TLC Densitometer 241
5.2.1. Determination of Aluminium 241
5.2.2 Determination of Borax 242
5.2.3. Determination of Calcium 242
5.2.4. Determination of Copper 243
5.2.5. Determination of Iron (Fe) 243
5.2.6. Determination of Magnesium 244
5.2.7. Determination of Mercury 244
5.2.8. Determination of Silica (SiO2) 245
5.2.9. Estimation of Sodium and Potassium by Flame Photometry 245
5.2.10. Determination of Sodium chloride 246
5.2.11. Determination of Sulphur 246
5.2.12.- Qualitative Reactions of some Radicals: 246
APPENDIX – 6. Ayurvedic Definition and Methods
6.1. Kalpana Paribhasa248
6.1.1. Kalka248
6.1.2. Kvatha / Kasaya 248
6.1.3. Curna 248
6.1.4. Putapaka Svarasa 248
6.1.5. Svarasa 248
6.1.6. Hima Kasaya 248
6.2. Samanya Paribhasa249
6.2.1. Kajjali249
6.2.2. Kanjika249
6.2.3. Ksara249
6.2.4. Curnodaka249
6.2.5. Praksepa249
6.2.6. Bhavana250
6.2.7 Sodhana250
6.2.7.1. Godanti Sodhana250
6.2.7.2. Gairika Sodhana250
6.2.7.3. Gandhaka Sodhana251
6.2.7.4. Guggulu Sodhana:251
6.2.7.5. Tankana Sodhana:251
6.3.7.6 Tuttha Sodhana:251
6.3.7.7. Bhallataka Sodhana:252
6.3.7.8. Manahsila Sodhana:252
6.3.7.9. Vatsanabha Sodhana:252
6.3.7.10. Silajatu Sodhana:252
6.3.7.11. Haritala Sodhana:253
6.3.7.12. Hingu Sodhana:253
6.3.7.13. Parada Samanya Sodhana:253
6.3.7.14. Astasamskara of Parada254
6.2.8. Murchana257
6.2.8.1. Murchana of Eranda Taila258
6.2.8.2. Murchana of Ghrta258
6.2.8.3. Murchana of Taila259
6.3. Yantra Paribhasa260
6.3.1. Khalva Yantra260
6.3.2. Tiryak patina Yantra260
6.3.3. Damaru Yantra260
6.3.4. Dola Yantra260
APPENDIX – 7. Weights and Measures,261
7.1. Metric Equivalents of Classical Weights and Measures.261
7.2. Metric System.262
APPENDIX – 8, Classical Ayurvedic References,263
APPENDIX – 9, List of Single Drugs used in Formulation, with Latin Nomenclatures276
APPENDIX – 10. Bibliography.280

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (Part-II Volume-I) (Formulations)

Item Code:
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Cover:
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Edition:
2008
ISBN:
9878190115155
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11.0" X 8.8"
Pages:
321
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From the Jacket

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Pt. II (formulations) Vol. I is a legal document of standards for the quality of Ayurvedic formulations included therein (under the Drug and Cosmetic Act, 1940). This volume comprises 50 monographs on compound formulations. Each monograph contains the definition, formulation composition, indicating the official Ayurvedic name equivalent Botanical name, part used, and their proportion in the formulation. This also includes method of preparation and description of the product. The identification of product includes microscopy of the ingredients, thin Layer Chromatographic (TLC) and chemical tests. The physico-chemical parameter contains loss of drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractives, water soluble extractives, pH etc. the indications, therapeutic uses and daily dose along with Anupan is also indicated in the monograph.

This volume is first publication of its kind, wherein the pharmacopoeial standards of multiple ingredients formulations have been scientifically described. The standards have been consciously kept modest so that the implementation by the manufacturing companies becomes easily acceptable in order to maintain quality control and batch to batch Ayurveda uniformity. However, the efforts of the manufacturer should be to maintain higher standards of quality than described in this book.

