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Books > Hindu > The Bhagavata Purana (5 Volumes)
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The Bhagavata Purana (5 Volumes)
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The Bhagavata Purana (5 Volumes)
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Preface

The present volume contains the Bhagavata Purana Part I (Skandhas 1-3) in English translation. It is the seventh in the series of fifty volumes on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology.

The project of the series was envisaged and financed in 1970 by Shri Sundarlal jain the verteran enterpriser in the field of oriental publication and the leading partner messrs Motilal Banarsidas. Hitherto seven volumes of the series have been published and are ready for sale.

The present translation is based on the Sanskrit text of the Bhagavata Purana published by Messrs Ksemaraja Srikrsnadas Venkatesvara Press, Bombay. This text constructed on the collation of mss and supported by the oldest commentator Sridhara Svamin is fairly accurate. But we have also recorded the translation of all the additional verses accepted as genuine in the authoritative commentaries of Ramanuja and Madhva Schools there are not found in the text of Sridhara Svamin.

The Bhagavata Purana Deals with a variety of subjects geographical historical philosophical religious and the like which need elucidation. This task could not be accomplished by a mere translation. We have therefore provided footnotes on these topics. On the philosophical verses especially we have recorded different interpretations of the commentators belonging to different schools of thought viz those of sankara Ramanuja Madhva, Nimbarka, Vallabha and Caitanya (Gaudiya School of Vaisnavism) and also two eminent Marathi commentators Krsna Dayarnava and Ekanatha. In the Accomplishment of this task we have utilized the commentaries published in the Bhagavata Vidya Peeth Ahmedabad Edition and in the Vrindavana edition of this purana.

In order to help the reader understand the background of the subject matter we have prefixed to this part a critical and comparative introduction which discusses among other topics the date authorship, philosophy, religion and general characteristics of this Purana. A Brief not on the commentators has also been added to the introduction while a general index is thought to be included in the last Part of this work.

Before closing it is our pleasant duty to put on record our sincere gratitude to Dr. S.K. Chatterjee, Dr. V. Raghavan of the UNESCO for their kind encouragement and valuable help which render this work more valuable to scholars than it would otherwise have been. We must also thank the learned translator and annotator Dr. G.V. Tagare for his untiring zeal and sustained efforts in bringing out his volume within scheduled time in spite of untold obstacles.

Finally we avail of this opportunity to state that any critical suggestion and advice for improvement are welcome and will receive proper consideration from us.

 

Introduction

The term purana usually occurs in close association with itihasa in old Sanskrit literature originally it connoted simply an old narrative. The Puranas describe this term as that which lives from ancient times or the records of ancient events to convey the same sense Sanskrit lexicons derive the term Purana grammatically as follows:

1. Pura (Purvasmin kale) Bhavam
2. Pura Niyate iti

As a class of literature Puranas existed in Vedic times and are mentioned as such along with Brahmanas, Itihasa and Narasamsi gatha in the Atharva Veda in Brahmanas and in the Tai. Ar. (Taittiriya Ayanyaka) by the time of the Chandogya Upa…they were accorded the status of the fifth Veda and formed a part of the syllabus of Vedic studies. The use of itihasa and purana in a collective dvandva and in the singular number in these ancient works suggests that possibly there was one work or rather tract of literature called Purana a tradition recorded in the Matsya Padma and Skanda Puranas. As P.V. Kane Shows the Apastamba Dharma Sutra Twice quotes verses from a Purana and summarizes the view of a Bhavisyat Purana. The quotations show that Puranas in those days were versified compositions in archaic Sanskrit and that even in those times there was a Purana called Bhavisyat Purana.

It appears that probably to the pre-eminence of the war between Karuavas and Pandavas wherein the then contemporary Aryandom participated the Mahabharata with all its accretion came to be designated as itihas (history) and the rest of the ancient lore Purana. But both itihas and puranas are equally myth and history. It is presumed by scholars like M. Winternitz that similar to the Vedic Samhitas there existed one or several collections of itihasas and Puranas made up of myths and legends. During the Brahmana period the recital of narrative poems formed a part of the religious ceremonies at the sacrificial and domestic festivals. Thus the daily recitation of legends of gods and heroes belonged to the preliminary celebration which lasted a whole year of the great horse sacrifice. As shown by S. Bhattacarya it was this sacrificial milieu which led to the formation of the following main topics dealt with in the Puranas viz (1) sarga (Creation of the universe); (2) Pratisarga (Recreation after destruction or deluge); (3) Vamsa (Genealogy) ; (4) Manvantara (the great periods of time with Manu as the primal ancestor) and (5) vamsamucarita (The history of the dynasties both the solar and the Lunar). These topics formed an integral part of the definition of the puranas as given in the Amara kosa. But as G.V. Devashali notes the texts that have come down to us under the title Purana hardly conform to this definition since they contain either something more or something less than the limitations set by it. The reasons were obvious. The process of Aryanisation of pre Aryan masses and assimilation of foreign invaders like Greeks Scythians Hunas and others in the Hindu fold necessitated the creation of a literature which included non Aryan beliefs rituals customs etc and could shape the conduct and meet the worldly and spiritually needs of the masses. Hence the conglomeration of legends of gods and tales of demons and snakedeities old sages and kings of ancient times in Puranas. Some Puranas like Agni, Garuda and Narada are ancient encyclopedias of literatures containing abstracts of works in arts and sciences medicine, grammar, dramaturgy, music, astrology etc. most of them are rich in dharma sastra masterial such as acara (religious duties), Asrama-dharma (duties pertaining to one’s social class and stage in life) dana (gifts) Prayascitta (Atonement for sins) Sraddha (Rituals pertaining to the dealt anniversary), Tirtha (Holy places) etc. they have amalgamated agamic Vaisnavism with early (Vedic) visnuism and agamic Saivism with the Vedic traditions. A numer of them are rich hence they afford us far greater insight into all aspects and phases of Hinduism its love of God its philosophy and its superstition its festivals and ceremonies when he calls Puranas as a popular encyclopedia of ancient and medieval Hinduism religious, philosophical, historical, personal social and political.

 

Commentators on the Bhagavata Purana (A Brief Note)

Due to the enormous popularity and extraordinary reputration of the Bh.P. as being the most famous epic in India eminent commentators belonging to different schools of the Vedanta have tried to show that the Bh.P. supports their particular school of though. Of these the oldest and the most respectable annotator is Sridhara Svamin (SR) the author of the Com, Bhavartha dipika who follows the Advaitaschool of sankara. He assures that in his com. He has given the traditional interpretation implying Cituskha’s (1220-84 A.D) Com. On the Bh.P. it is an authoritative commentary lucid and to the point. They say that next to Vyasa (the author of the Bh.P) and Suka (Its exponent to king Pariksit) it is SR who understood the real import of the Bh.P. in its entirety. Nabha Dasa ji’s record of the legend that Lord Bindu Madhava Kasi approved SR’s Com. As the authoritative interpretation of the Bh.P. is another evidence of SR’s prestige and popularity SR has received complimentary tributes from commentators of other schools of the Vedanta who bodily incorporate his Com. Into their own and some openly admit his authority by urging that their annotations are just to elucidate and supplement SR. it may be due to the deep reverence expressed by Caitanya to SR that his followers like JG and VC presented sort of apologia for their commentaries mentioned above even though SR, finds no Radha in the Bh.P. due to SR’s reference to Bopadeva (13th cent.) and references of other writers cent A.D. Radha Ramana Gosvami (RR) wrote in Dipani the elucidate SR. though he tilts to Gaydiya Vaisnavism. Beyond the names of his parents (Jivana Lala and Srikrsna Kuvara he give no personal details. His grand father seems to be his spiritual preceptor. Vamsidhara, whose loyalities are with the Radha cult has written a learned and elaborate com. On sr. he was a gauda Bhramin of kausika gotra a follower of gaudiya vasavism and he extenstively quotes JC and VC. It is at the request of the scholars at Mathura that he wrote this encyclopaedic Com. His reverential approach to Sr is worth nothing. Sridhara alone knows the implication of Sr’s co. after paying obeisance to Nrsimha who conferred his grace on Sr. I being the exposition of SR through Sr’s favor. VD deserves careful study not only for understanding Sr but the BH.P. as well.

