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Books > Hindu > Brahmarcana Paddhatih (The Worship System of Lord Brahma) (A Rare Book)
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Brahmarcana Paddhatih (The Worship System of Lord Brahma) (A Rare Book)
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Preface

 

I have been residing in Bangkok-the capital of Thailand for the last several years engaged in the worship of gods which is the routine of my life, you may call it 'paurohitya'. It is only because of the 'Vrtti' that I got a chance of going to 'Canghava'-the city of Tyvan (Formosa) in July 1990 in order to perform 'pranapratistha' of a large idol of 'Brahma'. Since then, I have to go there on the occasion of the annual and half-yearly functions to perform special worship and yajna. Though there is not even a single Indian in that area, yet the entire process of worship is fulfilled by the natives (the Chinese people) and they themselves are the devotees. The language- problem is solved by the translator who translated the version from Thai to Chinese and from Chinese to Thai.

 

There has ever been the demand from the Chinese devotees specially from Mr. Feng Younglin on the occasion of my every journey to make them familiar with the worship-system, the mantras and stotras of Brahma, and if possible to make available some authentic book so that they may worship Lord Brahma in accordance with the proper way of the classical system of worship to their satisfaction.

 

In this connection, I came in contact with learned scholars, book-sellers and the librarians of Thailand and India but their response was negative and however, I was disheartened.

 

Motivation for collection of subject-matter of the book

 

On one auspicious day, fortunately I happened to get 'Sanksipta Brahmavaivarta Purananka' of the thirty seventh yearly Visesanka of Kalyana'. I read a myth in the eighth chapter of the Brahmakhanda. There was a description of curse by Brahma to Narada and by Narada to Brahma. Narada cursing his father-Brahma, says:

 

"O C'aturanana! (Brahma having four mouths) you have cursed me for no guilt for mine, against that if I also curse you that will not be improper. Due to my curse, your Kavac'a, the stotras and mantras alongwith your worship will vanish from all the three lokas. You will be unworthy of worship till three Kalpas are passed. During this interval of time, you will be deprived of your share in yajnas, You will not be worshipped by the devotees even at the time of their fast etc. But there will be one thing that you will be respected by gods and angels."

 

After reading this myth, an idea came to me that worship-system of Brahma was prevalent even before Narada had cursed Brahma and stotras and mantras pertaining to the worship were essentially there in the three lokas. If it were true, after research they could be traced, if three kalpas have passed.

 

It is evident from the study of Ramac'arita Manasa that several kalpas have passed:

 

"Ihan basata mohi sunu khaga isa.

Bite kalpa sata aru bisa."

(Ramac'arita Manasa Uttarkanda, Doha 114)

 

Thus Kaka Bhusundi, narrating the stories of his life and his various births said to Garuda that he had been residing there for the last twentyseven kalpas. The sankalpa that we take in worship and in the religious rituals has the content of 'Brahmano dvitiyaparardhe' which clearly indicates that fifty years out of Brahmas hundred years' age have passed.

 

So within fifty years (at the rate of two kalpas equal to one ahoratra or day) several kalpas have passed. This, indeed, is a matter of research in which kalpa did Narada cursed Brahma.

 

It appears that Brahma had become free from the period of curse of Narada because in every yajna, at several steps, he is being provided the share of yajna.

 

Brahma in South-East Asia

 

Among the South-East Asian countries, Thailand is such a country in which there is a glimpse of Indian culture in the day to day behaviour of father and son, the teacher and taught, old and young ones, in the literature, in sculpture, in festivals, in samskaras and also in traditional religious activities and beliefs.

