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Buddhist Parables

Buddhist Parables


Item Code: IDC141

by Engene Watson Burlingame

Paperback (Edition: 1999)

Pilgrims Book Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN 8176240419

Language: Translated from the Original Pali
Size: 8.5" X 5.4"
Pages: 377
Weight of the Book: 354 gms
Price: $20.00
Discounted: $15.00   Shipping Free
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This volume contains upwards of two hundred similes, allegories, parables, fables, and other illustrative stories and anecdotes, found in the Pali Buddhist texts, and said to have been employed, either by the Buddha himself or by his followers, for the purpose of conveying religious and ethical lessons and the lessons of common sense. Much of the material has never before been translated into English.

Chapters I-III contain parables drawn, with a single exception, from the Book of the Buddha's Previous Existences, or Jataka Book. This remarkable work relates in mixed prose and verse the experiences of the Future Buddha, either as an animal or as a human being, in each of 550 states of existence previous to his rebirth as Gotama. The textus receptus of this work represents a recension made in Ceylon early in the fifth centuries A.D., but much of the material is demonstrably many centuries older. For example, the stanzas rank as Canonical Scripture, and many of the stories (including Parables 4 and 14 and 27) are illustrated by Bharahat sculptures of the middle of the third century B.C. Parable 6 is taken from the Book of Discipline or Vinaya, and was very possibly related by the Buddha himself.

With Parable 1, The grateful elephant, compare the story of Androclus and the lion, and Gesta Romanorum 104. With Parable 2, Grateful animals and ungrateful man, compare E. Chavannes, Cinq Cents Contes 25; A. Scheifner, Tibetan Tales 26; Gesta Romanorum 119; and the following stories in Grimm, Kinder-und Hausmarchen: 17 Die Goldkinder, 107 Die beiden Wanderer, 126 Ferenand getru un Ferenand ungetru, 191 Das Meerhaschen. For additional parallels, see J. Bolte und G. Polivka, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und Hausmarchen der Bruder Grimm, Marchen 17, 62, 191.

Parable 9, Vedabbha and the thieves, is the original of Chaucer's Pardoner's Tale. With Parable 10, A Buddhist Tar-baby, compare E. Chavannes, Cinq Cents Contes 89 and 410; also the well-known story in Joel Chandler Harris, Uncle Remus, His Songs and His Sayings. With Parable 13, Part 1, Gem, hatchet, drum, and bowl, compare Grimm, Kinder- und Hausmarchen: 36 Tischchen deck dich, Goldesel, und Knuppel aus dem Sack; 54 Der Ranzen, das Hutlein, und das Hornlein. For additional parallels, see Bolte-Polivka. A more primitive form of Parable 15, A Buddhist Henny-Penny, will be found in A. Schiefneer, Tibetan Tales 22. Compare the well-known children's story of the same name. Parables 5 and 14 are the oldest known prototypes of Panchatantra, Book 2, Frame-story.

Chapter IV contains four specimens of Jataka parables in early and late forms. Compare also Chapter II, Parables 6 and 7; and Chapter VIII, Parables 45 and 47, with Chapter III, Parables 8 and 11, respectively. The reader will observe that in the earlier (Canonical) versions, the Future Buddha has not yet become identified with any of the dramatis personae. This material is offered as a contribution to the history of the evolution of the Buddhist Parable.

Chapter V contains four remarkably fine old parables which may well have been related by the Buddha himself.

Chapter VI contains several typical specimens of a variety of parable which will undoubtedly be new to many students of religious literature-the Humorous Parable.