Anvitartha Prakasika by ganga sahaya is a very useful com. As it explains practically every word and every important grammatical form. The author wrote this in his old age. His is silent about his personal details.

The visistadvaita school is represented by Sudarsana Suri and Vira raghava Sudarsana suri the celebrated author of Sruta prakasika a com. On Ramanuja’s Sri Bhasya, wrote a brief yet learned Com. Suka-paksiya. He is reported to have died in 1367 A.D. when Srinragam was sacked by the forces of Allauddin Kilaji. VR (Viraraghava’s Bhagavata candrika) is ‘pleasant like the moon-light’—an excellent textual exposition of the Bh.P. from the Visostadvaita point of view. The v.l.s recorded by him and the explanations given are important. He was the son of ri Saila of Vatsa Gotra and a pupil of Laksmaa Mimi, his father’s disciple. He is supposed to belong to the 14th Cent. A.D.

Vijayadhvaja’s Padaratnavali is an able exposition of the Dvaita School. He closely follows Ananda-tirtha’s Bhagavatat at parya-nirzaya, not a Corn. but a digest of the Bh.P. The text of the Bh.P. used by VJ records a number of different readings, changes in the numbei and the order of verses and even in chapters as well. This is esecial1y found in the X Skandha to a considerable extent. He is an intelligent annotator giving unexpected explanations with the help of grammar, lexicon and other purnic and smyti references. He is supposed to have lived in the 15th Cent. A.D.

Sukadeva’s (SD) Siddhanta-pradipa presents Nimbarka’s philosophy through the BILP. But onc of the finest expositions of the Bh.P. is Vallabha’s Subodhini. Though it does not cover all the .S’kandhas, and its claim to present seven interpretations of the Bh.P. may be disputed, one must admit its profound scholarship, clarity of thought and felicity of expression. It is a pleasure to read Subodkini. Its author Vallabha (1479- 1531 A.D.) is the founder of the Suddhaciiaita school and what is popularly called Pustimarga, so popular in Gujarat. But Vallabha was a Krsna-yajurvedi Brahmaia from Andhra. He wrote his famous Com. AnubMija on the Brahma stitra and established his Brahma-Vada (Suddluadvaita). Gosväm! Purusottama (1700 A.D.) wrote .subodhini-Praksas to elucidate the Subodhini. But Vallabba’s descendant Giridhara (later part of 19th Cent.) son of Gopala has given us a very lucid exposition of the Bh.P. in his Coin. Bala-prabodhini, very useful even to novices.

Of the Bengal School of Vaiavism JO and VC are used. Jiva Gosvãmi (16th Cent. AD) the author of Saj-sandarbha is a great exponent of the Oaitanya school. He has written! Crama-Sandarbha and Vaisnavatosani (on .X Skandha) on the Bh.P. lie headed the Caitanya school after his uncles—Rupa and Sanatana Gosvami. It won’t be an exaggeration it one credits him to have established Gaudiya Vaisnavism on sound vedantic footing. As an ardent devotee of Radha Krsna JC is at his best in Vaisnavatosani, though the usefulness of kramasandarbha is not denied. As noted above JC modestly states that his commentary is merely an elucidation and elaboration of Sr. though actually it is an independent exposition based on a different philosophy Visvanatha Cakravarti in his Sarartha darsini on the Bh.P. closely follows JC but his treatment is more detailed and helpful to a common reader.

The translator has used a few more commentaries like Bhagavat Prasada’s Bhakta Manoranjani but the commentators are generally reticent about them selves.

 

CONTENTS PART I
  Introduction xvii-ixix
  Bhagavata Mahatmya lxxi-cxxix
  Bhagavata Purana, Skandhas 1-3 1-420
  Skandha I  
1 Dialogue between Suta and Saunaka in the Naimisa forest 1
2 Merits of Devotion to Hari 15
3 Description of 24 incarnations of lord Visnu 22
4 Arrival of Narada 33
5-6 Dialogue between Vyasa and Narada 39,50
7 Punishment of Asvatthaman 55
8 Kunti's Eulogy of Krsna and Yudhisthira's Repentance 63
9 Yudhisthira's Acquisition of Kingdom 72
10 Krsna's departure to Dvaraka 81
11 Krsna's Entrance into Dvaraka 88
12 Birth of Pariksit 95
13 Discourse of Narada 101
14 Conjectures of Yudhisthira 110
15 Ascent of the Pandavas to Heaven 115
16 Dialogue between the Earth and Dharma Curse of Brahmana 125
17 Punishment and Control of Kali 131
18 Curse of Bahamana 137
19 Arrival of Suka 144
  Skandha II  
1 Discourse of Suka, Description of the Cosmic Form of the Lord 152
2 Liberation by the Yogic : Instantaneous and Gradual Liberation 159
3 Devotion to Hari- the only path of Liberation 167
4 Creation of the Universe-Prayers to Hari 170
5 Creation of the Universe-Dialogue between Narada and Brahmadeva 175
6 Description of Virat Purusa- exposition of the Purusa Sukta 181
7 Some Lilavataras and their work 188
8 Queries regarding the relation between the body, Soul and God 199
9 Suka's discourse. Catuhsloki Bhagavata 204
10 Ten characteristics of the Bhagavata Purana 211
  Skandha III  
1 Meeting of Vidura and Uddhava 220
2 Dialogue between Uddhava and Vidura 226
3 Dialogue between Vidura and Uddhava- Glorious deeds of Krsna 230
4 Dialogue between Vidura and Uddhava- Destruction of the Yadavass and Krsna's Message 234
5 Dialogue between Vidura and Maitreya- Tattvas and their Deities 239
6 Cosmology: Creation of the Universe 248
7 Vidura's Queries 254
8 Creation of Brahma- His vision of Narayana 259
9 Brahma's Prayer and Visnu's Boon 264
10 Brahma's Penance and Ten-Fold Creation 273
11 The concept of time: manvantaras and life-spans of men and gods 278
12 Creation of Rudra, of the mind-born Sons and of Manu and Satarupa 283
13 The Boar Incarnation 290
14 Diti's Conception 397
15 Sanaka and others curse Jaya and Vijaya 303
16 Fall of Jaya and Vijaya 311
17 Birth of Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu-Hiranyaksa's Victories 316
18 Hiranyaksa's' fight with Visnu 320
19 Varaha Kills Hiranyaksa 324
20 Various Creations of Brahma 329
21 Kardama's Penance- Visnu Boon 335
22 Marriage of Kardama and Devahuti 342
23 Married life of Kardama and Devahuti 347
24 Kapila Incarnation 353
25 Dialogue between Kapila and Devahuti: Importance of the Bhakti-yoga 359
26 Kapila's description of Creation- Samkhya Cosmology 366
27 Samkhya Philosophy- Prakrti and Purusa 379
28 Exposition of the Astanga-Yoga- the eight fold path of Yoga 384
29 The Path of Bhakti and the Power of Time 391
30 Samsara and Suffering in Hell 397
31 Sufferings of the Jiva-the Rajasi Gati 400
32 Excellence of the Bhktiyoga 409
33 Devahuti's Enlightenment and Liberation 415
 