The appendix of this volume contains the details of protocol used in the determination of various scientific standards as well as methods of testing. References of the Ayurvedic literature in its original form are also added in order to authenticate the Ayurvedic standards referred in each monograph. In the appendix, Ayurvedic definition and method of Sodhana etc. are also given. This book in general is more user friendly for the manufactures, scientists and students, teachers involved in the standardization of Ayurvedic formulations.

This book is included in the first schedule of Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940. Manufacturers are required to follow pharmacopoeial standards and these are mandatory requirements under the Act. Users are welcome to give their suggestions on these monographs so that these suggestions are evaluated and followed in the forthcoming volumes of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Part II (formulations).

Foreword

The Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940 was amended in 1964 to bring within its purview the drugs of Indian Systems of Medicine (Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha). For the implementation of the Act and Rules framed there under it was considered necessary to work out the standards for the drugs of these systems.

Ayurvedic material medica contains a large number of formulations, most of which are compound formulations. Accordingly, the Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, realized the need for developing pharmacopoeial standards for the Ayurvedic formulations and initiated a project on the "Development of standards of method of preparation, pharmacopoeial standards and shelf life studies of Ayurvedic classical compound formulations". The Standardisation of Method of Preparation (SMP) of compound formulations involves many basic sciences like Ayurvedic pharmacy, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. Considering the depth of scientific knowledge and skills involved, the expertise of many reputed laboratories of the CSIR, PLIM, CCRAS and other laboratories of Universities and ASU manufacturing units were roped in for this effort in 2003. Publication of this Volume-I of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-II (Formulations) is in a sense culmination of the process which was started in 2003. The work of these laboratories was closely monitored by a group of experts of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee at regular intervals.

This volume is a result of untiring effort and hardwork of scientists from different laboratories and members of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee and I place on record the appreciation of Department of AYUSH for their efforts. The First volume of the pharmacopoeial standards of compound Ayurvedic formulations has provided lot of learning to all the collaborating scientists and I am sure they will utilize the expertise gained for completing the work of laying down pharmacopoeial standards for most widely used classical Ayurvedic formulations in the next two years. I am confident that coromatographic fingerprints of Ayurvedic compound formulations would be made more precise.

I am certain that Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-II, Volume-II will be welcomed by scientists and researchers, regulatory authorities and Ayurvedic manufacturing units alike and their suggestions for improvement in the subsequent editions would prove very valuable.