Chapter VII contains several specimens of Parables on Death. With Parable 30, Kisa Gotami, compare E. Chavannes, Cinq Cents Contes 224; Budge, Ethiopic Pseudo-Callisthenes, pp. 306-308, 374-376; Sir Edwin Arnold, Light of Asia, Book 5; John Hay, Poems, The Law of Death. A modern Burmese version of Parables 30 and 31 combined will be found in H. Fielding Hall, Soul of a People, pp. 272-278. For a Tibetan version of Parable 31, Patacara, see Tibetan Tales, pp. 222-226. Parable 31 is one of the three principal sources of the legend of St. Eustace, the other history of this legend, see H. Delehaye, La legende de saint Eustace, Bull. De l'Acad. Roy. De Belgique (Classe des lettres), 1919, pp. 175-210. Compare the history of Faustus, Faustinus, and Faustianus, in the Clementine Recognitiones, 200 A.D. (outline in dict Chr. Biog., i. 569-570); Gesta Romanorum 110; Golden Legend, St. Eustace; Early English metrical romance of Sir Ysumbras; and the story of Abu Sabir in the Arabian Nights (Burton, Supplemental Nights, i. 81-88).

Chapter VIII contains, in the form of an imaginary dialogue between an unbeliever and the Buddhist sage Kumara Kassapa, a lengthy discussion of the subject: "Is there a life after death?" In order to refute objections advanced by the unbeliever, the sage relates thirteen remarkably fine parables, finally vanquishing his antagonist. The arguments pro and con are the same that have been used ever since men began to discuss this important subject. The dialogue forms one of the chapters of the Long Discourses, one of the oldest of the Buddhist books, but is quite modern in its freshness.

Chapter IX contains several parables from a commentary on the Anguttara Nikaya composed by Buddhaghosa in the early part of the fifth century A.D. The first two parables in Chapter VII are from the same source. Parallels from a commentary on the Dhammapada composed by a contemporary of Buddhaghosa will be found in the author's Buddhist Legends.

Parable 49, Ghosaka, has traveled all over the world. For the principal Oriental versions, see J. Schick, Corpus Hamleticum, Berlin, 1912. For an interesting Chinese Buddhist version, see E. Chavannes, Cinq Cents Contes 45. This story appears to be the source of the ninth century apocryphal legend of the seven marvels attending the birth of Zoroaster; se the author's paper in Studies in Honor of Maurice Bloomfield, pp. 105-116. For some interesting European derivatives, see Gesta Romanorum 20 and 283; Golden Legend, Pope St. Pelagius; William Morris, Old French Romances, Kinig Coustans the Emperor (thirteenth century); Schiller's ballad Fridolin; Grimm, Kinder- und Haus-marchen, 29 Der Teufel mit den drei goldenen Haaren. For additional derivatives, see Bolte-Polivka, i. 286-288. The story of Amleth in the Danish History of Saxo Grammaticus contains two derivatives, of which one is utilized by Shakespeare in Hamlet.

Chapter X is a miscellaneous collection of parables from early sources. These parables are all much older than the beginning of the Christian era, and it is altogether probable that some of them, more particularly Parables 57, 58, 59, 60, 63, and 65, enshrine the very words of the Buddha himself is one,-Professor Charles Rockwell Lanman of Harvard University, Professor Maurice Bloomfield of the Johns Hopkins University, and the late Professor Morris Jastrow of the University of Pennsylvania. Through his exercises in the Fables of Bidpai, the late Professor Jastrow first opened my eyes to the immense possibilities of this body of literature. In innumerable ways, such as will readily suggest themselves to those who knew him well, he assisted me in my work, and through his untimely death I have suffered a profound personal loss. Under Professor Bloomfield I studied for many years, and through his exercises in the Vedas, in the fiction-collections of India, and in Comparative Grammar, laid the foundations of a sound philological method. Professor Lanman first opened the Pali texts to me, and did more than any other to assist me to interpret them. It is not only a duty but a pleasure to record my indebtedness to these three distinguished scholars.

I wish also to thank Professor E. Washburn Hopkins of Yale University for a careful review of the manuscript of the present work, and for many helpful suggestions.

I am greatly indebted to M. Andrew Keogh, Librarian of Yale University, and to Mr. James I. Wyer, Director of the New York State Library, for generous facilities accorded me in the loan of books. I am also under obligations to Professor Lanman for the loan of a rare copy of Buddhaghosa's Anguttara Commentary, Colombo, 1904. It is from this text that the translation of Buddhaghosa's Legends of the Saints have been made.