PART II
 
  Skandha IV  
1 The progeny of Svayambhuva Manu's Daughters 421
2 The Rift between Siva and Daksa 429
3 Siva dissuades Sati from attendance at Daksayajna 435
4 Sati's Self-immolation by yoga 438
5 Destruction of Daksa's Sacrifice 444
6 Appeasement of Rudra- Revival of Daksa 447
7 Completion of Daksa's Sacrifice 455
8 Story of Dhruva 468
9 Visnu's boon and Dhruva's attainment of Visnu's realm 478
10 Dhruva invades Alaka 489
11 Svayambhuva Manu Dissuades Dhruva from Fighting 492
12 Kubera's Boon and Dhruva's attainment of Visnu's realm 498
13 Dhuva's descendants: King Anga's abdication 504
14 The Story of Vena" Prthu's birth 510
15 Birth of Prthu and his Coronation 515
16 The eulogy of Prthu's by Bards 519
17 Prthu subjugates the Earth 522
18 Milking of the earth 527
19 Prthu's Conquest: his house sacrifice and Conflict 530
20 Prthu initiated by Visnu 536
21 Prthu explains Dharma to his subjects 543
22 Sanatkumara's Sermon to Prthu 552
23 Prthu's penance and ascension to heavan 563
24 Prthu's Descendants and the Hymn of Rudra 569
25 The Story of Puranjana- introduction 583
26 Puranjana's Hunting Expedition and His Queen's wrath Pacified 591
27 Invasion of Candavega- The Episode of Kalakanya 595
28 Puranjana's Rebirth as a woman and Attainment of liberation 599
29 The Puranjana allegory explained 608
30 The Story of Pracetas-their marriage with Marisa and the birth of Daksa 621
31 The Story of Pracetasas: their Renunciation and liberation 628
  Skandha V  
1 The Life of Priyavrata 634
2 The History of Agnidhra 643
3 The History of Nabhi-Incarnation of Rsabha 647
4 The miraculous history of Rsabha 651
5 Rsabha discourse on the Path of Liberation 654
6 Rsabha quits his body 661
7 The Life of Bharata 665
8 Bharata reborn as a deer 669
9 Bharata reborn as a Brahmana, saved by Bhadrakali 674
10 Bharata's Life: king Rahugana accepts discipleship 680
11 Bharata imparts spiritual knowledge to Rahugana 686
12 Dialogue between Bharata and Rahugana 690
13 The Samsara- a forest: An Allegory 694
14 Explanation of the Allegory of Samsara-Forest 700
15 Description of Bharata's dynasty 708
16 Mythological Geography-The Terrestrial Globe 711
17 Descent of the Ganga 716
18 Description of Various Continents 722
19 Description of Kimpurusa and Bharata Varsas 730
20 Description of the remaining six Dicipas 737
21 Stellar Region 745
22 Description of the moon and other Planets 748
23 Description of Visnu-pada-the position of Dhruva and Sisumara Cakra 752
24 Rahu's Position and Subterranean Regions 755
25 Description of Sanskarasana-the Serpent Seas 761
26 Description of Hells 764
  Skandha VI  
1 The Story of Ajamila 773
2 Exposition of the Bhagavata Dharma; Efficacy of the Lord's name and Ajamila's Ascension to Visnu-loka 782
3 Yama explains Visnu's greatness 789
4 History of Daksa, the son of Pracetas 795
5 Daksa curses Narada 803
6 Progeny of Daksa's Daughter 809
7 Brhaspati's insult and his abandonment of Preceptorship 813
8 Narayana-Kavaca 818
9 Slaying of Visvarupa. Approach of gods to Dadhici 824
10 Indra-Vrtra fight 833
11 Indra-Vrtra fight 837
12 Vrtra slain by indra 840
13 Indra's Triumph 845
14 Previous Birth of Vrtra-King Citraketu 848
15 Consolation of Citraketu 854
16 Citraketu's Realization of Lord Ananta 858
17 Citraketu cursed by Parvati 866
18 Birth of the Maruts 871
19 Details of the Vow-Pumsavana 880
 
PART III
 
  Skandha VII  
1 Conversion between Yudhisthira and Narada Jaya and Vijaya cursed 885
2 Hiranyakasipu consoles his mother and Kinsmen 891
3 Hiranyukasipu's penance-Brhma grants Boons 898
4 Oppression of Hiranyakasipu and Description of Prahjlada's Devotion 903
5 The Life of Prahlada. Hiranyakasipu attempts to kill Prahlada 909
6 Prahlada's Teaching 916
7 Prahlada, enlightened in mother's womb 922
8 Death of Hiranyakasipu and praise of Nrsimha 932
9 Prahlada eulogizes Nrsimha 941
10 Praklada enthroned, the conquest of Tripura 954
11 The Eternal path of Religion 962
12 Inquiry into the right conduct 968
13 The Code of conduct for samnyasins and a dialogue between Avadhuta and Prahalada 973
14 The duties of the householder 979
15 Exposition of right conduct 985
  Skandha VIII  
1 Description of Mnanvantaras 997
2 The Elephant leader seized by the Alligator 1002
3 Liberation of the Mighty Elephant 1006
4 Liberation of the Lord of Elephants 1013
5 Description of V and VI Manvantaras-Brahma Hymns the Lord 1017
6 Mount Mandara Transported for Churning the Ocean 1025
7 The churning of the Sea for Nector 1030
8 The Lord's Manifestation as Mohini 1037
9 Distribution of Nector by Mohini 1044
10 A battle between Gods and Asuras 1048
11 End of the Battle between Gods and Asuras at Narada's Meditation 1053
12 Lord Siva Fascinated by Mohini 1059
13 Description of the future Manvantaras 1065
14 Duties of Manus and their functionaries 1069
15 Bali's Conquest of the Svarga 1071
16 Instruction in the observance of Payovrata to Aditi 1075
17 Manifestation of the Lord as Vamana 1083
18 The Lord incarnates as Vamana. Visit to Bali's Sacrifice 1087
19 Vamana's request for three paces of land-Sukra's opposition 1092
20 Manifestation of the Cosmic form by Visnu 1098
21 Bali bound Down 1102
22 A dialogue between Bali and Vamana 1106
23 Bali free from bonds. Enters Sutala 1111
24 The Fish incarnation of Lord Visnu 1116
  Skandha IX  
1 The story of King Sudyumna 1125
2 History of Karusa and other four sons of Manu 1130
3 The story of Cyavana and Sukanya 1134
4 The account of Nabhaga and Ambarisa 1138
5 Protection of Durvaas. The story of Ambarisa 1148
6 History of Ikscaku's posterity 1152
7 The Story of king Hariscandra 1159
8 The story of king Sagara 1164
9 The descent of the Ganga, the story of Kalmasapada 1170
10 The story of Rama 1177
11 The story of Rama {Concluded} 1186
12 Description of Iksvaku's Race 1190
13 Description of the Race of Nimi 1193
14 Description of the Lunar Race 1196
15 The story of Parasurama, Sahasrajuna slain 1204
16 The story of Concluded 1209
17 The Lunar Dynasty- the Descendants of Ayu, the son of Pururavas 1214
18 History of Nahusa's Line- the story of Yayati 1217
19 Yayati's Retirement and Final Emancipation 1223
20 The History of Puru's race-Birth of Bharata 1227
21 The race of Bharata- The History of Rantideva 1232
22 The History of the Lunar Race-The Royal Dynasties of Pancala. Magadha and Kuru 1236
23 History of the Dynasties of Anu, Druhyu, Turvasu and Yadu 1242
24 History of the Race of Yadu 1247
 