 

At present, since last two decades, there has been a growing tendency of 'Devavada', One can easily find some where or the other, a glimpse of various forms of Lord Siva, Narayana; Ganesa, Indra, Sakti (Durga, Kali, Laksmi and Sarasvati etc.) in the house of thousands of people, at the public places and on business-centres. One can find a glimpse of a maximum group of gods in the houses of several gentlemen only at one place along with the idols of Lord Buddha but Brahma has the unique importance of his own. If you go for a walk on the road and pay attention to the buildings on your both sides, you will be having a splendid glimpse of idols of Lord Brahma in various forms, Four headed Brahma, eight armed Brahma (Astabhuja Brahma), the creator at an interval of ten to twenty houses.

 

Some scholars are of opinion that with the spread of Buddhism, Brahma came to be worshipped in Thailand and it were Brahmins who brought 'the worship-system. It is my personal opinion that this worship-system of deities must have been on the earth even before the spread of Buddhism, as it is evident from the archeological excavations of the ancient remains where from idols of deities and Sivalingas have been found. Needless to say, it is entirely a matter of research by archeologists.

 

In any form or the other, there is a description of Brahma and Indra in the sacred books of Buddhism, that is why people of Thailand have been familiar with those deities since much before, which is being seen in a developed form in the present age and among them Brahma holds the highest position.

 

In the corner of a crossing in the middle of the city of Bangkok (the name of the crossing is Siaikarachaprason) there is a famous idol of Brahma with four heads and eight arms widely known as Phra Phroma Airavan' (Vara Brahma Airavata) which has got great recognition from the common people. Even people from various countries of the South- East Asia come with all their preparations to worship Airavan Brahma. It has been the belief of the common people that one who worships Brahma with a wish to get what he desires, Brahma fulfils it.

 

In order to facilitate the devotees coming for a 'darsana' everywhere on the footpath there sit sellers with their decorated shops of garlands, candle-sticks (in place of lamp), fruits and elephants made of wood and some sellers are also seen moving hither and thither selling items of worship. After their wishes arc fulfilled they arrange a programme of dancing by female professional dancers-the 'Kinnaris' and some times they do so even before their wishes are fulfilled. This programme of dance is performed by a group of eight, twelve and sixteen dancer. Usually, there are four female dancers. in a group. If someone likes to get the programme performed by four dancers, he may do so. There is a fixed daksina for every group. All the arrangements are made by a committee set up by Archeological Department, Ministry of Education. The money that is collected through offering is spent in public welfare.

 

It is that place where from rays of the worship of Brahma have begun to spread and reach not only throughout Thailand but Tywan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Korea and Japan also. Now it is gradually reaching China. After Thailand it is most prevalent in Formosa and it is in progress day.-by-day.

 

According to Buddhism 'jiva' can reach 'Brahmaloka' by virtue of his noble deeds. In Hindu scriptures, only males have attained the position of Brahma, but in Buddhism even a female can attain the position of Brahma. In Buddhist scriptures there is a description of sixteen 'Brahmalokas' and four 'Maha Brahmalokas'. In the highest Brahmaloka the average age is 16000 kalpas. Which noble doers go to which 'Brahmalokas' is the matter of further research.

 

Introduction

 

During my stay at Bangkok (Thailand), I was astonished to see worship of Brahma from place to place. Brahma is worshipped in that country to the same extent and with the same spirit as Hanuman or Lord Siva is worshipped in India.

 

In Indian literature, too, Brahma occupied the first and main place among the Trinity (Brhaddevatrayi). Seeing Him unimportant in our own country (India) and main deity worth worshipping in other countries, who fulfils all the wishes of devotees and who is the giver of pleasure, is placed on so high eat of honour in the form of Asutosa, I was moved to accept his importance and was curious to know the secret of his importance and his worship- system.