I have to thank Mr. Langdon Warner, Director of the Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia, for permission to reproduce the beautiful Graeco-Buddhist head which forms the frontispiece to the present volume.

Last, but by no means least, my most hearty thanks are due to Mr. George Parmly Day, President of the Yale University Press, for invaluable assistance rendered in connection with the execution and publication of the book.

Back of the Book

This book contains upwards of two hundred similes, allegories, parables, fables and other illustrative stories and anecdotes, found in the Pali Buddhist texts, and said to have been employed, either by the Buddha himself or by his followers, for the purpose of conveying religious and ethical lessons and the lessons of common sense.

The book is thus a collection of specimens of an unusually interesting type of literary composition; a text-book of the teachings of the Buddha, presented just as the Buddha and his followers presented them, by discourse and example; and a collection of good stories, all in one. It contains much that will interest children; it also contains much that will puzzle the profoundest philosopher.

Introductory Note

Gotama Buddha was born nearly twenty-five centuries ago in the city of Kapila, in North-East India. Kapila was the principal city of the Sakya tribe, and his father was king of the tribe. Gotama was his family name. Buddha means Awakened or Enlightened, that is to say, awakened or enlightened to the cause and the cure of human suffering.

The Buddhist Scriptures tell us that when Gotama was born, the agnels rejoiced and sang. An aged wise man inquired: "Why doth the company of angels rejoice?" They replied: "He that shall become Buddha is born in the village of the Sakyas for the welfare and happiness of mankind; therefore are we joyful and exceeding glad."

The wise man hastened to the king's house, and said: "Where is the child? I, too, wish to see him." They showed him the child. When he saw the child, he rejoiced and was exceeding glad. And he took him in him arms, and said: "Without an equal is he! foremost among men!" Then, because he was an old man, and knew that he was soon to die, he became sorrowful and wept tears.

Said the Sakyas: "Will any harm come to the child?" "No," replied the wise man, "This child shall one day become Buddha; out of love and pity for mankind he shall set in motion the Wheel of Religion; far and wide shall his religion be spread. But as for me, I have not long to live; before these things shall come to pass, death will be upon me. Therefore am I stricken with woe, over-whelmed with sorrow, afflicted with grief."

Seven days after Gotama was born, his mother died, and he was brought up by his aunt and stepmother. When he was nineteen years old, he married his own cousin. For ten years he lived a life of ease, in the enjoyment of all the comforts and luxuries which riches and high position could give him. When he was twenty-nine years old, a change came over him.

For many centuries, it has been a common belief in India that when a human being dies, he is at once born again. If he has lived a good life, he will be born again on earth as the child of a king or of a rich man, or in one of the heavens as a god. If he has lived an evil life, he will be born again as a ghost, or as an animal, or in some place of torment.

According to this belief, every person has been born and has lived and died so many times that it would be impossible to count the number. Indeed, so far back into the past does this series of lives extend that it is impossible even to imagine a beginning of the series. What is more to the point, in each of these lives every person has endured much suffering and misery.

Said the Buddha: "In weeping over the death of sons and daughters and other dear ones, every person, in the course of his past lives, has shed tears more abundant than all the water contained in the four great oceans."

And again: "The bones left by a single person in the course of his past lives would form a pile so huge that were all the mountains to be gathered up and piled in a heap, that heap of mountains would appear as nothing beside it."

And again" "The head of every person has been cut off so many times in the course of his past lives, either as a human being or as an animal, as to cause him to shed blood more abundant than all the water contained in the four great oceans."

Nothing more terrible than this can be imagined. Yet for many centuries it has been a common belief in India. Wise men taught wished to avoid repeated lives of suffering and misery, he must leave home and family and friends, become a monk, and devote himself to fasting, bodily torture, and meditation.

The Buddhist Scriptures tell us that when Gotama was twenty-nine years old, he saw for the first time an Old Man, a Sick Man, a Dead Man, and a Monk. The thought that in the course of his past lives he had endured old age, sickness, and death, times without number, terrified him, and he resolved to become a monk.