PART IV
 
  Skandha X  
1 Kamsa kills Devaki's Sons 1255
2 The Lord's descent in Devaki's Womb 1263
3 Description of the Birth of Srikrsna 1270
4 Yoga-Maya's Prophecy and Kamsa's order to Slaughter all children 1278
5 Celebration of Krsna's Birth: Meeting of Nanda and Vasudeva 1283
6 Putana emancipated 1287
7 Destruction of Cart and Trnavarta 1293
8 Krsna's Sports-Display of Visvarupa 1299
9 Grace upon the Gopi; krsna tied to the mortar 1305
10 Uprooting of Arjuna Trees-Redemption of Nalakubaraand Manigriva 1308
11 Exodus from Gokula- Destruction of demons Vatsa and Baka 1315
12 Slaying of Aghasura 1322
13 Infatuation of God Brahma 1329
14 God Brahma Eulogies Krsna 1339
15 Slaying the demon Dhenuka 1351
16 Expulsion of Kaliya 1358
17 Rescue from the Forest Conflagration 1371
18 Slaying of the Demon Pralamba 1375
19 Swallowing up of a Forest-Conflagration 1378
20 Description of the Rainy Season and the Autumn 1380
21 The Son of Gopis 1388
22 Coward-maids pray to Katyayani-Krsna's 1395
23 Spiritual Emancipation of the wives of Brahmana Sacrificers 1401
24 Prevention of Sacrifice to Indra 1409
25 Lifting up of Mount Govardhana 1416
26 Conversation between Nanda and Cowherds 1420
27 Indra Coronates Krsna 1423
28 Nanda rescued from Varuna 1428
29 Lord Krsna's Rasa with Gopis 1431
30 Search after Krsna 1443
31 Gopi's song 1449
32 Krsna comforts Gopis 1453
33 Description of Rasa Krida 1458
34 Sudarsana emancipated and slaying of Sankhacuda 1465
35 Gopi's song in pairs of Verses 1468
36 Akura deputed to bring Krsna and Balarama to Mathura 1472
37 Slaying of Asuras Kesin and Vyoma 1480
38 The arrival of Akrura to Gokula 1484
39 Akrura returns with Krsna and Balarama 1491
40 Akrura Hymn {in praise of the Lord} 1498
41 Krsna's arrival at Mathura 1503
42 Description of the Wrestling Arena 1510
43 Killing of the elephant Kuvalayapida 1514
44 Slaying of Kamsa 1519
45 Restoration of preceptor Sandipani's son 1525
46 Uddhava deputed for consoling Nanda 1533
47 Uddhava's discourse on the Real Nature of the Lord 1539
48 Visit to the Houses of Trivakra and Akrura 1551
49 Akrura's Mission to Hastinapura 1556
50 Settlement at the Fort of Dvaraka 1560
51 Mucukunda's Eulogy of the Lord 1571
52 Krsna and Balarama escape to Dvaraka: Balarama's marriage. Rukmini's letter to Krsna 1580
53 Rukmini's Marriage: Rukmini carried away by Krsna 1588
54 Celebration of Rukmini's Marriage 1595
55 The story of Pradyumna's Birth 1603
56 The story of Syamantaka Jewel 1608
57 The story of Syamantaka Jewel, murder of Satrajit for Syamantaka, Akrura allowed to retain it 1614
58 Espousals of Lord Krsna 1620
59 Narakasura slain 1628
60 Conversation between Krsna and Rukmini 1637
61 Aniruddha's marriage 1647
62 Aniruddha taken captive by Banasura 1652
63 Bana Vanquished Aniruddha brought to Dvaraka 1657
64 The story of Nrga 1663
65 Balarama's visit to Gokula-the course of the Yamuna diverted 1669
66 Slaying of Pundraka and others 1674
67 Balarama slays Dvivida 1679
68 Hastinapura dragged by Balarama 1682
69 Srikrsna's household life 1688
70 Krsna's Daily Observances; Deputation from Captibve kings of Jarasandha 1694
71 Srikrsna's visit to indraprstha 1700
72 Jarasandha slain 1707
73 Return of Krsna and other s to Indraprastha 1712
74 Yudhisthira's Rajasuya: Sisupala slain 1717
75 Dicomfiture of Duryodhana 1723
76 Fight with Salva 1728
77 Slaying of King Salva 1733
78 Dantavaktra and Viduratha slain: Balarama's Pilgrimage 1740
79 Balvala killed: Balarama's Pilgrimage 1747
80 The story of the Brahmana Sridaman 1752
81 The story of the Parched Rice 1758
82 Meeting of Vrsnis and Gopas of Vrndavana 1763
83 Narration of their Marriage. Episodes by krsna's consorts 1770
84 Vasudeva's Sacrifice 1777
85 Restoration of his Elder Brothers by Krsna from the Realm of Death 1787
86 Elopement of Subhadra: The Lord's Grace on Srutadeva 1796
87 Hymn of praise by the Vedas 1804
88 God Rudra saved 1826
89 Supremacy of Visnu Vindicated 1831
90 The song of Queens: resume of Krsna's sports 1841
APPENDIX Additional verses in VJ's Text 1851
 
PART V
 
  Skandha XI  
1 Sage's Curse: Imprecating the Annihilation of Yadu's Race 1887
2 Bhagavata Dharma; Narada's Narration of King Nimi's Dialogue with Jayanteya and others 1890
3 Discourse on the Maya, the means to transcend it, the Brhman and the Path of Action 1902
4 Description of the Lord's Incarnation by Drumila 1916
5 Nature and Fare of non-Devotees: Yuga-wise Methods of Worshipping the Lord 1920
6 Lord Krsna Requested to return t Vaikuntha: Uddhava's Desire to follow him 1928
7 Sri Krsna's Spiritual Guidance to Uddhava: the Legend of the Avadhuta and his Preceptors 1936
8 What the Avadhuta learnt from the Nine Preceptors from the Boa-Constrictor to Pingala 1947
9 The Discourse of the Avadhuta Concluded 1952
10 How the Jiva is Ensnared in Samsara 1957
11 Characteristics of Bondage and Liberation and of Devotion 1963
12 Importance of Association with Saints. The performance and Renunciation of prescribed Karmas 1974
13 The Spiritual Knowledge Imparted by the Divine Swan 1981
14 The Path of Devotion and the Method of Meditation 1990
15 The Super-normal Powers Attained by Yoga 1996
16 Description of Visnu's Glorious Manifestations 2003
17 The Sacred Duties of a Celibate and a Householder 2010
18 Duties of Hermits and Sannyasins 2019
19 Expositiona of Spiritual knowledge, its Realization and Yogic Disciplines 2027
20 Elucidation of Karma, Jnana and Bhakti Yogas 2035
21 Criteria for determining the good and the evil 2041
22 Enumeration of Principles. The Distinction between Prakrti and Purusa 2050
23 The song of a Recluse 2060
24 Elucidation of Samkhya yoga 2070
25 The Three Gunas and their Workings 2076
26 The Song of Aila 2082
27 The Yoga of Active Service 2086
28 The Essence of the Path of knowledge 2095
29 Bhakti Yoga Recapitulated: departure of Uddhava to Badarikasrama 2104
30 Extermination of the Race of Yadavas 2112
31 Lord Krsna's Return to Vaikuntha 2119
  Skandha XII  
1 Dynasties of the Kali Age 2123
2 The Evils of the Kali Age 2130
3 Dharma in every Yuga: Efficacy of God's Name 2135
4 The Four-Fold Pralaya 2143
5 Suka's concluding Precept Concerning Brahman 2150
6 Taksaka Bites Pariksit: Jamejaya's Serpent Sacrifice: Classification of Vedas in Different Branches 2152
7 The Branches of the Atharva Ceda: Characteristics of the Puranas 2165
8 Markandeya's Penance and Praise of Lord Narayana 2170
9 The Lord Exhibits His Maya 2177
10 God Siva's Boon to Markandeya 2182
11 Significance of the various parts of the Lord's Image: the Retinue of the sun-God per month 2189
12 A synoptic Review of the Twelve Skandhas of Srimad Bhagavata 2197
13 The extent of each of the Eighteen Puranas: The Glory of the Bhagavata 2205
  Appendix 2209
  Index 2213

 

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The Bhagavata Purana (5 Volumes)

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Preface

The present volume contains the Bhagavata Purana Part I (Skandhas 1-3) in English translation. It is the seventh in the series of fifty volumes on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology.