Contents

LEGAL NOTICESPAGE
GENERAL NOTICES XII
PREFACE XXIII
INTRODUCTION XXX
MONOGRAPHS
Avaleha:
General Description 1
1Astangavaleha(A.F.I.- II) 2
2Bhallatakadi Modaka (A.F.I. - I)4
3Bilvadi Leha(A.F.I. - I) 7
4 Citraka Haritaki (A.F.I - I)10
5 Cyavanaprasa(A.F.I. - I) 13
6 Kalyanaka leha(A.F.I. - II) 17
7 Kusmandaka Rasayana(A.F.I. - I) 20
8 Mrdvikadi lehya(A.F.I. - I) 23
9 Puga Khanda(A.F.I. - I) 26
10 Suranavaleha(A.F.I. - I) 29
11 Vasavaleha(A.F.I. - I) 32
12 Vyaghri Haritaki(A.F.I. - II) 35
Curna:
General Description 38
13Amalakyadi Curna(A.F.I. – I)39
14 Avipattikara Curna(A.F.I. - I) 41
15 Balacaturbhadrika Curna(A.F.I. - I) 43
16 Eladi Curna(A.F.I. - I) 45
17Hingvastaka Curna(A.F.I. - I) 47
18 Navayasa Curna (A.F.I. - I)49
19 Nimbadi Curna(A.F.I. - I) 51
20 Pancasama Curna(A.F.I. - I) 53
21 Pusyanuga Curna(A.F.I. - I) 55
22 Talisadya Curna(A.F.I. - I) 57
23Vaisvanara Curna(A.F.I. - I) 59
Ghrta:
General Description 61
24Brahmi Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 63
25Dasamula Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 65
26Dasamulasatpalaka Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 68
27 Dhatryadi Ghrta(A.F.I. - I) 71
28Jatyadi Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 73
29Kalyanaka Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 75
30Pancagavya Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 78
31Pancatikta Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 80
32Phala Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 82
33Sarasvata Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 85
34Traikantaka Ghrta (A.F.I. - I) 87
35 Triphala Ghrta(A.F.I. - I) 90
Guggulu: (A.F.I. - I)
General Description 93
36 Kaisora Guggulu (A.F.I. - I) 94
Gutika:
General Description 97
37 Maricadi Gutika (A.F.I. - I) 98
Kasara/Lavana
General Description100
38 Apamarga Ksara (A.F.I. - I) 101
39 Arka Lavana(A.F.I. - I) 103
40 Kalyanaka Ksara (A.F.I. - I) 105
41 Mulaka Ksara (A.F.I. - I) 107
42 Palasa Ksara (A.F.I. - I) 109
43 Yava Ksara (A.F.I. - I) 111
Taila:
General Description 113
44 Balaguducyadi Taila (A.F.I. - I) 115
45 Dhanvantara Taila (A.F.I. - I) 117
46 Gandharvahasta Taila (A.F.I. - I) 120
47 Kottamcukkadi Taila(A.F.I. - I) 122
48 Ksirabala Taila (A.F.I. - I) 124
49 Saindhavadi Taila(A.F.I. - I) 126
Lepa:
General Description 128
50 Darvi Malahara (Gel)(Based on Charaka Chi. 25/93) 129
APPENDIX-1. Apparatus for Tests & Assays 133
1.1 Nessler Cylinders 133
1.2 Sieves 133
1.3 Thermometers 134
1.4 UV Lamps134
1.5 Volumetric Glassware 135
1.6 Weights and Balances135
1.7 Muslin Cloth135
2.1 Microscopic Identification 136
2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data 140
2.2.1 Net Content140
2.2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data140
2.2.3 Total Ash140
2.2.4 Acid-Insoluble Ash140
2.2.5 Water-Soluble Ash140
2.2.6 Sulphated Ash140
2.2.7 Alcohol-Soluble Extractive141
2.2.8 Water-Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content)141
2.2.9 Ether-Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content)141
2.2.10 Moisture Content (Loss on Drying)141
2.2.11 Volatile Oil in Drugs142
2.2.12 Special Processes Used In Alkaloidal Assays143
2.2.13 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)144
2.2.14 Starch Estimation (Mont Gomery, 1957)146
2.2.15 Sugar Estimation (Mont Gomery, 1957)147
2.2.16 Fatty oil Estimation147
2.2.17 Protein Estimation (Lowry et al, 1951)147
2.2.18 Method for Alkaloid Estimation147
2.3 Limit Tests147
2.3.1 Limit Test for Arsenic148
2.3.2 Limit Test for Chlorides153
