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Books > Hindu > THE GARUDA-PURANA: 3 Volumes
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THE GARUDA-PURANA: 3 Volumes
THE GARUDA-PURANA: 3 Volumes
Description
Vol-I

 

Preface

The present Volume contains the Garuda Purana Part I (chapters 1-146) in English translation. It is the twelfth in the series of fifty Volumes on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology.

The project of the series was envisaged and financed in 1970 by late Lala Sunderlal Jain, the Veteran enterprizer in the field of Oriental Publication and the leading partner Messrs Motilal Banarsidass. Hitherto twelve Volumes of the Series, including the present one, (that is, four Vols. of the Siva Purana, two Vols. of the Linga Purana, five Vols .. of the Bhagavata Purana and one Vol. of the Garuda Purana) have been published and released for sale.

The Garuda Purana is normally classified as a Vaisnava Purana, but, in fact, this Purana is non-sectarian and cosmopolitan in character. Its encyclopedic nature is reflected in the treat- ment of multifarious or miscellaneous subjects such as Medicine, Astrology, Palmistry, Metrics, in addition to the legitimate topics of a Purana. This variety of topics needed elucidation- a task which could not be accomplished by a mere translation. Hence the provision has been made for the footnotes. Further, to help the reader understand the background of the subject matter, an introduction has been added to this Volume. A list of Abbreviations is also prefixed for the convenience of the reader.

Acknowledgment of Obligations
It is our pleasant duty to put on record our sincere grati- tude to Dr. S. K. Chatterjee, Dr. V. Raghavan, Dr. R. N. Dan- dekar, Shri K.R. Kripalani and the authorities of the UNESCO for their kind encouragement and valuable help which render this work more useful to scholars than it would otherwise have been. We must also thank Shri T. V. Parameswar Iyer for his valuable spade-work which lightened our labour especially in the initial stage.

 

Introduction

As a class of literature the Purana deals with ancient Indian religion philosophy, history, geography, sociology politics and other subjects and supplies the material for the study of various branches of knowledge and ancient wisdom.

The Purana has been defined as Pancalaksana and is supposed to contain five topics (i) creation (sarga), (ii) Dissolution and re-creation (pratisarga) (iii) Genealogy (vamsa), (iv) periods of time with manu as the primal ancestor and (iv) history of Royal dynasties both solar and luner. But this definition in inadequate. For the texts that have come to us under the title Purana characteristics. This fact was noticed by the Puranic redactors themselves who later on adopted a dasalaksaam definition that satiated the Puranic text.

But this too is not a standard definition. For the Puranaa contain aspects that are not covered by any of the ten characteristics. Besides some of the characteristics covered by this definition are not found in certain Puranas.

In fact the Puranas as a class represents different phases or aspects of Indain Life in diverse ages. It is not possible therefore to adopt a standard definition for the class of literary composition that contains heterogeneous phases or aspects Moreover, a definition formed on the numerical basis 0f points cannot be perfect.

We can, however, describe the Purana as a class of literature that deals with the legends of gods, asuras, sages and kings of ancient times, contains abstracts of works in arts, sciences, medicine, grammar, dramaturgy, music, astrology and other subjects, affords insight into different phases and aspects 0f Hinduism—its mythology, idol-worship, theism, pantheism, love of God, philosophy, superstition, festivals and ceremonies.2 In brief, the Purânas constitute a popular encyclopedia of ancient and medieval Hinduism in all its traits— religious, philosophical, historical, personal, social and political.

Origin and Development

The term Purãna connotes simply an old narrative4 or the record of old events.5 Ancient writers6 derived the term as. According to Skanda7 and Matsya8 Puranas and the Mahabhaya9 of Patanjali, there was at first a single work of literature called Purana or Purea-Sathhita. But when the process of interpolation started with the rise of sectarianism in India, the Purana assumed a massive form. Each sect built up a structure of its doctrines around the nucleus of ancient material. The original Purãl3a underwent different forms and shaped itself into Vaisnava, Saiva and Brahma Purãnas.

(ii) Upa-PurAga.1 Each class consists of eighteen Puranas. Thus the number of the Purãnas is thirty six.

The Mahâ-Purãnas are classified mainly into three categories—Vaisnava, Brahma and Saiva in proportion as they accord preferential treatment to Visnu, Brahma and Siva. The Purãnas glorifying Visnu are styled as Sàttvika, those glorifying Brahmã as Rajasa and those glorifying Agni and Siva as Tamasa. According to this description the eighteen Mahäpurãnas can be classified into Sãttvika, Rãjasa and Támasa. as under:

Sattvika: Bhagavata, Visnu, Garuda, Matsya, Kürma, Vayu.
Rajasa: Skanda, Padma, Varnana, Varaha, Agni, Bhavisya.
Tamosa: Brahmanda, Liñga, Brahmavaivarta, Märkandeya, Brahma, Aditya.

It is remarkable to note that in the list of Tamasa Puranas the Garuda Purãna mentions Aditya Puràna instead of Narada.