The project of the series was envisaged and financed in 1970 by Shri Sundarlal jain the verteran enterpriser in the field of oriental publication and the leading partner messrs Motilal Banarsidas. Hitherto seven volumes of the series have been published and are ready for sale.

The present translation is based on the Sanskrit text of the Bhagavata Purana published by Messrs Ksemaraja Srikrsnadas Venkatesvara Press, Bombay. This text constructed on the collation of mss and supported by the oldest commentator Sridhara Svamin is fairly accurate. But we have also recorded the translation of all the additional verses accepted as genuine in the authoritative commentaries of Ramanuja and Madhva Schools there are not found in the text of Sridhara Svamin.

The Bhagavata Purana Deals with a variety of subjects geographical historical philosophical religious and the like which need elucidation. This task could not be accomplished by a mere translation. We have therefore provided footnotes on these topics. On the philosophical verses especially we have recorded different interpretations of the commentators belonging to different schools of thought viz those of sankara Ramanuja Madhva, Nimbarka, Vallabha and Caitanya (Gaudiya School of Vaisnavism) and also two eminent Marathi commentators Krsna Dayarnava and Ekanatha. In the Accomplishment of this task we have utilized the commentaries published in the Bhagavata Vidya Peeth Ahmedabad Edition and in the Vrindavana edition of this purana.

In order to help the reader understand the background of the subject matter we have prefixed to this part a critical and comparative introduction which discusses among other topics the date authorship, philosophy, religion and general characteristics of this Purana. A Brief not on the commentators has also been added to the introduction while a general index is thought to be included in the last Part of this work.

Before closing it is our pleasant duty to put on record our sincere gratitude to Dr. S.K. Chatterjee, Dr. V. Raghavan of the UNESCO for their kind encouragement and valuable help which render this work more valuable to scholars than it would otherwise have been. We must also thank the learned translator and annotator Dr. G.V. Tagare for his untiring zeal and sustained efforts in bringing out his volume within scheduled time in spite of untold obstacles.

Finally we avail of this opportunity to state that any critical suggestion and advice for improvement are welcome and will receive proper consideration from us.

 

Introduction

The term purana usually occurs in close association with itihasa in old Sanskrit literature originally it connoted simply an old narrative. The Puranas describe this term as that which lives from ancient times or the records of ancient events to convey the same sense Sanskrit lexicons derive the term Purana grammatically as follows:

1. Pura (Purvasmin kale) Bhavam
2. Pura Niyate iti

As a class of literature Puranas existed in Vedic times and are mentioned as such along with Brahmanas, Itihasa and Narasamsi gatha in the Atharva Veda in Brahmanas and in the Tai. Ar. (Taittiriya Ayanyaka) by the time of the Chandogya Upa…they were accorded the status of the fifth Veda and formed a part of the syllabus of Vedic studies. The use of itihasa and purana in a collective dvandva and in the singular number in these ancient works suggests that possibly there was one work or rather tract of literature called Purana a tradition recorded in the Matsya Padma and Skanda Puranas. As P.V. Kane Shows the Apastamba Dharma Sutra Twice quotes verses from a Purana and summarizes the view of a Bhavisyat Purana. The quotations show that Puranas in those days were versified compositions in archaic Sanskrit and that even in those times there was a Purana called Bhavisyat Purana.

It appears that probably to the pre-eminence of the war between Karuavas and Pandavas wherein the then contemporary Aryandom participated the Mahabharata with all its accretion came to be designated as itihas (history) and the rest of the ancient lore Purana. But both itihas and puranas are equally myth and history. It is presumed by scholars like M. Winternitz that similar to the Vedic Samhitas there existed one or several collections of itihasas and Puranas made up of myths and legends. During the Brahmana period the recital of narrative poems formed a part of the religious ceremonies at the sacrificial and domestic festivals. Thus the daily recitation of legends of gods and heroes belonged to the preliminary celebration which lasted a whole year of the great horse sacrifice. As shown by S. Bhattacarya it was this sacrificial milieu which led to the formation of the following main topics dealt with in the Puranas viz (1) sarga (Creation of the universe); (2) Pratisarga (Recreation after destruction or deluge); (3) Vamsa (Genealogy) ; (4) Manvantara (the great periods of time with Manu as the primal ancestor) and (5) vamsamucarita (The history of the dynasties both the solar and the Lunar). These topics formed an integral part of the definition of the puranas as given in the Amara kosa. But as G.V. Devashali notes the texts that have come down to us under the title Purana hardly conform to this definition since they contain either something more or something less than the limitations set by it. The reasons were obvious. The process of Aryanisation of pre Aryan masses and assimilation of foreign invaders like Greeks Scythians Hunas and others in the Hindu fold necessitated the creation of a literature which included non Aryan beliefs rituals customs etc and could shape the conduct and meet the worldly and spiritually needs of the masses. Hence the conglomeration of legends of gods and tales of demons and snakedeities old sages and kings of ancient times in Puranas. Some Puranas like Agni, Garuda and Narada are ancient encyclopedias of literatures containing abstracts of works in arts and sciences medicine, grammar, dramaturgy, music, astrology etc. most of them are rich in dharma sastra masterial such as acara (religious duties), Asrama-dharma (duties pertaining to one’s social class and stage in life) dana (gifts) Prayascitta (Atonement for sins) Sraddha (Rituals pertaining to the dealt anniversary), Tirtha (Holy places) etc. they have amalgamated agamic Vaisnavism with early (Vedic) visnuism and agamic Saivism with the Vedic traditions. A numer of them are rich hence they afford us far greater insight into all aspects and phases of Hinduism its love of God its philosophy and its superstition its festivals and ceremonies when he calls Puranas as a popular encyclopedia of ancient and medieval Hinduism religious, philosophical, historical, personal social and political.

 

Commentators on the Bhagavata Purana (A Brief Note)

Due to the enormous popularity and extraordinary reputration of the Bh.P. as being the most famous epic in India eminent commentators belonging to different schools of the Vedanta have tried to show that the Bh.P. supports their particular school of though. Of these the oldest and the most respectable annotator is Sridhara Svamin (SR) the author of the Com, Bhavartha dipika who follows the Advaitaschool of sankara. He assures that in his com. He has given the traditional interpretation implying Cituskha’s (1220-84 A.D) Com. On the Bh.P. it is an authoritative commentary lucid and to the point. They say that next to Vyasa (the author of the Bh.P) and Suka (Its exponent to king Pariksit) it is SR who understood the real import of the Bh.P. in its entirety. Nabha Dasa ji’s record of the legend that Lord Bindu Madhava Kasi approved SR’s Com. As the authoritative interpretation of the Bh.P. is another evidence of SR’s prestige and popularity SR has received complimentary tributes from commentators of other schools of the Vedanta who bodily incorporate his Com. Into their own and some openly admit his authority by urging that their annotations are just to elucidate and supplement SR. it may be due to the deep reverence expressed by Caitanya to SR that his followers like JG and VC presented sort of apologia for their commentaries mentioned above even though SR, finds no Radha in the Bh.P. due to SR’s reference to Bopadeva (13th cent.) and references of other writers cent A.D. Radha Ramana Gosvami (RR) wrote in Dipani the elucidate SR. though he tilts to Gaydiya Vaisnavism. Beyond the names of his parents (Jivana Lala and Srikrsna Kuvara he give no personal details. His grand father seems to be his spiritual preceptor. Vamsidhara, whose loyalities are with the Radha cult has written a learned and elaborate com. On sr. he was a gauda Bhramin of kausika gotra a follower of gaudiya vasavism and he extenstively quotes JC and VC. It is at the request of the scholars at Mathura that he wrote this encyclopaedic Com. His reverential approach to Sr is worth nothing. Sridhara alone knows the implication of Sr’s co. after paying obeisance to Nrsimha who conferred his grace on Sr. I being the exposition of SR through Sr’s favor. VD deserves careful study not only for understanding Sr but the BH.P. as well.