 

In the year 1994, Pandit Vidyadhara Sukla the honourable Pradhana Hindu Purohita of Thailand, who is originally Indian came to Varanasi. Like me, he was also influenced by the keen interest and aptitude towards worship of Brahma in the people of Tywan (Formosa), Thailand, China etc. Therefore, seeing the insignificance of Brahmadeva and lack of systematic approach to the worship. Brahma in Indian Karrnak anda, he was not only anxious but was determined and alert to provide a system of worship at his own level also. He has been the classmate of my respected father and has father-like affection for me. There was a long discussion on this issue and it was decided that an attempt would be made to solve the problem of the worship-system of Brahma. As a result, after three years, due to continuous inspiration and motivation of Pandita Suklaji, this small collection is being' made available to the devotees, which is classical and approved by the oriental scholars.

 

The classical Evidence about Adideva Brahma:

 

According to the decision taken by us, first of all we found out some, authentic evidences from the Indian literature, specially from Vedas, Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bauddha and Jain literature. Then we gave the shape of classical worship system in accordance with system recognised by Sastras. We at first want to give here the details of vedic evidences.

 

Veda

 

In Vedic literature the place of Brahma has been accepted first of all in the 'Trinity'. According to Vedas, in the beginning of the creation, when everywhere there was water only, the seniormost among gods-Brahma (Prajapati ) appeared first. It was be who further created various lobs, groups of gods and various creatures of land and water. Therefore, He became famous as Creator of the world. In Vedas several words have been used for this deity the 'Creator', 'Visvakarman', 'Brahmanaspati', 'Hiranya garbha'. Brahma has been accepted as 'Parabrahma Paramatman' who came into being first. It is as under-

 

'Brahma Devanam prathamah sambhuva

Visvasya karta bhuvanasya gopta.

 

In the Hiranyagarbhasukta (101121) of Rgveda and according to Satapatha Brahmana, Brahma incarnated himself as Matsya, Karma, Varaha in the interest of the world. We can find references in 'Vayupurana' and 'Brahmanda Purana'· the ancient puranas. In all auspicious occasions there has been a system of his worship. Even today, it is in prominence in Sarvatabhadra, Lingatobhadra. Vastumandala Pratistha of 'Brahmagranthi' in the granthis (knots of 'yajnopavita, the importance of Rtvik namely Brahma in yajnas and importance of Brahmamuhurta clearly indicates the supremacy of Brahma.

 

The same Brahma is known as Narayana, Purusa , Mahan (the Great) in sastras. Therefore Purusa Sukta and 'Hiranyagarbha Sukta' of Rgveda, Visvakarman Sukta of Yajurveda, Jyestha Brahma Sukta of Atharvaveda appear to be the Suktas regarding Brahma. Placing of Visvakarman Sukta before 'Rudra Sukta' certifies the supremacy of Brahma.

 

Brahma the creator has created Prajapatis, according to his free will (Samkalpa). These Prajapatis perform the process of creation. These are-1. Maric'i, 2. Atri, 3. Angira, 4. Pulastya, 5. Pulaha, 6. Kratu, 7. Bhrgu, 8. Vasistha, 9. Daksa, 10. Kardama. Narada, Rudra, Dharma, Svayarnbhuva Manu and Karna etc. are his sons. All the gods are the grandsons of Brahma. So, Brahma is famous as Pitamaha (the grand father) of Devas, as Danavas, Yaksas, Raksas and Kinnaras. Moreover, owing to creation He favours religion. Whether Deva, Danava or Manava-' They all get the proper solution of their problems by going in his retreat and get what they wish to get.

 

Purana

Removal of the hindrance caused in the way of the Sun by 'Vindhya Parvata' and liberation from Tarakasura, Hiranyakasipu, Ravana etc.-the wicked kings of that time could be possible only by going under the retreat of Brahma. There are several such references and evidences in various puranas. The base of the prayer by 'Sakra' and other gods in 'Matsya Purana and Abhistada Brahma-Stava of Skanda Purana which is the giver of the desired result is Brahma. According to Padma Purana, Lord Siva and Visnu at the time of 'Puskarayajna and Rama at the time of a vist to Puskara Ksetra have prayed Brahma. Hiranya Kasipu the 'Adidaitya composed an excellent stotra for the worship of Brahma in which Brahma has been accepted as Parabrahma.