Leaving home and wife and son, he devoted himself for six years to fasting, bodily torture, and meditation. Finally he become convinced that fasting and bodily torture were not the way of salvation, and abandoned the struggle. One night he had a wonderful experience. First he saw the entire course of his past lives. Next he saw the fate after death of all living beings. Finally he came to understand the cause of human suffering and the cure for it.

Thus it was that he became Buddha, the Awakened, the Enlightened. He saw that the cause of rebirth and suffering was craving for worldly pleasures and life and riches. He saw that if this craving were uprooted, rebirth and suffering would come to an end. He saw that this craving could be uprooted by right belief, right living, and meditation.

For forty-five years the Buddha journeyed from place to place, preaching and teaching. He founded an order of monks and nuns, and won many converts. He lived to be eighty years old. Missionaries carried his teachings from India to Ceylon and Burma and China and Tibet and Japan. In a few hundred years the religion of the Buddha had spread over the whole of Asia. Hundreds of millions of human beings have accepted his teachings.

In at least two respects, the teachings of the Buddha were quite remarkable. In the first place, he insisted on the virtue of moderation. He urged upon his hearers to avoid the two extremes of a life devoted to fasting and self-torture and a life of self-indulgence. In the second place, he taught that a man must love his neighbor as himself, returning good for evil and love for hatred. But this was not all. He taught men to love all living creatures without respect of kind or person. He taught men not to injure or kill any living creature, whether a human being or an animal, even in self-defense. All war, according to the teaching of the Buddha, is unholy.

In the course of time it came to be believed that Gotama had become Buddha as the fruit of good deeds performed in countless previous states of existence, especially deeds of generosity. At any time, had he so desired, he might have uprooted craving for worldly pleasures and life and riches by meditation, and thus have escaped the sufferings of repeated states of existence. But this he deemed an unworthy course. Out of pity and compassion and friendliness for living creatures, he preferred to be reborn again and again, to suffer and to die again and again, in order that, by the accumulated merit of good works, he might himself become enlightened and thus be able to enlighten others.

In comparison with the career of the Future Buddha, devoted to the performance of good works, unselfish, generous to the point of sacrificing his own body and blood, the career of the monk, isolated from the world, selfish, seeking by meditation to uproot craving for worldly pleasures and life and riches, seemed low and mean. The disciple began to imitate his Master. Thus began the Higher Career or Vehicle of Mahayana or Catholic Buddhism, as distinguished from the Lower Career or Vehicle of the more primitive Hinayana Buddhism of the Pali texts. Thus did the quest of Buddhahood supplant the quest of Nibbana. This development took place long before the beginning of the Christian era.