Anvitartha Prakasika by ganga sahaya is a very useful com. As it explains practically every word and every important grammatical form. The author wrote this in his old age. His is silent about his personal details.

The visistadvaita school is represented by Sudarsana Suri and Vira raghava Sudarsana suri the celebrated author of Sruta prakasika a com. On Ramanuja’s Sri Bhasya, wrote a brief yet learned Com. Suka-paksiya. He is reported to have died in 1367 A.D. when Srinragam was sacked by the forces of Allauddin Kilaji. VR (Viraraghava’s Bhagavata candrika) is ‘pleasant like the moon-light’—an excellent textual exposition of the Bh.P. from the Visostadvaita point of view. The v.l.s recorded by him and the explanations given are important. He was the son of ri Saila of Vatsa Gotra and a pupil of Laksmaa Mimi, his father’s disciple. He is supposed to belong to the 14th Cent. A.D.

Vijayadhvaja’s Padaratnavali is an able exposition of the Dvaita School. He closely follows Ananda-tirtha’s Bhagavatat at parya-nirzaya, not a Corn. but a digest of the Bh.P. The text of the Bh.P. used by VJ records a number of different readings, changes in the numbei and the order of verses and even in chapters as well. This is esecial1y found in the X Skandha to a considerable extent. He is an intelligent annotator giving unexpected explanations with the help of grammar, lexicon and other purnic and smyti references. He is supposed to have lived in the 15th Cent. A.D.

Sukadeva’s (SD) Siddhanta-pradipa presents Nimbarka’s philosophy through the BILP. But onc of the finest expositions of the Bh.P. is Vallabha’s Subodhini. Though it does not cover all the .S’kandhas, and its claim to present seven interpretations of the Bh.P. may be disputed, one must admit its profound scholarship, clarity of thought and felicity of expression. It is a pleasure to read Subodkini. Its author Vallabha (1479- 1531 A.D.) is the founder of the Suddhaciiaita school and what is popularly called Pustimarga, so popular in Gujarat. But Vallabha was a Krsna-yajurvedi Brahmaia from Andhra. He wrote his famous Com. AnubMija on the Brahma stitra and established his Brahma-Vada (Suddluadvaita). Gosväm! Purusottama (1700 A.D.) wrote .subodhini-Praksas to elucidate the Subodhini. But Vallabba’s descendant Giridhara (later part of 19th Cent.) son of Gopala has given us a very lucid exposition of the Bh.P. in his Coin. Bala-prabodhini, very useful even to novices.

Of the Bengal School of Vaiavism JO and VC are used. Jiva Gosvãmi (16th Cent. AD) the author of Saj-sandarbha is a great exponent of the Oaitanya school. He has written! Crama-Sandarbha and Vaisnavatosani (on .X Skandha) on the Bh.P. lie headed the Caitanya school after his uncles—Rupa and Sanatana Gosvami. It won’t be an exaggeration it one credits him to have established Gaudiya Vaisnavism on sound vedantic footing. As an ardent devotee of Radha Krsna JC is at his best in Vaisnavatosani, though the usefulness of kramasandarbha is not denied. As noted above JC modestly states that his commentary is merely an elucidation and elaboration of Sr. though actually it is an independent exposition based on a different philosophy Visvanatha Cakravarti in his Sarartha darsini on the Bh.P. closely follows JC but his treatment is more detailed and helpful to a common reader.

The translator has used a few more commentaries like Bhagavat Prasada’s Bhakta Manoranjani but the commentators are generally reticent about them selves.

 

CONTENTS PART I
  Introduction xvii-ixix
  Bhagavata Mahatmya lxxi-cxxix
  Bhagavata Purana, Skandhas 1-3 1-420
  Skandha I  
1 Dialogue between Suta and Saunaka in the Naimisa forest 1
2 Merits of Devotion to Hari 15
3 Description of 24 incarnations of lord Visnu 22
4 Arrival of Narada 33
5-6 Dialogue between Vyasa and Narada 39,50
7 Punishment of Asvatthaman 55
8 Kunti's Eulogy of Krsna and Yudhisthira's Repentance 63
9 Yudhisthira's Acquisition of Kingdom 72
10 Krsna's departure to Dvaraka 81
11 Krsna's Entrance into Dvaraka 88
12 Birth of Pariksit 95
13 Discourse of Narada 101
14 Conjectures of Yudhisthira 110
15 Ascent of the Pandavas to Heaven 115
16 Dialogue between the Earth and Dharma Curse of Brahmana 125
17 Punishment and Control of Kali 131
18 Curse of Bahamana 137
19 Arrival of Suka 144
  Skandha II  
1 Discourse of Suka, Description of the Cosmic Form of the Lord 152
2 Liberation by the Yogic : Instantaneous and Gradual Liberation 159
3 Devotion to Hari- the only path of Liberation 167
4 Creation of the Universe-Prayers to Hari 170
5 Creation of the Universe-Dialogue between Narada and Brahmadeva 175
6 Description of Virat Purusa- exposition of the Purusa Sukta 181
7 Some Lilavataras and their work 188
8 Queries regarding the relation between the body, Soul and God 199
9 Suka's discourse. Catuhsloki Bhagavata 204
10 Ten characteristics of the Bhagavata Purana 211
  Skandha III  
1 Meeting of Vidura and Uddhava 220
2 Dialogue between Uddhava and Vidura 226
3 Dialogue between Vidura and Uddhava- Glorious deeds of Krsna 230
4 Dialogue between Vidura and Uddhava- Destruction of the Yadavass and Krsna's Message 234
5 Dialogue between Vidura and Maitreya- Tattvas and their Deities 239
6 Cosmology: Creation of the Universe 248
7 Vidura's Queries 254
8 Creation of Brahma- His vision of Narayana 259
9 Brahma's Prayer and Visnu's Boon 264
10 Brahma's Penance and Ten-Fold Creation 273
11 The concept of time: manvantaras and life-spans of men and gods 278
12 Creation of Rudra, of the mind-born Sons and of Manu and Satarupa 283
13 The Boar Incarnation 290
14 Diti's Conception 397
15 Sanaka and others curse Jaya and Vijaya 303
16 Fall of Jaya and Vijaya 311
17 Birth of Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu-Hiranyaksa's Victories 316
18 Hiranyaksa's' fight with Visnu 320
19 Varaha Kills Hiranyaksa 324
20 Various Creations of Brahma 329
21 Kardama's Penance- Visnu Boon 335
22 Marriage of Kardama and Devahuti 342
23 Married life of Kardama and Devahuti 347
24 Kapila Incarnation 353
25 Dialogue between Kapila and Devahuti: Importance of the Bhakti-yoga 359
26 Kapila's description of Creation- Samkhya Cosmology 366
27 Samkhya Philosophy- Prakrti and Purusa 379
28 Exposition of the Astanga-Yoga- the eight fold path of Yoga 384
29 The Path of Bhakti and the Power of Time 391
30 Samsara and Suffering in Hell 397
31 Sufferings of the Jiva-the Rajasi Gati 400
32 Excellence of the Bhktiyoga 409
33 Devahuti's Enlightenment and Liberation 415
 