 

Agama

In Agamas, there has been a special school of thought of worshipping Brahma like Saiva and Sakta Agamas which was famous as 'Vaikhanasa Agama'.

 

There is a great recognition of Vaikhanasa Agama among all Agama-schools of thought. In Safikara sampradaya in almost all worships this sampradaya has been accepted as most authentic. Under this sampradaya Vaikhanasa Srauta sutra, grhya sutra, smartasutra and vaikhanasa and Prajapati smrtis are also available. Brahma has been accepted .as the original founder of Madhva Saupradaya.

 

Birth of Brahma

There is a reference of the existence of Brahma in the form of Svayambhii from Hiranyagarbha in the beginning of the creation. In Sakta scriptures goddes Mahalaksmi created Brahma and Laksrni, created by 'Paraprakrti', Brahma came into being in the form of variety of C'aitnya Purusa-there is also such a reference. In Vaisnava Scriptures there is a description of the creation of Brahma from the 'Nabhikarnala' of Visnu.

 

Brahma: His form and Colour

The colour of Brahma has been described as yellowish red. In Visnudharmottara Purana the secret of the form of Brahma and His ornaments have been widely described. According to it, His eastern mouth is associated with Rgveda, the southern mouth with Yajurveda, western with Samaveda and northern with Atharvaveda.

 

Kamandalu in hand

Thus his four arms have been described as four directions. Water is the essence of the world and the entire world is based on water. All sthavara and jan gama creatures are alive only due to water. Therefore, Brahma in the form of the symbol of water keeps a Kamandalu in his hand.

 

Rudraksamala and Krsnamrgac'arma

 

He has a garland of Rudraksa which is the symbol" of counting of time right from the moment to kalpa. The performance of rituals of yajna with the combination of various karmas (actions) takes place. There are several actions which are very prominent but some are general which have been called Suklasukla. So, as the symbol of yajna, Brahma wears krsnamrgac'arma (the black deer skin) the half of which is white and the other half is black.

 

His heir

Plants and herbs that grow in the world inhance its grace and continuously serve the interest of the creatures of the world. Brahma's head are equipped with hair which are symbols of herbs (osadhis). The Sun that lightens up the world, the Moon that shines, the jyotisc'akra and senses that reveal intelligence look graceful in the form of ornaments round the neck and throat, on chest and arms.

 

Vahana and Asana (Vehicle and Seat) of Brahma

There are seven lokas in the upper layer of the universe-Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svah, Mahah, Janah, Tapah and Satyam. Swan has been called the symbol of all these seven lokas in the places of the chariot of Brahma.

 

The Padmasana (the seat of lotus) is the lotus produced from the navel of Visnu Karnikas, of that lotus have been supposed to be the form of Sumeru mountain.

 

Index

 

Mangalam

1

Preface

1

Introduction

9

Dainiki Pujavidhih

26

Mantra Japavidhih

56

Brahma Stotra Sangrahah

60

Purusa Suktam

60

Hiranyagarbha Suktam

65

Visvakarma Suktam

68

Prajapati Mantrah

74

Jyestha Brahma Suktam

79

Brahmaradhana Mantrah

90

Visnukrta Brahmastavah

91

Sakradikrta Brahmastutih

103

Hiranyakasipu Krtam Brahmastotram

107

Naradakrta Brahmastutih

111

Maharsi Vyasakrta Brahmastutih

115

Swayambhu Stotram

117

Swayambhu Stavah

119

Rudra Proktam Brahma Kavac'am

122

Sri Ramakrtam Brahma Satanama Stotram

125

Brahmahrdaya Stotram

129

Brahmatattva Vimarsah

132

Brahmanah Sabha

140

Brahrnano Murtirac'ana

154

Brahmanah puja

163

Brahma Sambandhi Vratam

192

Brahmarc'ana Prasangah

199

Brahmanah Pujavidhanam

218

 