The Puranas are not unanimous on this division. For instance, among the Sattvika Purãnas, the Padma Puranas omits Matya, Kurma and Vayu which are replaced by Nãrada, Padma and Vãraha, retains only the Bhagavata, Visnu and Garuda of the Garuda list. Among the Rajasa Puranas the Padma Purana retains only the Vãmana Pural)a but leaves out Skanda Padma Varaha and Agni from the Rajasa list which are replaced by Brahmanda Brahma Brahmavaivaru markandeya and Bhavisya among the tamasa Puranas Padma Purana retains only the Linga Purana but omits brahmanda, Brahma vaivarta, Brahma Markandeya and Aditya of the Garuda list. Instead it includes Matsya Kurma, Siva skand and agni. Thus we find that there is confusion in this kind of classification which becomes more complicated by the statement of Skanda Purana which assigns ten Puranas to Siva four to Brahma two each to Devi and Visnu.

Yet another kind of classification is recorded is the devi bhagavata which names the Maha - puranas by their initial letters except the Garuda which it mentions by the full name.

Garuda Purana The Nomenclature

The Puranas themselves discuss their nomenclature so far as the Garuda Purana is concerned it is so called because the speaker of this Purana is Garuda himself.

One the evidence of the Bhagavata Purana the Garuda Purana was also called sauparna. The Vayu Purana calls it vainateya Alberuni as Tarkhya. Ballala the author of Danasagara mentions Tarksya in the list of Maha Puranas. In the nibandha granthas the terms Tarksya, vainateya, Sauparna are often used which according to Sanskrit lexicons are synonyms of Garuda.

But the quotations made under the names tarksya Vainateya or Sauparna are not found in the extant Garuda. It is no certain whether these quotations existed in the old text of the Garuda Purana which later on suffered change in the hands of redactors or whether they belonged to a Purana that was quite different from the extant text called Garuda.

The Purana is called Garuda because the original speaker is Garuda who narrates it to Kasyapa. The later narrates it to Siva the present translation is based consist of three parts.

Acara kanda is known as purva khanda (section I) preta as uttara khanda (section II) Brahma kanda as Moksa kanda (section III).

The acara kanda is called karma kanda because it deals with karmna. The preta kanda is called dharma kanda because it concerns religion. The Brahma kanda is called Moksa kanda because it leads to salvation.

The three sections are distinct and differ widely from one another in form as also in content. The number of chapter in the sections is not uniform. For instance the acara-kanda consists of chapters 1-240 pretakanda of 1-49 and Brahmakanda of 1-29. but in spite of this difference the three sections together constitute the Garuda Purana. This threefold division is recognized in the Garuda Purana itself.

General Character of the Kandas

As previously remarked the GP consists of thee kandas (i) Acara (ii) Dharma and (iii) Brahma Acara (karma) kanda consists of 240 chapters is the biggest of the three kandas in dimension. Of these 14 deal with the five principal characteristics of the Puranas 48 with the medicine 53 with the worship of deities 61 with the Dharmasastra matter 8 with morals 13 with lapidary science and 43 with miscellaneous topics such as astrology physiognomy etc.

dharma kanda deals with the subject of death metempsychosis karman and release from karman. It throws light on the omens of death the path to Yama the fate of the pretas the torments of hells and the pretas as causes of omens and dreams. It describes rites to be performed at the time of death funeral rites ancestor worship and special funeral rites for the sati. There are legends of the pretas describing the causes of their wretched existence which recall the Buddhist legends recorded in Petavatthu.

General Characteristics of the Purana Applied to the Garuda Purana

The Garuda Purana gives more attention to extraneous subjects than to subjects that fall under the legitimate laksana of Purana. For instance of the 240 chapters in the Purva Khanda 14 chapters deal with the Pancalaksana section I chs 4-5 deal with the primary and secondary creation Section I ch.6 deals with the genealogies of gods and sages section I Chs 87-90 with the ages of Manus. The history of royal dynasties is treated in a very condensed form and interspersed with the genealogies of royal dynasties. The subject of creation and dissolution is taken up again in section I chapters 54-58 and 224 respectively.

(i) Creation (sarga)

The Supreme god Visnu assues the form of Brahmi and as Brahma he begins the process of creation. As Visnu he protects the world as Rudra he destroyas the universe.

Though devoid of attributes he ahs an inherent energy which manifests itself in the form of three principles Sattva Rajas and tamas which are responsible for creation maintenance and dissolution of the universe.

(ii) Re-creation after dissolution

The creation of the universe is not a permanent feature for all creations end in dissolution which in turn give place to re-creation. The description of this process constitutes one of the five main features of a Maha-purana.

The process of dissolution is complicated for several dissolutions occur before the universe is completely dissolved. As the Puranas relate a creation lasts for ad ay of Brahma equal to the age of manvantaras. At the end of each manvantara there occurs a dissolution. Thus a day of Brahma contains fourteen dissolutions.

(iii) Genealogies

The Garuda Purana deals with the Genealogies of kings in Acara kanda (ch. 138-141). The Purana follows the Vayu tradition as regards the solar dynasty form Vaisvasvata Manu on words and the common tradition regarding the other dynasties. It omits several historical dynasties which the other purans describe.

The Garuda Purana deals with the dynasties of Kosala Kasi and vaisali. The videha dynasty descended form Nimi son of Iksvaku. The Garuda Purana confuses the dynasties of Ayodhya and Videha omitting certain kings form the line of Videha and adding these to the line of vikuksi the originator of Ayodhya line. Among the Magadha kings the Purnaa mentions Barhadrathas who lived in pre Bimbisara age. In this context the Purana records that the Barhadrathas will be succeeded by impious and sudra kings.