PART II
 
  Skandha IV  
1 The progeny of Svayambhuva Manu's Daughters 421
2 The Rift between Siva and Daksa 429
3 Siva dissuades Sati from attendance at Daksayajna 435
4 Sati's Self-immolation by yoga 438
5 Destruction of Daksa's Sacrifice 444
6 Appeasement of Rudra- Revival of Daksa 447
7 Completion of Daksa's Sacrifice 455
8 Story of Dhruva 468
9 Visnu's boon and Dhruva's attainment of Visnu's realm 478
10 Dhruva invades Alaka 489
11 Svayambhuva Manu Dissuades Dhruva from Fighting 492
12 Kubera's Boon and Dhruva's attainment of Visnu's realm 498
13 Dhuva's descendants: King Anga's abdication 504
14 The Story of Vena" Prthu's birth 510
15 Birth of Prthu and his Coronation 515
16 The eulogy of Prthu's by Bards 519
17 Prthu subjugates the Earth 522
18 Milking of the earth 527
19 Prthu's Conquest: his house sacrifice and Conflict 530
20 Prthu initiated by Visnu 536
21 Prthu explains Dharma to his subjects 543
22 Sanatkumara's Sermon to Prthu 552
23 Prthu's penance and ascension to heavan 563
24 Prthu's Descendants and the Hymn of Rudra 569
25 The Story of Puranjana- introduction 583
26 Puranjana's Hunting Expedition and His Queen's wrath Pacified 591
27 Invasion of Candavega- The Episode of Kalakanya 595
28 Puranjana's Rebirth as a woman and Attainment of liberation 599
29 The Puranjana allegory explained 608
30 The Story of Pracetas-their marriage with Marisa and the birth of Daksa 621
31 The Story of Pracetasas: their Renunciation and liberation 628
  Skandha V  
1 The Life of Priyavrata 634
2 The History of Agnidhra 643
3 The History of Nabhi-Incarnation of Rsabha 647
4 The miraculous history of Rsabha 651
5 Rsabha discourse on the Path of Liberation 654
6 Rsabha quits his body 661
7 The Life of Bharata 665
8 Bharata reborn as a deer 669
9 Bharata reborn as a Brahmana, saved by Bhadrakali 674
10 Bharata's Life: king Rahugana accepts discipleship 680
11 Bharata imparts spiritual knowledge to Rahugana 686
12 Dialogue between Bharata and Rahugana 690
13 The Samsara- a forest: An Allegory 694
14 Explanation of the Allegory of Samsara-Forest 700
15 Description of Bharata's dynasty 708
16 Mythological Geography-The Terrestrial Globe 711
17 Descent of the Ganga 716
18 Description of Various Continents 722
19 Description of Kimpurusa and Bharata Varsas 730
20 Description of the remaining six Dicipas 737
21 Stellar Region 745
22 Description of the moon and other Planets 748
23 Description of Visnu-pada-the position of Dhruva and Sisumara Cakra 752
24 Rahu's Position and Subterranean Regions 755
25 Description of Sanskarasana-the Serpent Seas 761
26 Description of Hells 764
  Skandha VI  
1 The Story of Ajamila 773
2 Exposition of the Bhagavata Dharma; Efficacy of the Lord's name and Ajamila's Ascension to Visnu-loka 782
3 Yama explains Visnu's greatness 789
4 History of Daksa, the son of Pracetas 795
5 Daksa curses Narada 803
6 Progeny of Daksa's Daughter 809
7 Brhaspati's insult and his abandonment of Preceptorship 813
8 Narayana-Kavaca 818
9 Slaying of Visvarupa. Approach of gods to Dadhici 824
10 Indra-Vrtra fight 833
11 Indra-Vrtra fight 837
12 Vrtra slain by indra 840
13 Indra's Triumph 845
14 Previous Birth of Vrtra-King Citraketu 848
15 Consolation of Citraketu 854
16 Citraketu's Realization of Lord Ananta 858
17 Citraketu cursed by Parvati 866
18 Birth of the Maruts 871
19 Details of the Vow-Pumsavana 880
 
PART III
 
  Skandha VII  
1 Conversion between Yudhisthira and Narada Jaya and Vijaya cursed 885
2 Hiranyakasipu consoles his mother and Kinsmen 891
3 Hiranyukasipu's penance-Brhma grants Boons 898
4 Oppression of Hiranyakasipu and Description of Prahjlada's Devotion 903
5 The Life of Prahlada. Hiranyakasipu attempts to kill Prahlada 909
6 Prahlada's Teaching 916
7 Prahlada, enlightened in mother's womb 922
8 Death of Hiranyakasipu and praise of Nrsimha 932
9 Prahlada eulogizes Nrsimha 941
10 Praklada enthroned, the conquest of Tripura 954
11 The Eternal path of Religion 962
12 Inquiry into the right conduct 968
13 The Code of conduct for samnyasins and a dialogue between Avadhuta and Prahalada 973
14 The duties of the householder 979
15 Exposition of right conduct 985
  Skandha VIII  
1 Description of Mnanvantaras 997
2 The Elephant leader seized by the Alligator 1002
3 Liberation of the Mighty Elephant 1006
4 Liberation of the Lord of Elephants 1013
5 Description of V and VI Manvantaras-Brahma Hymns the Lord 1017
6 Mount Mandara Transported for Churning the Ocean 1025
7 The churning of the Sea for Nector 1030
8 The Lord's Manifestation as Mohini 1037
9 Distribution of Nector by Mohini 1044
10 A battle between Gods and Asuras 1048
11 End of the Battle between Gods and Asuras at Narada's Meditation 1053
12 Lord Siva Fascinated by Mohini 1059
13 Description of the future Manvantaras 1065
14 Duties of Manus and their functionaries 1069
15 Bali's Conquest of the Svarga 1071
16 Instruction in the observance of Payovrata to Aditi 1075
17 Manifestation of the Lord as Vamana 1083
18 The Lord incarnates as Vamana. Visit to Bali's Sacrifice 1087
19 Vamana's request for three paces of land-Sukra's opposition 1092
20 Manifestation of the Cosmic form by Visnu 1098
21 Bali bound Down 1102
22 A dialogue between Bali and Vamana 1106
23 Bali free from bonds. Enters Sutala 1111
24 The Fish incarnation of Lord Visnu 1116
  Skandha IX  
1 The story of King Sudyumna 1125
2 History of Karusa and other four sons of Manu 1130
3 The story of Cyavana and Sukanya 1134
4 The account of Nabhaga and Ambarisa 1138
5 Protection of Durvaas. The story of Ambarisa 1148
6 History of Ikscaku's posterity 1152
7 The Story of king Hariscandra 1159
8 The story of king Sagara 1164
9 The descent of the Ganga, the story of Kalmasapada 1170
10 The story of Rama 1177
11 The story of Rama {Concluded} 1186
12 Description of Iksvaku's Race 1190
13 Description of the Race of Nimi 1193
14 Description of the Lunar Race 1196
15 The story of Parasurama, Sahasrajuna slain 1204
16 The story of Concluded 1209
17 The Lunar Dynasty- the Descendants of Ayu, the son of Pururavas 1214
18 History of Nahusa's Line- the story of Yayati 1217
19 Yayati's Retirement and Final Emancipation 1223
20 The History of Puru's race-Birth of Bharata 1227
21 The race of Bharata- The History of Rantideva 1232
22 The History of the Lunar Race-The Royal Dynasties of Pancala. Magadha and Kuru 1236
23 History of the Dynasties of Anu, Druhyu, Turvasu and Yadu 1242
24 History of the Race of Yadu 1247
 