 

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Brahmarcana Paddhatih (The Worship System of Lord Brahma) (A Rare Book)

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Preface

 

I have been residing in Bangkok-the capital of Thailand for the last several years engaged in the worship of gods which is the routine of my life, you may call it 'paurohitya'. It is only because of the 'Vrtti' that I got a chance of going to 'Canghava'-the city of Tyvan (Formosa) in July 1990 in order to perform 'pranapratistha' of a large idol of 'Brahma'. Since then, I have to go there on the occasion of the annual and half-yearly functions to perform special worship and yajna. Though there is not even a single Indian in that area, yet the entire process of worship is fulfilled by the natives (the Chinese people) and they themselves are the devotees. The language- problem is solved by the translator who translated the version from Thai to Chinese and from Chinese to Thai.

 

There has ever been the demand from the Chinese devotees specially from Mr. Feng Younglin on the occasion of my every journey to make them familiar with the worship-system, the mantras and stotras of Brahma, and if possible to make available some authentic book so that they may worship Lord Brahma in accordance with the proper way of the classical system of worship to their satisfaction.

 

In this connection, I came in contact with learned scholars, book-sellers and the librarians of Thailand and India but their response was negative and however, I was disheartened.

 

Motivation for collection of subject-matter of the book

 

On one auspicious day, fortunately I happened to get 'Sanksipta Brahmavaivarta Purananka' of the thirty seventh yearly Visesanka of Kalyana'. I read a myth in the eighth chapter of the Brahmakhanda. There was a description of curse by Brahma to Narada and by Narada to Brahma. Narada cursing his father-Brahma, says:

 

"O C'aturanana! (Brahma having four mouths) you have cursed me for no guilt for mine, against that if I also curse you that will not be improper. Due to my curse, your Kavac'a, the stotras and mantras alongwith your worship will vanish from all the three lokas. You will be unworthy of worship till three Kalpas are passed. During this interval of time, you will be deprived of your share in yajnas, You will not be worshipped by the devotees even at the time of their fast etc. But there will be one thing that you will be respected by gods and angels."

 

After reading this myth, an idea came to me that worship-system of Brahma was prevalent even before Narada had cursed Brahma and stotras and mantras pertaining to the worship were essentially there in the three lokas. If it were true, after research they could be traced, if three kalpas have passed.

 

It is evident from the study of Ramac'arita Manasa that several kalpas have passed:

 

"Ihan basata mohi sunu khaga isa.

Bite kalpa sata aru bisa."

(Ramac'arita Manasa Uttarkanda, Doha 114)

 

Thus Kaka Bhusundi, narrating the stories of his life and his various births said to Garuda that he had been residing there for the last twentyseven kalpas. The sankalpa that we take in worship and in the religious rituals has the content of 'Brahmano dvitiyaparardhe' which clearly indicates that fifty years out of Brahmas hundred years' age have passed.

 

So within fifty years (at the rate of two kalpas equal to one ahoratra or day) several kalpas have passed. This, indeed, is a matter of research in which kalpa did Narada cursed Brahma.

 

It appears that Brahma had become free from the period of curse of Narada because in every yajna, at several steps, he is being provided the share of yajna.

 

Brahma in South-East Asia

 

Among the South-East Asian countries, Thailand is such a country in which there is a glimpse of Indian culture in the day to day behaviour of father and son, the teacher and taught, old and young ones, in the literature, in sculpture, in festivals, in samskaras and also in traditional religious activities and beliefs.

 

At present, since last two decades, there has been a growing tendency of 'Devavada', One can easily find some where or the other, a glimpse of various forms of Lord Siva, Narayana; Ganesa, Indra, Sakti (Durga, Kali, Laksmi and Sarasvati etc.) in the house of thousands of people, at the public places and on business-centres. One can find a glimpse of a maximum group of gods in the houses of several gentlemen only at one place along with the idols of Lord Buddha but Brahma has the unique importance of his own. If you go for a walk on the road and pay attention to the buildings on your both sides, you will be having a splendid glimpse of idols of Lord Brahma in various forms, Four headed Brahma, eight armed Brahma (Astabhuja Brahma), the creator at an interval of ten to twenty houses.