The Barhadrathas of Magadha were the successors of the Brhadbala dynasty which descended from the solar race of Iksvaku. According to the Garuda purana Suddhodana of Kapilavastu father of Gautama Buddha and the son of Sakya was Aiksvakava. This is confirmed by Mahavastu which states that suddhodana belonged to Iksvaku dynasty.

Vaisali dynasty descended from manu’s Nabhanedista. This dynasty is recorded in seven Puranas but only four lists of this Purana are complete those is the vayu visnu, Bhagavata and Garuda. The dynasty derived its name from king Visala who founded visala or Vaisla as this capital.

CONTENTS

PART - I

 

ABBREVIATIONS xiii
INTRODUCTION xv-xxxv
Chapters  
1. Incarnations of Vishnu 1
2. Tradition of Garuda Purana 6
3. Statement of Contents 14
4. Beginning of Creation 15
5. Creation of Progenitors 19
6. Description of families 23
7. Worship of the sun, etc. 29
8. Worship of Visnu and Vajranabha mandala 31
9. Visnu-diksa 33
10. Worship of Laksmi 34
11. Nava-vyuha worship of Visnu 35
12. Order of worship 39
13. Visnupanjarastotra 41
14. Meditation 42
15. Visnu-sahasra-nama-stotra 44
16. Contemplation of Hari and Sun-worship 72
17. Sun-Worship 74
18. Worship of Amrtesa Mrtyunjaya 75
19. Pranesvari Vidya 78
20. Mantras for removing poison 81
21. Worship of Panca-vaktra Siva 83
22-23 Worship of siva 84
24. Worship of Tripura 93
25. Adoration of Asana 94
26. Assignment of limbs over the body 95
27. Mantras to cure snake-bite 97
28. Worship of Gopala 97
29. Trailokya-mohini 100
30. Worship of Sridhara 101
31. Worship of Visnu 104
32. Worship of Panca-tattvas 108
33. Worship of Sudarsana 112
34. Worship of Hayagriva 114
35. Worship of Gayatri 119
36. Method of performing Sandhya 120
37. Gayatri kalpa 122
38. Worship of Durga 123
39. Worship of Sun 126
40. Worship of Mahesvara 129
41. Mantras to obtain Women 132
42. Pavitraropana of Siva 133
43. Pavitraropana of Visnu 136
44. Contemplation of Brahman or Visnu's form 140
45. Characteristics of Salagrama 142
46. Vastu-puja 146
47. Characteristics of Palaces 150
48. Installation of Idols 153
49. Four Varnas and asramas 163
50. Daily routine for the aspirant 167
51. Charity 175
52. Prayascitta 178
53. Eight nidhis 181
54-57 Bhuvana-kosa 182-190
58. Description of the planets 191
59-62 Astrology 194-201
63-65 Physiognomy 203-205
66 Astrology 218
67 Svarodaya or Pavana-vijaya 220
68 On the test of Gems - Diamond 224
69. On the test of Gems - Pearls 228
70. On the test of Gems - Ruby 232
71. On the test of Gems - Emerald 236
72. On the test of Gems - Sapphire 238
73. On the test of Gems - Lapis Lazuli 240
74. On the test of Gems - Topaz 242
75. On the test of Gems - Karketana 242
76. On the test of Gems - Bhismamani 243
77. On the test of Gems - Pulaka 244
78. On the test of Gems - Blood Stone 245
79. On the test of Gems - Crystal 246
80. On the test of Gems - Coral 246
81. Sacred Places 247
82-86 Greatness of Gaya 251-265
87 Fourteen Manus 268
88-90 Story of Ruci 272
91 Worship of Hari 282
92. Meditation on Visnu 284
93-106 Teachings of Yajnavalkya 286
107 Teaching of Parasara 323
108-115 Brhaspati-niti-Sara 327
116-137 Sacred Rites (Vratas) 365
138. The Solar Dynasty 398
139. The Lunar Dynasty 402
140. Genealogy of the Pauravas 407
141. Genealogy of the Pauravas and others 409
142. Greatness of Sita 410
143. The Story of Rama 413
144. Incarnation of Krsna 416
145. The Story of the Mahabharata 417
146. Description of Diseases 421
 

PART - II

 