Preface xix
Introductory Notexxv
Note on Pali Namesxxviii
Bibliographical Notexxviii
Chapter I. Parables from the Book of the Buddha's Previous Existences on the gratefulness of animals and the ungratefulness of man
1.The grateful elephant1
Where there's a will, there's a way
2.Grateful animals and ungrateful man6
Driftwood is worth more than some men
3.Elephant and ungrateful forester11
The whole earth will not satisfy an ungrateful man
Chapter II.Parables from the Book of the Buddha's Previous Existences and from the Book of discipline, on unity and discord
4.Quail, crow, fly, frog, and elephants16
The biter bit
5.Quails and fowler18
In union there is strength
6.Brahmadatta, Dighiti, and Dighavu (cf. 7)20
Love your enemies
7.Dighavu and the king of Benares (cf. 6)28
Love your enemies
Chapter III.Parables from the Book of the Buddha's Previous Existences on divers subjects
8.Two caravan-leaders (cf. 45)30
Adhere to the Truth
9.Vedabbha and the thieves36
Cupidity is the root of ruin
10.A Buddhist Tar-baby (cf. 21)41
Keep the Precepts
11.Two dicers (cf. 47)44
Take care
12.Brahmadatta and Mallika45
Overcome evil with good
13.King Dadhivahana
Evil communications corrupt good manners
Part 1. Gem, hatchet, drum, and bowl 49
Part 2. Corrupt fruit from a good tree51
14.Antelope, woodpecker, tortoise, and hunter
In union there is strength
15.A Buddhist Henny-Penny55
Much ado about nothing
Chapter IV.Parables from the Book of the Buddha's Previous Existences in early and late forms
16.Partridge, monkey, and elephant
Reverence your elders
A. Canonical version59
B. Uncanonical version60
17.The hawk
Walk not in forbidden ground
A. Canonical version62
B. Uncanonical version68
A blessing upon all living beings!
A Canonical version64
B. Uncanonical version66
19.Dragon Jewel-neck (cf. 20)
Nobody loves a beggar
A. Canonical version68
B. Uncanonical version70
Chapter V.Parables from early sources on divers subjects
20.The birds (cf. 19)73
Nobody loves a beggar
21.The monkey (cf. 10 and 17)74
Walk not in forbidden ground
22.Blind men and elephant75
Avoid vain wrangling
23.The anger-eating ogre77
Refrain from anger
Chapter VI.Humorous parables from early and late sources
24.Mistress Vedehika79
Patient is an patient does
25.Monkey and dyer81
The Doctrine of the Buddha wears well
26.How not to hit an insect
Better an enemy with sense than a friend without it
A. Boy and mosquito82
B. Girl and fly84
Misdirected effort spells failure
A. One-stanza version85
B. Three-stanza version87
28.Boar and lion89
Touch not pitch lest ye be defiled
29.Beetle and elephant90
Pride goeth before a fall
Chapter VII.Parables from various sources on death
30.Kisa Gotami92
There is o cure for death
Kinsfolk are no refuge
32.The Heavenly Messengers
Prepare for death
Part 1. Makhadeva97
Part 2. Nimi99
Cremated fourteen thousand times in one place !
Why weep for eighty-four thousand daughters?
35.Visakha's sorrow107
So many dear ones, so many sorrows
Chapter VIII.Parables from the Long Discourses on the subject: "Is there a life after death?"
The wicked do not return to earth109
36.The condemned criminal110
The virtuous do not return to earth110
37.The man in the dung-pit111
The virtuous do not return to earth112
38.Time in heaven113
How do we know that the gods exist?113
39.The blind man113
Why do not the virtuous commit suicide?114
40.The woman with child115
We cannot see the soul after death116
41.We cannot see the soul during life116
The dead are heavier than the living116
42.Heat makes things light117
We cannot see the soul117
43.Villagers and trumpet118
We cannot see the soul119
44.The search for fire119
Wilful persistence in error121
45.Two caravan-leaders (cf. 8)121
Wilful persistence in error123
46.Dung for fodder124
Wilful persistence in error124
47.Two dicers (cf. 11)124
Wilful persistence in error125
48.Giving up better for worse125
Conversion of the unbeliever126
Chapter IX.Parables from Buddhaghosa's Legends of the Saints
He that diggeth a pit shall fall into it
A. Story of the Past: A father casts away his son
B. Story of the Present: Ghosaka is cast away seven times130
50.Little Wayman
The last shall be first
A. Birth of Little Wayman133
B. Little Wayman as a monk140
C. Story of the Past: The mouse-merchant143