 

Some scholars are of opinion that with the spread of Buddhism, Brahma came to be worshipped in Thailand and it were Brahmins who brought 'the worship-system. It is my personal opinion that this worship-system of deities must have been on the earth even before the spread of Buddhism, as it is evident from the archeological excavations of the ancient remains where from idols of deities and Sivalingas have been found. Needless to say, it is entirely a matter of research by archeologists.

 

In any form or the other, there is a description of Brahma and Indra in the sacred books of Buddhism, that is why people of Thailand have been familiar with those deities since much before, which is being seen in a developed form in the present age and among them Brahma holds the highest position.

 

In the corner of a crossing in the middle of the city of Bangkok (the name of the crossing is Siaikarachaprason) there is a famous idol of Brahma with four heads and eight arms widely known as Phra Phroma Airavan' (Vara Brahma Airavata) which has got great recognition from the common people. Even people from various countries of the South- East Asia come with all their preparations to worship Airavan Brahma. It has been the belief of the common people that one who worships Brahma with a wish to get what he desires, Brahma fulfils it.

 

In order to facilitate the devotees coming for a 'darsana' everywhere on the footpath there sit sellers with their decorated shops of garlands, candle-sticks (in place of lamp), fruits and elephants made of wood and some sellers are also seen moving hither and thither selling items of worship. After their wishes arc fulfilled they arrange a programme of dancing by female professional dancers-the 'Kinnaris' and some times they do so even before their wishes are fulfilled. This programme of dance is performed by a group of eight, twelve and sixteen dancer. Usually, there are four female dancers. in a group. If someone likes to get the programme performed by four dancers, he may do so. There is a fixed daksina for every group. All the arrangements are made by a committee set up by Archeological Department, Ministry of Education. The money that is collected through offering is spent in public welfare.

 

It is that place where from rays of the worship of Brahma have begun to spread and reach not only throughout Thailand but Tywan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Korea and Japan also. Now it is gradually reaching China. After Thailand it is most prevalent in Formosa and it is in progress day.-by-day.

 

According to Buddhism 'jiva' can reach 'Brahmaloka' by virtue of his noble deeds. In Hindu scriptures, only males have attained the position of Brahma, but in Buddhism even a female can attain the position of Brahma. In Buddhist scriptures there is a description of sixteen 'Brahmalokas' and four 'Maha Brahmalokas'. In the highest Brahmaloka the average age is 16000 kalpas. Which noble doers go to which 'Brahmalokas' is the matter of further research.

 

Introduction

 

During my stay at Bangkok (Thailand), I was astonished to see worship of Brahma from place to place. Brahma is worshipped in that country to the same extent and with the same spirit as Hanuman or Lord Siva is worshipped in India.

 

In Indian literature, too, Brahma occupied the first and main place among the Trinity (Brhaddevatrayi). Seeing Him unimportant in our own country (India) and main deity worth worshipping in other countries, who fulfils all the wishes of devotees and who is the giver of pleasure, is placed on so high eat of honour in the form of Asutosa, I was moved to accept his importance and was curious to know the secret of his importance and his worship- system.

 

In the year 1994, Pandit Vidyadhara Sukla the honourable Pradhana Hindu Purohita of Thailand, who is originally Indian came to Varanasi. Like me, he was also influenced by the keen interest and aptitude towards worship of Brahma in the people of Tywan (Formosa), Thailand, China etc. Therefore, seeing the insignificance of Brahmadeva and lack of systematic approach to the worship. Brahma in Indian Karrnak anda, he was not only anxious but was determined and alert to provide a system of worship at his own level also. He has been the classmate of my respected father and has father-like affection for me. There was a long discussion on this issue and it was decided that an attempt would be made to solve the problem of the worship-system of Brahma. As a result, after three years, due to continuous inspiration and motivation of Pandita Suklaji, this small collection is being' made available to the devotees, which is classical and approved by the oriental scholars.