 
Acara (Karma) Kanda (continued from AITM Vol. 12)  
147 Diseases 425
148 Diseases 434
149 Diseases 435
150 Diseases 437
151 Diseases 439
152 Diseases 440
153 Diseases 443
154 Diseases 444
155 Diseases 446
156 Diseases 449
157 Diseases 455
158 Diseases 458
159 Diseases 461
160 Diseases 465
161 Diseases 470
162 Diseases 475
163 Diseases 479
164 Diseases 481
165 Diseases 485
166 Diseases 486
167 Diseases 491
168 Diseases 497
169 Diseases 503
170 Diseases 510
171 Diseases 518
172 Diseases 524
173 Diseases 528
174 Diseases 531
175 Diseases 533
176 Diseases 534
177 Diseases 536
178 Diseases 543
179 Diseases 546
180 Diseases 547
181 Diseases 548
182 Diseases 549
183 Diseases 551
184 Diseases 553
185 Diseases 556
186 Diseases 559
187 Diseases 560
188 Diseases 561
189 Diseases 563
190 Diseases 564
191 Diseases 567
192 Diseases 569
193 Diseases 572
194 Vaisnava-Kavaca 574
195 A Love for fulfilling a desire in seven nights 577
196 Visnu-dharma 578
197 Garudamantra 579
198 Eulogy of Tripura 584
199 Cudamani 585
200 Diseases 589
201 Medical Treatment of horses and elephants 590
202 Diseases 594
203 Diseases 596
204 Medicinal drugs 597
205 Grammar 605
206 Grammar 608
207 Prosody 611
208 Prosody 612
209 Prosody 614
210 Prosody 618
211 Prosody 619
212 Prosody 620
213 Dharma-sastra 620
214 Dharma-sastra 633
215 Dharma-sastra 636
216 Dharma-sastra 638
217 Dharma-sastra 639
218 Dharma-sastra 640
219 Dharma-sastra 647
220 Dharma-sastra 649
221 Dharmasara 652
222 Expiation 654
223 Yuga-dharma 660
224 Dissolution 663
225 Results of good and bad acts 664
226 Yoga and its Components 668
227 Yoga and its Components 672
228 Devotion to Visnu 675
229 Devotion to Visnu 677
230 Devotion to Visnu 678
231 Hymn to Narasimha 683
232 Kulamrta or Jnanamrta hymn 686
233 Mrtyvastaka Hymn 688
234 Acyuta or Cakradhara Hymn 690
235 Vedanta and Sankhya 697
236 Vedanta and Sankhya 701
237 Essence of the Gita 704
238 Essence of the Gita 706
239 Essence of Brahmagita 707
240 Glory of Garuda Purana 710
Dharma (Preta) Kanda  
Chapters  
1. Garuda's Query 717
2. Results of actions 723
3. Description of Hell 730
4. Pre-death and post-death rites 736
5. Annual rites for the deceased 750
6. The glory of Vrsotsarga 761
7. The story of five ghosts 772
8. Person authorised to perform obsequies 779
9. The king authorised to perform rites 782
10. The Gratifying Nature of Sraddha 787
11. Doors for Departure 794
12. Importance of Dharma 795
13. Obsequial Rites 798
14. Merits of Gifts 801
15. Observances immediate after Death 806
16. Life after Death 814
17. Glory of Sravanas 818
18. Life after Death 820
19. Life after Death 823
20. Functions of the Departed soul 825
 

PART - III

 
B. Dharma (Preta) Kanda(continued from AITM Vo. 13)  
Chapters  
21. Ghosts and their Release 829
22. On attaining ghosthood 832
23. On Ghosthood 840
24. Sins of Omission and Commission, Premature death of Children; Gifts 841
25. On Sons and Grandsons 845
26. On the rite of uniting the dead with the deceased ancestors 850
27. Episode of King Babhruvahana 856
28. Gifts for the Ghost 861
29. Rites after death 864
30. On bestowing Gifts 867
31. On bestowing Gifts 872
32. The Origin of life 875
33. The World of Yama 885
34. Results of Virtue and Sin 889
35. Rites of Sapindikarana and Sraddha 900
36. On fast and pilgrimage 904
37. Gift of a Vessel filled with water 908
38. On Salvation, Heaven, Gifts, Pilgrimage and good deeds 909
39. Rules of impurity 912
40. On accidental death 914
41. Releasing the Bull (Vrsotsarga) 919
42. On bestowing gifts 921
43. On performing a Sraddha 923
44. On accidental death 924
45. The mode of annual Sraddha 926
46. Results of activity 929
47. On Sins and Vaitarani 932
48. On Dharma and Adharma 936
49. Method of Final Release 941
 

C. BRAHMA (MOKSA) KANDA

 
Chapters  
1. Classification of the Puranas. The Nature of Deities 955
2. Puranic Trinity: Brahma, Visnu, Siva: Their respective roles 965
3. Creation of the universe: Variation due to difference in Gunas 972
4. Gunas and their nature: Imbalance and Equilibrium 978
5. Deities and their relative status 983
6. Deities and their relative status 988
7. Praise of Lord Visnu by deities and sages 995
8. Praise of Lord Visnu by deities and sages 1004
9. Nature of deities and the serial order of their position 1006
10. Creation primary and secondary 1008
11. Causes of Ignorance 1013
12. Praise of Visnu by Brahma 1020
13. Creation of deities after dissolution 1027
14. Nature and form of Visnu & benefits of Vaisvadeva 1031
15. Incarnations of Visnu 1035
16. Incarnations of Mahalaksmi 1039
17. Forms of Bharati in different births 1046
18. Incarnations of Rudra and after 1049
19. The Episode of Nila 1056
20. The Episode of Bhadra 1063
21. The Episode of Kalindi 1067
22. The Episode of Laksmana 1070
23. The Episode of Jambavati 1075
24. The glory of Venkatacala and lord Srinivasa 1080
25. Glory of Venkatesa and the method of worship 1091
26. On the mountain Venkata, Svamipuskarini and the deities residing there 1096
27. Visit to places of pilgrimage 1108
28. Anecdotes of the glory of Visnu 1112
29. On unfolding the mystery and secret of Reality 1126
GLOSSARY 1135
GENERAL INDEX 1145

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THE GARUDA-PURANA: 3 Volumes

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Vol-I

 

Preface

The present Volume contains the Garuda Purana Part I (chapters 1-146) in English translation. It is the twelfth in the series of fifty Volumes on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology.