51.Nanda the Elder
Giving up worse for better
A. Canonical version146
B. Uncanonical version149
52.Bhadda Kundalakesa151
Quick is the wit of woman
53.Visakha's marriage158
Honor the household divinity
54.King Kappina and Queen Anoja (cf. 62)171
Behold the fruit of faith
55.Khema (cf. 56)176
Beauty is but skin-deep
56.Nanda (cf. 55)178
Beauty is but skin-deep
Chapter X.Parables from early sources on the Doctrine
57.The sower180
Like the soil of the earth is the soil of the heart
58.The Buddha and Ananda182
Whoever walks in righteousness, honors the Buddha
59.The Buddha and Vakkali182
Whoever sees the Truth, sees Me
Whoever sees Me, sees the Truth
60.The Buddha and the sick man184
He that would wait upon Me, let him wait upon the sick
61.The snake185
Grasp the Scriptures aright
62.Walking on the water (cf. 54)186
Behold the fruit of faith !
63.The Beginninigless Round of Existences (cf. 78-80)188
Uproot Craving, the Eye of Existence
64.The relays190
The Religious Life is only a means to an end
65.The Great Ocean193
The Doctrine Tastes only of Deliverance
66.The Buddha and the herdsman Dhaniya197
So If thou wilt, rain, O god
67.The axe in the mouth199
Every man is born with an axe in his mouth
Chapter XI.Similes and short parables from the Questions of Milinda
1. There is no permanent individuality201
2. There is no continuous personal identity204
69.Embryo and child204
70.Lamp and flame205
71.Milk and butter205
3. What, then, is reborn?206
Name-and-Form is reborn206
72.Theft of mangoes206
73.Fire in a field207
74.Lamp under a thatch207
75.Girl and woman208
76.Milk and curds208
What is Name and what is Form?209
77.Gem and egg209
4. Time has no beginning (cf. 63)209
78.Seed and fruit210
79.Egg and hen
81.Timbers and house211
82.Seeds and plants211
83.Clay and vessels211
84.Lyre and sound211
85.Fire-drill and fire212
86.Burning-glass and fire212
87.Mirror and reflection 212
6. There is no soul213
88.Six Doors of the Senses213
89.Men in palace213
90.Man outside of gateway214
91.Man in trough of honey214
7. Why does ot the fire of Hell destroy the of Hell?215
92.Embryo of reptiles and birds215
93.Embryo of beasts of prey216
94.Human embryo216
8. Nibbana is unalloyed bliss217
95. Bliss of sovereignty218
96.Bliss of knowledge218
9. Nibbana is unlike anything else 219
Unlike anything else also are:
97.The great ocean219
98.The Gods without form220
But it has the following qualities:
99.One quality of he lotus221
100.Two qualities of water221
101.Three qualities of medicine222
102.Four qualities of the great ocean222
103.Five qualities of food222
104.Ten qualities of space223
105.Three qualities of the wishing-jewel223
106.Three qualities of red-sandalwood223
107.Three qualities of the cream of ghee224
108.Five qualities of a mountain-peak224
10. Nibbana is neither past nor future nor present224
It is neither produced nor not produced nor to be produced. Yet it exists, and may be realized
109.Escape from a bon-fire225
110.Escape from a heap of corpses225
111.Escape from peril226
112.Escape from mud226
113.Red-hot iron ball227
115.Traveler who has lost his way228
11. Nibbana is not a place228
116.fields and crops228
117.Fire-sticks and fire229
118.Seven Jewels of a King229
12. How do we know that the Buddha ever existed?230
How do we know that Kings existed of old?230
So is it in the case of the Buddha231
119.The builder of a city is known by his city231
120.So is the Buddha known by his City of Righteousness232
Seven Shops of the Buddha:233
124.Buyer and seller of mangoes235
Seven Jewels of the Buddha:238
134.Analytical Powers241
135.Prerequisites of Enlightenment242
136.General shop243
13. The Pure Practices
137-162.Twenty-six similes244
Chapter XII.Parables from the Long Discourses on the Fruits of the Religious Life
Removal of the Five Obstacles246
163.Payment of a debt246
164.Recovery from a sickness247
165.Release from prison247
166.Emancipation from slavery247
167.Return from a journey248
The Four Trances248
first Trance248
168.Ball of lather249
Third Trance249
169.Pool of water (cf. 179 and 203)249
Third Trance250
Fourth Trance250
171.Clean garment250
172.Threaded gem251
Creation of a Spiritual Body251
173.Reed, sword, snake252
The Six Supernatural Powers252
174.Potter, ivory-carver, goldsmith253