 

The classical Evidence about Adideva Brahma:

 

According to the decision taken by us, first of all we found out some, authentic evidences from the Indian literature, specially from Vedas, Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bauddha and Jain literature. Then we gave the shape of classical worship system in accordance with system recognised by Sastras. We at first want to give here the details of vedic evidences.

 

Veda

 

In Vedic literature the place of Brahma has been accepted first of all in the 'Trinity'. According to Vedas, in the beginning of the creation, when everywhere there was water only, the seniormost among gods-Brahma (Prajapati ) appeared first. It was be who further created various lobs, groups of gods and various creatures of land and water. Therefore, He became famous as Creator of the world. In Vedas several words have been used for this deity the 'Creator', 'Visvakarman', 'Brahmanaspati', 'Hiranya garbha'. Brahma has been accepted as 'Parabrahma Paramatman' who came into being first. It is as under-

 

'Brahma Devanam prathamah sambhuva

Visvasya karta bhuvanasya gopta.

 

In the Hiranyagarbhasukta (101121) of Rgveda and according to Satapatha Brahmana, Brahma incarnated himself as Matsya, Karma, Varaha in the interest of the world. We can find references in 'Vayupurana' and 'Brahmanda Purana'· the ancient puranas. In all auspicious occasions there has been a system of his worship. Even today, it is in prominence in Sarvatabhadra, Lingatobhadra. Vastumandala Pratistha of 'Brahmagranthi' in the granthis (knots of 'yajnopavita, the importance of Rtvik namely Brahma in yajnas and importance of Brahmamuhurta clearly indicates the supremacy of Brahma.

 

The same Brahma is known as Narayana, Purusa , Mahan (the Great) in sastras. Therefore Purusa Sukta and 'Hiranyagarbha Sukta' of Rgveda, Visvakarman Sukta of Yajurveda, Jyestha Brahma Sukta of Atharvaveda appear to be the Suktas regarding Brahma. Placing of Visvakarman Sukta before 'Rudra Sukta' certifies the supremacy of Brahma.

 

Brahma the creator has created Prajapatis, according to his free will (Samkalpa). These Prajapatis perform the process of creation. These are-1. Maric'i, 2. Atri, 3. Angira, 4. Pulastya, 5. Pulaha, 6. Kratu, 7. Bhrgu, 8. Vasistha, 9. Daksa, 10. Kardama. Narada, Rudra, Dharma, Svayarnbhuva Manu and Karna etc. are his sons. All the gods are the grandsons of Brahma. So, Brahma is famous as Pitamaha (the grand father) of Devas, as Danavas, Yaksas, Raksas and Kinnaras. Moreover, owing to creation He favours religion. Whether Deva, Danava or Manava-' They all get the proper solution of their problems by going in his retreat and get what they wish to get.

 

Purana

Removal of the hindrance caused in the way of the Sun by 'Vindhya Parvata' and liberation from Tarakasura, Hiranyakasipu, Ravana etc.-the wicked kings of that time could be possible only by going under the retreat of Brahma. There are several such references and evidences in various puranas. The base of the prayer by 'Sakra' and other gods in 'Matsya Purana and Abhistada Brahma-Stava of Skanda Purana which is the giver of the desired result is Brahma. According to Padma Purana, Lord Siva and Visnu at the time of 'Puskarayajna and Rama at the time of a vist to Puskara Ksetra have prayed Brahma. Hiranya Kasipu the 'Adidaitya composed an excellent stotra for the worship of Brahma in which Brahma has been accepted as Parabrahma.