The project of the series was envisaged and financed in 1970 by late Lala Sunderlal Jain, the Veteran enterprizer in the field of Oriental Publication and the leading partner Messrs Motilal Banarsidass. Hitherto twelve Volumes of the Series, including the present one, (that is, four Vols. of the Siva Purana, two Vols. of the Linga Purana, five Vols .. of the Bhagavata Purana and one Vol. of the Garuda Purana) have been published and released for sale.

The Garuda Purana is normally classified as a Vaisnava Purana, but, in fact, this Purana is non-sectarian and cosmopolitan in character. Its encyclopedic nature is reflected in the treat- ment of multifarious or miscellaneous subjects such as Medicine, Astrology, Palmistry, Metrics, in addition to the legitimate topics of a Purana. This variety of topics needed elucidation- a task which could not be accomplished by a mere translation. Hence the provision has been made for the footnotes. Further, to help the reader understand the background of the subject matter, an introduction has been added to this Volume. A list of Abbreviations is also prefixed for the convenience of the reader.

Acknowledgment of Obligations
It is our pleasant duty to put on record our sincere grati- tude to Dr. S. K. Chatterjee, Dr. V. Raghavan, Dr. R. N. Dan- dekar, Shri K.R. Kripalani and the authorities of the UNESCO for their kind encouragement and valuable help which render this work more useful to scholars than it would otherwise have been. We must also thank Shri T. V. Parameswar Iyer for his valuable spade-work which lightened our labour especially in the initial stage.

 

Introduction

As a class of literature the Purana deals with ancient Indian religion philosophy, history, geography, sociology politics and other subjects and supplies the material for the study of various branches of knowledge and ancient wisdom.

The Purana has been defined as Pancalaksana and is supposed to contain five topics (i) creation (sarga), (ii) Dissolution and re-creation (pratisarga) (iii) Genealogy (vamsa), (iv) periods of time with manu as the primal ancestor and (iv) history of Royal dynasties both solar and luner. But this definition in inadequate. For the texts that have come to us under the title Purana characteristics. This fact was noticed by the Puranic redactors themselves who later on adopted a dasalaksaam definition that satiated the Puranic text.

But this too is not a standard definition. For the Puranaa contain aspects that are not covered by any of the ten characteristics. Besides some of the characteristics covered by this definition are not found in certain Puranas.

In fact the Puranas as a class represents different phases or aspects of Indain Life in diverse ages. It is not possible therefore to adopt a standard definition for the class of literary composition that contains heterogeneous phases or aspects Moreover, a definition formed on the numerical basis 0f points cannot be perfect.

We can, however, describe the Purana as a class of literature that deals with the legends of gods, asuras, sages and kings of ancient times, contains abstracts of works in arts, sciences, medicine, grammar, dramaturgy, music, astrology and other subjects, affords insight into different phases and aspects 0f Hinduism—its mythology, idol-worship, theism, pantheism, love of God, philosophy, superstition, festivals and ceremonies.2 In brief, the Purânas constitute a popular encyclopedia of ancient and medieval Hinduism in all its traits— religious, philosophical, historical, personal, social and political.

Origin and Development

The term Purãna connotes simply an old narrative4 or the record of old events.5 Ancient writers6 derived the term as. According to Skanda7 and Matsya8 Puranas and the Mahabhaya9 of Patanjali, there was at first a single work of literature called Purana or Purea-Sathhita. But when the process of interpolation started with the rise of sectarianism in India, the Purana assumed a massive form. Each sect built up a structure of its doctrines around the nucleus of ancient material. The original Purãl3a underwent different forms and shaped itself into Vaisnava, Saiva and Brahma Purãnas.

(ii) Upa-PurAga.1 Each class consists of eighteen Puranas. Thus the number of the Purãnas is thirty six.

The Mahâ-Purãnas are classified mainly into three categories—Vaisnava, Brahma and Saiva in proportion as they accord preferential treatment to Visnu, Brahma and Siva. The Purãnas glorifying Visnu are styled as Sàttvika, those glorifying Brahmã as Rajasa and those glorifying Agni and Siva as Tamasa. According to this description the eighteen Mahäpurãnas can be classified into Sãttvika, Rãjasa and Támasa. as under:

Sattvika: Bhagavata, Visnu, Garuda, Matsya, Kürma, Vayu.
Rajasa: Skanda, Padma, Varnana, Varaha, Agni, Bhavisya.
Tamosa: Brahmanda, Liñga, Brahmavaivarta, Märkandeya, Brahma, Aditya.

It is remarkable to note that in the list of Tamasa Puranas the Garuda Purãna mentions Aditya Puràna instead of Narada.