PART IV
 
  Skandha X  
1 Kamsa kills Devaki's Sons 1255
2 The Lord's descent in Devaki's Womb 1263
3 Description of the Birth of Srikrsna 1270
4 Yoga-Maya's Prophecy and Kamsa's order to Slaughter all children 1278
5 Celebration of Krsna's Birth: Meeting of Nanda and Vasudeva 1283
6 Putana emancipated 1287
7 Destruction of Cart and Trnavarta 1293
8 Krsna's Sports-Display of Visvarupa 1299
9 Grace upon the Gopi; krsna tied to the mortar 1305
10 Uprooting of Arjuna Trees-Redemption of Nalakubaraand Manigriva 1308
11 Exodus from Gokula- Destruction of demons Vatsa and Baka 1315
12 Slaying of Aghasura 1322
13 Infatuation of God Brahma 1329
14 God Brahma Eulogies Krsna 1339
15 Slaying the demon Dhenuka 1351
16 Expulsion of Kaliya 1358
17 Rescue from the Forest Conflagration 1371
18 Slaying of the Demon Pralamba 1375
19 Swallowing up of a Forest-Conflagration 1378
20 Description of the Rainy Season and the Autumn 1380
21 The Son of Gopis 1388
22 Coward-maids pray to Katyayani-Krsna's 1395
23 Spiritual Emancipation of the wives of Brahmana Sacrificers 1401
24 Prevention of Sacrifice to Indra 1409
25 Lifting up of Mount Govardhana 1416
26 Conversation between Nanda and Cowherds 1420
27 Indra Coronates Krsna 1423
28 Nanda rescued from Varuna 1428
29 Lord Krsna's Rasa with Gopis 1431
30 Search after Krsna 1443
31 Gopi's song 1449
32 Krsna comforts Gopis 1453
33 Description of Rasa Krida 1458
34 Sudarsana emancipated and slaying of Sankhacuda 1465
35 Gopi's song in pairs of Verses 1468
36 Akura deputed to bring Krsna and Balarama to Mathura 1472
37 Slaying of Asuras Kesin and Vyoma 1480
38 The arrival of Akrura to Gokula 1484
39 Akrura returns with Krsna and Balarama 1491
40 Akrura Hymn {in praise of the Lord} 1498
41 Krsna's arrival at Mathura 1503
42 Description of the Wrestling Arena 1510
43 Killing of the elephant Kuvalayapida 1514
44 Slaying of Kamsa 1519
45 Restoration of preceptor Sandipani's son 1525
46 Uddhava deputed for consoling Nanda 1533
47 Uddhava's discourse on the Real Nature of the Lord 1539
48 Visit to the Houses of Trivakra and Akrura 1551
49 Akrura's Mission to Hastinapura 1556
50 Settlement at the Fort of Dvaraka 1560
51 Mucukunda's Eulogy of the Lord 1571
52 Krsna and Balarama escape to Dvaraka: Balarama's marriage. Rukmini's letter to Krsna 1580
53 Rukmini's Marriage: Rukmini carried away by Krsna 1588
54 Celebration of Rukmini's Marriage 1595
55 The story of Pradyumna's Birth 1603
56 The story of Syamantaka Jewel 1608
57 The story of Syamantaka Jewel, murder of Satrajit for Syamantaka, Akrura allowed to retain it 1614
58 Espousals of Lord Krsna 1620
59 Narakasura slain 1628
60 Conversation between Krsna and Rukmini 1637
61 Aniruddha's marriage 1647
62 Aniruddha taken captive by Banasura 1652
63 Bana Vanquished Aniruddha brought to Dvaraka 1657
64 The story of Nrga 1663
65 Balarama's visit to Gokula-the course of the Yamuna diverted 1669
66 Slaying of Pundraka and others 1674
67 Balarama slays Dvivida 1679
68 Hastinapura dragged by Balarama 1682
69 Srikrsna's household life 1688
70 Krsna's Daily Observances; Deputation from Captibve kings of Jarasandha 1694
71 Srikrsna's visit to indraprstha 1700
72 Jarasandha slain 1707
73 Return of Krsna and other s to Indraprastha 1712
74 Yudhisthira's Rajasuya: Sisupala slain 1717
75 Dicomfiture of Duryodhana 1723
76 Fight with Salva 1728
77 Slaying of King Salva 1733
78 Dantavaktra and Viduratha slain: Balarama's Pilgrimage 1740
79 Balvala killed: Balarama's Pilgrimage 1747
80 The story of the Brahmana Sridaman 1752
81 The story of the Parched Rice 1758
82 Meeting of Vrsnis and Gopas of Vrndavana 1763
83 Narration of their Marriage. Episodes by krsna's consorts 1770
84 Vasudeva's Sacrifice 1777
85 Restoration of his Elder Brothers by Krsna from the Realm of Death 1787
86 Elopement of Subhadra: The Lord's Grace on Srutadeva 1796
87 Hymn of praise by the Vedas 1804
88 God Rudra saved 1826
89 Supremacy of Visnu Vindicated 1831
90 The song of Queens: resume of Krsna's sports 1841
APPENDIX Additional verses in VJ's Text 1851
 
PART V
 
  Skandha XI  
1 Sage's Curse: Imprecating the Annihilation of Yadu's Race 1887
2 Bhagavata Dharma; Narada's Narration of King Nimi's Dialogue with Jayanteya and others 1890
3 Discourse on the Maya, the means to transcend it, the Brhman and the Path of Action 1902
4 Description of the Lord's Incarnation by Drumila 1916
5 Nature and Fare of non-Devotees: Yuga-wise Methods of Worshipping the Lord 1920
6 Lord Krsna Requested to return t Vaikuntha: Uddhava's Desire to follow him 1928
7 Sri Krsna's Spiritual Guidance to Uddhava: the Legend of the Avadhuta and his Preceptors 1936
8 What the Avadhuta learnt from the Nine Preceptors from the Boa-Constrictor to Pingala 1947
9 The Discourse of the Avadhuta Concluded 1952
10 How the Jiva is Ensnared in Samsara 1957
11 Characteristics of Bondage and Liberation and of Devotion 1963
12 Importance of Association with Saints. The performance and Renunciation of prescribed Karmas 1974
13 The Spiritual Knowledge Imparted by the Divine Swan 1981
14 The Path of Devotion and the Method of Meditation 1990
15 The Super-normal Powers Attained by Yoga 1996
16 Description of Visnu's Glorious Manifestations 2003
17 The Sacred Duties of a Celibate and a Householder 2010
18 Duties of Hermits and Sannyasins 2019
19 Expositiona of Spiritual knowledge, its Realization and Yogic Disciplines 2027
20 Elucidation of Karma, Jnana and Bhakti Yogas 2035
21 Criteria for determining the good and the evil 2041
22 Enumeration of Principles. The Distinction between Prakrti and Purusa 2050
23 The song of a Recluse 2060
24 Elucidation of Samkhya yoga 2070
25 The Three Gunas and their Workings 2076
26 The Song of Aila 2082
27 The Yoga of Active Service 2086
28 The Essence of the Path of knowledge 2095
29 Bhakti Yoga Recapitulated: departure of Uddhava to Badarikasrama 2104
30 Extermination of the Race of Yadavas 2112
31 Lord Krsna's Return to Vaikuntha 2119
  Skandha XII  
1 Dynasties of the Kali Age 2123
2 The Evils of the Kali Age 2130
3 Dharma in every Yuga: Efficacy of God's Name 2135
4 The Four-Fold Pralaya 2143
5 Suka's concluding Precept Concerning Brahman 2150
6 Taksaka Bites Pariksit: Jamejaya's Serpent Sacrifice: Classification of Vedas in Different Branches 2152
7 The Branches of the Atharva Ceda: Characteristics of the Puranas 2165
8 Markandeya's Penance and Praise of Lord Narayana 2170
9 The Lord Exhibits His Maya 2177
10 God Siva's Boon to Markandeya 2182
11 Significance of the various parts of the Lord's Image: the Retinue of the sun-God per month 2189
12 A synoptic Review of the Twelve Skandhas of Srimad Bhagavata 2197
13 The extent of each of the Eighteen Puranas: The Glory of the Bhagavata 2205
  Appendix 2209
  Index 2213

 

Sample Pages

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