 

Agama

In Agamas, there has been a special school of thought of worshipping Brahma like Saiva and Sakta Agamas which was famous as 'Vaikhanasa Agama'.

 

There is a great recognition of Vaikhanasa Agama among all Agama-schools of thought. In Safikara sampradaya in almost all worships this sampradaya has been accepted as most authentic. Under this sampradaya Vaikhanasa Srauta sutra, grhya sutra, smartasutra and vaikhanasa and Prajapati smrtis are also available. Brahma has been accepted .as the original founder of Madhva Saupradaya.

 

Birth of Brahma

There is a reference of the existence of Brahma in the form of Svayambhii from Hiranyagarbha in the beginning of the creation. In Sakta scriptures goddes Mahalaksmi created Brahma and Laksrni, created by 'Paraprakrti', Brahma came into being in the form of variety of C'aitnya Purusa-there is also such a reference. In Vaisnava Scriptures there is a description of the creation of Brahma from the 'Nabhikarnala' of Visnu.

 

Brahma: His form and Colour

The colour of Brahma has been described as yellowish red. In Visnudharmottara Purana the secret of the form of Brahma and His ornaments have been widely described. According to it, His eastern mouth is associated with Rgveda, the southern mouth with Yajurveda, western with Samaveda and northern with Atharvaveda.

 

Kamandalu in hand

Thus his four arms have been described as four directions. Water is the essence of the world and the entire world is based on water. All sthavara and jan gama creatures are alive only due to water. Therefore, Brahma in the form of the symbol of water keeps a Kamandalu in his hand.

 

Rudraksamala and Krsnamrgac'arma

 

He has a garland of Rudraksa which is the symbol" of counting of time right from the moment to kalpa. The performance of rituals of yajna with the combination of various karmas (actions) takes place. There are several actions which are very prominent but some are general which have been called Suklasukla. So, as the symbol of yajna, Brahma wears krsnamrgac'arma (the black deer skin) the half of which is white and the other half is black.

 

His heir

Plants and herbs that grow in the world inhance its grace and continuously serve the interest of the creatures of the world. Brahma's head are equipped with hair which are symbols of herbs (osadhis). The Sun that lightens up the world, the Moon that shines, the jyotisc'akra and senses that reveal intelligence look graceful in the form of ornaments round the neck and throat, on chest and arms.

 

Vahana and Asana (Vehicle and Seat) of Brahma

There are seven lokas in the upper layer of the universe-Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svah, Mahah, Janah, Tapah and Satyam. Swan has been called the symbol of all these seven lokas in the places of the chariot of Brahma.

 

The Padmasana (the seat of lotus) is the lotus produced from the navel of Visnu Karnikas, of that lotus have been supposed to be the form of Sumeru mountain.

 

Index

 

Mangalam

1

Preface

1

Introduction

9

Dainiki Pujavidhih

26

Mantra Japavidhih

56

Brahma Stotra Sangrahah

60

Purusa Suktam

60

Hiranyagarbha Suktam

65

Visvakarma Suktam

68

Prajapati Mantrah

74

Jyestha Brahma Suktam

79

Brahmaradhana Mantrah

90

Visnukrta Brahmastavah

91

Sakradikrta Brahmastutih

103

Hiranyakasipu Krtam Brahmastotram

107

Naradakrta Brahmastutih

111

Maharsi Vyasakrta Brahmastutih

115

Swayambhu Stotram

117

Swayambhu Stavah

119

Rudra Proktam Brahma Kavac'am

122

Sri Ramakrtam Brahma Satanama Stotram

125

Brahmahrdaya Stotram

129

Brahmatattva Vimarsah

132

Brahmanah Sabha

140

Brahrnano Murtirac'ana

154

Brahmanah puja

163

Brahma Sambandhi Vratam

192

Brahmarc'ana Prasangah

199

Brahmanah Pujavidhanam

218

 

 

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