The Puranas are not unanimous on this division. For instance, among the Sattvika Purãnas, the Padma Puranas omits Matya, Kurma and Vayu which are replaced by Nãrada, Padma and Vãraha, retains only the Bhagavata, Visnu and Garuda of the Garuda list. Among the Rajasa Puranas the Padma Purana retains only the Vãmana Pural)a but leaves out Skanda Padma Varaha and Agni from the Rajasa list which are replaced by Brahmanda Brahma Brahmavaivaru markandeya and Bhavisya among the tamasa Puranas Padma Purana retains only the Linga Purana but omits brahmanda, Brahma vaivarta, Brahma Markandeya and Aditya of the Garuda list. Instead it includes Matsya Kurma, Siva skand and agni. Thus we find that there is confusion in this kind of classification which becomes more complicated by the statement of Skanda Purana which assigns ten Puranas to Siva four to Brahma two each to Devi and Visnu.

Yet another kind of classification is recorded is the devi bhagavata which names the Maha - puranas by their initial letters except the Garuda which it mentions by the full name.

Garuda Purana The Nomenclature

The Puranas themselves discuss their nomenclature so far as the Garuda Purana is concerned it is so called because the speaker of this Purana is Garuda himself.

One the evidence of the Bhagavata Purana the Garuda Purana was also called sauparna. The Vayu Purana calls it vainateya Alberuni as Tarkhya. Ballala the author of Danasagara mentions Tarksya in the list of Maha Puranas. In the nibandha granthas the terms Tarksya, vainateya, Sauparna are often used which according to Sanskrit lexicons are synonyms of Garuda.

But the quotations made under the names tarksya Vainateya or Sauparna are not found in the extant Garuda. It is no certain whether these quotations existed in the old text of the Garuda Purana which later on suffered change in the hands of redactors or whether they belonged to a Purana that was quite different from the extant text called Garuda.

The Purana is called Garuda because the original speaker is Garuda who narrates it to Kasyapa. The later narrates it to Siva the present translation is based consist of three parts.

Acara kanda is known as purva khanda (section I) preta as uttara khanda (section II) Brahma kanda as Moksa kanda (section III).

The acara kanda is called karma kanda because it deals with karmna. The preta kanda is called dharma kanda because it concerns religion. The Brahma kanda is called Moksa kanda because it leads to salvation.

The three sections are distinct and differ widely from one another in form as also in content. The number of chapter in the sections is not uniform. For instance the acara-kanda consists of chapters 1-240 pretakanda of 1-49 and Brahmakanda of 1-29. but in spite of this difference the three sections together constitute the Garuda Purana. This threefold division is recognized in the Garuda Purana itself.

General Character of the Kandas

As previously remarked the GP consists of thee kandas (i) Acara (ii) Dharma and (iii) Brahma Acara (karma) kanda consists of 240 chapters is the biggest of the three kandas in dimension. Of these 14 deal with the five principal characteristics of the Puranas 48 with the medicine 53 with the worship of deities 61 with the Dharmasastra matter 8 with morals 13 with lapidary science and 43 with miscellaneous topics such as astrology physiognomy etc.

dharma kanda deals with the subject of death metempsychosis karman and release from karman. It throws light on the omens of death the path to Yama the fate of the pretas the torments of hells and the pretas as causes of omens and dreams. It describes rites to be performed at the time of death funeral rites ancestor worship and special funeral rites for the sati. There are legends of the pretas describing the causes of their wretched existence which recall the Buddhist legends recorded in Petavatthu.

General Characteristics of the Purana Applied to the Garuda Purana

The Garuda Purana gives more attention to extraneous subjects than to subjects that fall under the legitimate laksana of Purana. For instance of the 240 chapters in the Purva Khanda 14 chapters deal with the Pancalaksana section I chs 4-5 deal with the primary and secondary creation Section I ch.6 deals with the genealogies of gods and sages section I Chs 87-90 with the ages of Manus. The history of royal dynasties is treated in a very condensed form and interspersed with the genealogies of royal dynasties. The subject of creation and dissolution is taken up again in section I chapters 54-58 and 224 respectively.

(i) Creation (sarga)

The Supreme god Visnu assues the form of Brahmi and as Brahma he begins the process of creation. As Visnu he protects the world as Rudra he destroyas the universe.

Though devoid of attributes he ahs an inherent energy which manifests itself in the form of three principles Sattva Rajas and tamas which are responsible for creation maintenance and dissolution of the universe.

(ii) Re-creation after dissolution

The creation of the universe is not a permanent feature for all creations end in dissolution which in turn give place to re-creation. The description of this process constitutes one of the five main features of a Maha-purana.

The process of dissolution is complicated for several dissolutions occur before the universe is completely dissolved. As the Puranas relate a creation lasts for ad ay of Brahma equal to the age of manvantaras. At the end of each manvantara there occurs a dissolution. Thus a day of Brahma contains fourteen dissolutions.

(iii) Genealogies

The Garuda Purana deals with the Genealogies of kings in Acara kanda (ch. 138-141). The Purana follows the Vayu tradition as regards the solar dynasty form Vaisvasvata Manu on words and the common tradition regarding the other dynasties. It omits several historical dynasties which the other purans describe.

The Garuda Purana deals with the dynasties of Kosala Kasi and vaisali. The videha dynasty descended form Nimi son of Iksvaku. The Garuda Purana confuses the dynasties of Ayodhya and Videha omitting certain kings form the line of Videha and adding these to the line of vikuksi the originator of Ayodhya line. Among the Magadha kings the Purnaa mentions Barhadrathas who lived in pre Bimbisara age. In this context the Purana records that the Barhadrathas will be succeeded by impious and sudra kings.