2.3.3 Limit Test for Heavy Metals153
2.3.4 Limit Test for Heavy Metals153
2.3.5 Limit Test for Lead156
2.3.6 Limit Test for Sulphates156
2.3.7 Heavy Metals by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry158
2.4 Microbial Limit Tests163
2.4.1 Total Aerobic Microbial Count172
2.4.2 Tests for Specified Micro-organisms175
2.5 Pesticide Residues179
2.5.1 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Pesticide Residues181
2.5.2 Test for Pesticides182
2.5.3 Quantitative Analysis183
2.6 Gas Chromatography186
2.7 Test for Aflatoxin188
APPENDIX – 3 Physical Tests and Determinations190
3.1 Refractive Index190
3.2 Weight per Millilitre and Specific Gravity190
3.3 Determination of pH Value191
3.4 Determination of Melting and Congealing Range191
3.4.1 Determination of Melting Range191
3.4.2 Determination of Congealing Range194
3.5 Determination of Boiling Range195
3.6 Determination of Optical Rotation 196
3.7 Determination of Viscosity198
3.8 Determination Total Solids199
3.9 Solubility in Water199
3.10 Determination of Saponification Value 199
3.11 Determination of Iodine Value200
3.12 Determination of Acid Value 201
3.13 Determination of Peroxide Value 201
3.14 Determination of Unsaponifiable Matter 202
3.15 Detection of Mineral Oil (Holde's Test)202
3.16 Rancidity Test (Kreis Test)203
3.17 Determination of Alcohol Content203
APPENDIX – 4. Reagents and Solution 207
APPENDIX – 5. Chemical Tests and Assays239
5.1.1. Estimation of Total Phenolics 239
5.1.2 Estimation of Total Tannins 239
5.1.3 Estimation of Sugars 240
5.1.3.1 Reducing Sugars 240
5.1.3.2. Total Sugars 240
5.1.3.3. Non-reducing Sugars 240
5.1.4. Estimation of Curcumin by TLC Densitometer 241
5.2.1. Determination of Aluminium 241
5.2.2 Determination of Borax 242
5.2.3. Determination of Calcium 242
5.2.4. Determination of Copper 243
5.2.5. Determination of Iron (Fe) 243
5.2.6. Determination of Magnesium 244
5.2.7. Determination of Mercury 244
5.2.8. Determination of Silica (SiO2) 245
5.2.9. Estimation of Sodium and Potassium by Flame Photometry 245
5.2.10. Determination of Sodium chloride 246
5.2.11. Determination of Sulphur 246
5.2.12.- Qualitative Reactions of some Radicals: 246
APPENDIX – 6. Ayurvedic Definition and Methods
6.1. Kalpana Paribhasa248
6.1.1. Kalka248
6.1.2. Kvatha / Kasaya 248
6.1.3. Curna 248
6.1.4. Putapaka Svarasa 248
6.1.5. Svarasa 248
6.1.6. Hima Kasaya 248
6.2. Samanya Paribhasa249
6.2.1. Kajjali249
6.2.2. Kanjika249
6.2.3. Ksara249
6.2.4. Curnodaka249
6.2.5. Praksepa249
6.2.6. Bhavana250
6.2.7 Sodhana250
6.2.7.1. Godanti Sodhana250
6.2.7.2. Gairika Sodhana250
6.2.7.3. Gandhaka Sodhana251
6.2.7.4. Guggulu Sodhana:251
6.2.7.5. Tankana Sodhana:251
6.3.7.6 Tuttha Sodhana:251
6.3.7.7. Bhallataka Sodhana:252
6.3.7.8. Manahsila Sodhana:252
6.3.7.9. Vatsanabha Sodhana:252
6.3.7.10. Silajatu Sodhana:252
6.3.7.11. Haritala Sodhana:253
6.3.7.12. Hingu Sodhana:253
6.3.7.13. Parada Samanya Sodhana:253
6.3.7.14. Astasamskara of Parada254
6.2.8. Murchana257
6.2.8.1. Murchana of Eranda Taila258
6.2.8.2. Murchana of Ghrta258
6.2.8.3. Murchana of Taila259
6.3. Yantra Paribhasa260
6.3.1. Khalva Yantra260
6.3.2. Tiryak patina Yantra260
6.3.3. Damaru Yantra260
6.3.4. Dola Yantra260
APPENDIX – 7. Weights and Measures,261
7.1. Metric Equivalents of Classical Weights and Measures.261
7.2. Metric System.262
APPENDIX – 8, Classical Ayurvedic References,263
APPENDIX – 9, List of Single Drugs used in Formulation, with Latin Nomenclatures276
APPENDIX – 10. Bibliography.280
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