The Heavenly Ear253
175.Sounds of Drums253
176.Reflection in a mirror254
Recollection of previous states of existence254
177.Recollection of a journey254
The Heavenly Eye255
178.Mansion at cross-roads255
Knowledge of the means of destroying the three Con taminations: Nibbana256
179.Pool of water (cf. 169 and 203)256
Chapter XIII.Parables from the medium-length Discourses on two kinds of herdsmen
180.Mara, the Wicked Herdsman253
Destruction of the Eye of Mara263
The Four Trances263
Knowledge of the means of destroying the taminations264
181-183.The Buddha, the Good Herdsman I 264
How Gotama mastered his thoughts265
181.Herd of cows265
How Gotama concentrated his thoughts 266
182.Herd of cows266
How Gotama attained Enlightenment 267
The Four Trances267
Recollection of previous states of existence267
The Heavenly Eye268
Knowledge of the means of destroying the Three Contaminations268
183.Herd of deer269
The Buddha, the Good Herdsman270
184.The Buddha, the Good Herdsman II270
Chapter XIV.Parables from the Medium-length Discourses on the Pleasures of Sense
185-191.Seven Parables274
186.Piece of meat275
187.Torch of grass275
188.Pit of red-hot coals275
190.Borrowed goods276
191.Fruit of tree276
192.Fruit of tree276
Chapter XV.Parables from the Medium-length Discourses on the fruit of good and evil deeds
Four Courses of Conduct280
Pain now and pain hereafter280
Pleasure now and pain hereafter280
Pain now and pleasure hereafter281
Pleasure now and pleasure hereafter281
193.Poisoned Calabash281
194.Poisoned cup281
195.Foul-tasting medicine282
196.Curds and honey and ghee and jaggery282
197.Even as the sun, so shines righteousness283
Five Future States283
198.Pit of red-hot coals284
Animal kingdom285
Region of the fathers285
200.Tree with scanty shade285
World of men286
201.Tree with ample shade286
Worlds of the Gods286
203.Lotus-pond (cf. 169 and 179)287
Chapter XVI.Parables of the Sacred Heart of Buddha
Thou alone, O my Heart, art called to be the Saviour of All
A. On the Treasury of Merits of Buddha
Thou art a Treasury of Merits !
204.On the Perfecting of the Perfections Dhammapada Comm.289
Mine eyes have I torn out! My heart's flesh have I uprooted !
205.On the attainment of Enlightenment Dhammapada Comm. i. 8a289
Blessed indeed is that mother, whose son is such a one as he !
206.Abatement of plagues at Vesali Dhammapada Comm. Xx. 1291
If he but come hither, these plagues will subside
207.The king who took upon himself the sins and sufferings of his people Sanskrit-Chinese293
If there be any that hunger, it is I that have made them hungry
B. On the Sacrifice of the Body and Blood
I will satisfy the hunger of my friends with my own body and blood !
208.Boar and lion 297
Eat me, O lion !
209.Fairy-prince and griffin 298
Eat me, O griffin !
210.Jeweler, monk, and goose 305
I am ready to sacrifice my body to preserve the life of this goose !
Only that I might attain Supreme Enlightenment !
212.King Shibi and the bird314
Thou alone, O my Heart, art called to be the Saviour of All
C.On the Sacrifice of the Eyes
Here is your eye! Take it!
213.King Sivi and the blind beggar324
Should any man name my eyes, I will pluck them out and give them to him!
214.Subha of Jivaka's Mango Grove
Here is your eye! take it!
A. Prose version325
B. Poetical version327
215.The prince-ascetic330
Behold this, such as it is! Take it, if you like
216.Prince Kunala331
Plucked out, the eye of flesh; but gained, the Eye of Knowledge!
217.St. Brigid of Kildare
A. Medieval Latin version332
Dearer the Eye of the Soul than the eye of the body
B. Middle Irish version332
Lo, here for thee is thy beautiful eye!
218.St. Lucy of Syracuse
A. Medieval Latin version (early)333
B. Medieval Latin version (late)
Philippus Bergomensis, De Claris Mulieribus333
Here hast thou what thou hast desired! Leave me in peace!
219.St. Lucy of Alexandria
John Moschus, Leimon, Patrologia Graeca334
And seising here spindle, she bit, and gouged out here two eyes
220.King (Richard of England) and nun
Jacques de Vitry, Exempla, 57335
Behold the eyes that thou desirest! Take them, and leave me in peace!
Lost, the eyes of the flesh; but kept, the Eyes of the Spirit
Table of Parallels336

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