The Barhadrathas of Magadha were the successors of the Brhadbala dynasty which descended from the solar race of Iksvaku. According to the Garuda purana Suddhodana of Kapilavastu father of Gautama Buddha and the son of Sakya was Aiksvakava. This is confirmed by Mahavastu which states that suddhodana belonged to Iksvaku dynasty.

Vaisali dynasty descended from manu’s Nabhanedista. This dynasty is recorded in seven Puranas but only four lists of this Purana are complete those is the vayu visnu, Bhagavata and Garuda. The dynasty derived its name from king Visala who founded visala or Vaisla as this capital.

CONTENTS

PART - I

 

ABBREVIATIONS xiii
INTRODUCTION xv-xxxv
Chapters  
1. Incarnations of Vishnu 1
2. Tradition of Garuda Purana 6
3. Statement of Contents 14
4. Beginning of Creation 15
5. Creation of Progenitors 19
6. Description of families 23
7. Worship of the sun, etc. 29
8. Worship of Visnu and Vajranabha mandala 31
9. Visnu-diksa 33
10. Worship of Laksmi 34
11. Nava-vyuha worship of Visnu 35
12. Order of worship 39
13. Visnupanjarastotra 41
14. Meditation 42
15. Visnu-sahasra-nama-stotra 44
16. Contemplation of Hari and Sun-worship 72
17. Sun-Worship 74
18. Worship of Amrtesa Mrtyunjaya 75
19. Pranesvari Vidya 78
20. Mantras for removing poison 81
21. Worship of Panca-vaktra Siva 83
22-23 Worship of siva 84
24. Worship of Tripura 93
25. Adoration of Asana 94
26. Assignment of limbs over the body 95
27. Mantras to cure snake-bite 97
28. Worship of Gopala 97
29. Trailokya-mohini 100
30. Worship of Sridhara 101
31. Worship of Visnu 104
32. Worship of Panca-tattvas 108
33. Worship of Sudarsana 112
34. Worship of Hayagriva 114
35. Worship of Gayatri 119
36. Method of performing Sandhya 120
37. Gayatri kalpa 122
38. Worship of Durga 123
39. Worship of Sun 126
40. Worship of Mahesvara 129
41. Mantras to obtain Women 132
42. Pavitraropana of Siva 133
43. Pavitraropana of Visnu 136
44. Contemplation of Brahman or Visnu's form 140
45. Characteristics of Salagrama 142
46. Vastu-puja 146
47. Characteristics of Palaces 150
48. Installation of Idols 153
49. Four Varnas and asramas 163
50. Daily routine for the aspirant 167
51. Charity 175
52. Prayascitta 178
53. Eight nidhis 181
54-57 Bhuvana-kosa 182-190
58. Description of the planets 191
59-62 Astrology 194-201
63-65 Physiognomy 203-205
66 Astrology 218
67 Svarodaya or Pavana-vijaya 220
68 On the test of Gems - Diamond 224
69. On the test of Gems - Pearls 228
70. On the test of Gems - Ruby 232
71. On the test of Gems - Emerald 236
72. On the test of Gems - Sapphire 238
73. On the test of Gems - Lapis Lazuli 240
74. On the test of Gems - Topaz 242
75. On the test of Gems - Karketana 242
76. On the test of Gems - Bhismamani 243
77. On the test of Gems - Pulaka 244
78. On the test of Gems - Blood Stone 245
79. On the test of Gems - Crystal 246
80. On the test of Gems - Coral 246
81. Sacred Places 247
82-86 Greatness of Gaya 251-265
87 Fourteen Manus 268
88-90 Story of Ruci 272
91 Worship of Hari 282
92. Meditation on Visnu 284
93-106 Teachings of Yajnavalkya 286
107 Teaching of Parasara 323
108-115 Brhaspati-niti-Sara 327
116-137 Sacred Rites (Vratas) 365
138. The Solar Dynasty 398
139. The Lunar Dynasty 402
140. Genealogy of the Pauravas 407
141. Genealogy of the Pauravas and others 409
142. Greatness of Sita 410
143. The Story of Rama 413
144. Incarnation of Krsna 416
145. The Story of the Mahabharata 417
146. Description of Diseases 421
 

PART - II

 

 
Acara (Karma) Kanda (continued from AITM Vol. 12)  
147 Diseases 425
148 Diseases 434
149 Diseases 435
150 Diseases 437
151 Diseases 439
152 Diseases 440
153 Diseases 443
154 Diseases 444
155 Diseases 446
156 Diseases 449
157 Diseases 455
158 Diseases 458
159 Diseases 461
160 Diseases 465
161 Diseases 470
162 Diseases 475
163 Diseases 479
164 Diseases 481
165 Diseases 485
166 Diseases 486
167 Diseases 491
168 Diseases 497
169 Diseases 503
170 Diseases 510
171 Diseases 518
172 Diseases 524
173 Diseases 528
174 Diseases 531
175 Diseases 533
176 Diseases 534
177 Diseases 536
178 Diseases 543
179 Diseases 546
180 Diseases 547
181 Diseases 548
182 Diseases 549
183 Diseases 551
184 Diseases 553
185 Diseases 556
186 Diseases 559
187 Diseases 560
188 Diseases 561
189 Diseases 563
190 Diseases 564
191 Diseases 567
192 Diseases 569
193 Diseases 572
194 Vaisnava-Kavaca 574
195 A Love for fulfilling a desire in seven nights 577
196 Visnu-dharma 578
197 Garudamantra 579
198 Eulogy of Tripura 584
199 Cudamani 585
200 Diseases 589
201 Medical Treatment of horses and elephants 590
202 Diseases 594
203 Diseases 596
204 Medicinal drugs 597
205 Grammar 605
206 Grammar 608
207 Prosody 611
208 Prosody 612
209 Prosody 614
210 Prosody 618
211 Prosody 619
212 Prosody 620
213 Dharma-sastra 620
214 Dharma-sastra 633
215 Dharma-sastra 636
216 Dharma-sastra 638
217 Dharma-sastra 639
218 Dharma-sastra 640
219 Dharma-sastra 647
220 Dharma-sastra 649
221 Dharmasara 652
222 Expiation 654
223 Yuga-dharma 660
224 Dissolution 663
225 Results of good and bad acts 664
226 Yoga and its Components 668
227 Yoga and its Components 672
228 Devotion to Visnu 675
229 Devotion to Visnu 677
230 Devotion to Visnu 678
231 Hymn to Narasimha 683
232 Kulamrta or Jnanamrta hymn 686
233 Mrtyvastaka Hymn 688
234 Acyuta or Cakradhara Hymn 690
235 Vedanta and Sankhya 697
236 Vedanta and Sankhya 701
237 Essence of the Gita 704
238 Essence of the Gita 706
239 Essence of Brahmagita 707
240 Glory of Garuda Purana 710
Dharma (Preta) Kanda  
Chapters  
1. Garuda's Query 717
2. Results of actions 723
3. Description of Hell 730
4. Pre-death and post-death rites 736
5. Annual rites for the deceased 750
6. The glory of Vrsotsarga 761
7. The story of five ghosts 772
8. Person authorised to perform obsequies 779
9. The king authorised to perform rites 782
10. The Gratifying Nature of Sraddha 787
11. Doors for Departure 794
12. Importance of Dharma 795
13. Obsequial Rites 798
14. Merits of Gifts 801
15. Observances immediate after Death 806
16. Life after Death 814
17. Glory of Sravanas 818
18. Life after Death 820
19. Life after Death 823
20. Functions of the Departed soul 825
 

PART - III

 
B. Dharma (Preta) Kanda(continued from AITM Vo. 13)  
Chapters  
21. Ghosts and their Release 829
22. On attaining ghosthood 832
23. On Ghosthood 840
24. Sins of Omission and Commission, Premature death of Children; Gifts 841
25. On Sons and Grandsons 845
26. On the rite of uniting the dead with the deceased ancestors 850
27. Episode of King Babhruvahana 856
28. Gifts for the Ghost 861
29. Rites after death 864
30. On bestowing Gifts 867
31. On bestowing Gifts 872
32. The Origin of life 875
33. The World of Yama 885
34. Results of Virtue and Sin 889
35. Rites of Sapindikarana and Sraddha 900
36. On fast and pilgrimage 904
37. Gift of a Vessel filled with water 908
38. On Salvation, Heaven, Gifts, Pilgrimage and good deeds 909
39. Rules of impurity 912
40. On accidental death 914
41. Releasing the Bull (Vrsotsarga) 919
42. On bestowing gifts 921
43. On performing a Sraddha 923
44. On accidental death 924
45. The mode of annual Sraddha 926
46. Results of activity 929
47. On Sins and Vaitarani 932
48. On Dharma and Adharma 936
49. Method of Final Release 941
 

C. BRAHMA (MOKSA) KANDA

 
Chapters  
1. Classification of the Puranas. The Nature of Deities 955
2. Puranic Trinity: Brahma, Visnu, Siva: Their respective roles 965
3. Creation of the universe: Variation due to difference in Gunas 972
4. Gunas and their nature: Imbalance and Equilibrium 978
5. Deities and their relative status 983
6. Deities and their relative status 988
7. Praise of Lord Visnu by deities and sages 995
8. Praise of Lord Visnu by deities and sages 1004
9. Nature of deities and the serial order of their position 1006
10. Creation primary and secondary 1008
11. Causes of Ignorance 1013
12. Praise of Visnu by Brahma 1020
13. Creation of deities after dissolution 1027
14. Nature and form of Visnu & benefits of Vaisvadeva 1031
15. Incarnations of Visnu 1035
16. Incarnations of Mahalaksmi 1039
17. Forms of Bharati in different births 1046
18. Incarnations of Rudra and after 1049
19. The Episode of Nila 1056
20. The Episode of Bhadra 1063
21. The Episode of Kalindi 1067
22. The Episode of Laksmana 1070
23. The Episode of Jambavati 1075
24. The glory of Venkatacala and lord Srinivasa 1080
25. Glory of Venkatesa and the method of worship 1091
26. On the mountain Venkata, Svamipuskarini and the deities residing there 1096
27. Visit to places of pilgrimage 1108
28. Anecdotes of the glory of Visnu 1112
29. On unfolding the mystery and secret of Reality 1126
GLOSSARY 1135
GENERAL INDEX 1145

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