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Books > Ayurveda > Caraka Samhita (Volume I Sutra-Sthana)
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Caraka Samhita (Volume I Sutra-Sthana)
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The Caraka Samhita stands at the top of the ancient texts representing the School of Medicine in Ayurveda founded by the great Scholar-Sage Punarvasu Atreya. Its value is further enhanced by the fact that it is the only text available in complete form where-as other contemporary Samhitas such as of Jatukarna, temporary Samhitas such as of Jatukarna, Parasara etc. perished, that of Bhela is incomplete and that of Harita is dragged into controversy. Thus any scholar desirous to know about the fundamentals of Ayurveda and its approach to life, health and disease has essentially to take resort to the study of this text unique in depth and divergence. It is rightly said, "whatever is not here can not be found anywhere else."

Historically too, it is quite interesting, Like an archaeological edifice. If it is dug into one would come across three distinct strate of authorship ascribed to Agnivesa, Caraka and Drdhabala in successive order.

And Translation This immensely valuable text needed since long a faithful and simple translation into English communicating the ideas as they are without divulging into dogmatic details which make the situation terse particularly for a young scholar. This comes from the pen of two erudite scholars of Ayurveda who has devoted the major part of the life in studying the text intensively from various angles and has command over both the languages concerned.

Thus the present work is a definite improvement in that its easy narrative style permits a Scholar not acquainted with Sanskrit syntax to grasp the various concepts of Ayurveda. Moreover, the present translation represents the first attempt of its kind to express in English the Ayurveda Dipika commentary by Cakrapanidatta, which sheds light after light on the text.

Vaidya Bhagwan Dash

Alongside what can be termed official medical science, the search for new drugs, and all the activity connected with the discovery of nature's secrets there exists a vast body of knowledge which stretches back into the ancient realms of time.

People without number throughout the world are fascinated by, and drawn to the world of alternative medicine which is receiving evermore recognition and appreciation in view of the use of the elements which our mother earth offers.

Vaidya Bhagwan Dash, former deputy adviser on Ayurveda to the Indian Ministry of Health, is a leading expert in a field which brings together ancient traditions and innovation in an attempt to meet the enormous needs of a country such as India.

On the sound basis of his medical training and research, Dash has furthered his studies, and as a recognised authority in Ayurveda has taken his knowledge and caring beyond his country.

He can look back on a long career in medicine and public service and among the many appointments he has held figures that of Director of the Yoga Research Institute in New Delhi.

The Pie Manzu Centre intends recognizing the contribution which Vaidya Bhagwan Dash has made to the health and well-being of mankind by awarding him the medal of the Presidency of the Italian Senate.

About the Author

Dr. Ram Karan Sharma (born March 20, 1927 at Shivapur, Saran, Bihar) was initiated to Vedic and allied studies (including Ayurveda) on traditional lines by Pandit Ambikadatta Sharma at Lokamanya Brahmacaryasrama, Muzaffarpur. As a full bright scholar, he worked with Prof. M. B. Emeneau at the University of California, Berkeley, U. S. A. College Muzaffarpur and Dr. Ishvara Datta (Patna College) affiliated to Patna University.

He was founder Director, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan; vice Chancellor, Sampurnanand and Sanskrit University and Kameshvara Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University; Joint Educational Adviser, Govt. of India; Visiting of Bihar. Presently he is the President of International Association of Sanskrit Studies. Areas of his special interest are: Panini, Mahabharata, Darsana, Kavya and Ayurveda. More than one hundred research papers and about a dozen major publications he has authored. His creative writings include Sandhya (Poetry), a recipient of Sahitya Akademi award and Sima (Novel) a recipient of Bharatiya Bhasha Parishad award.

Vaidya Bhagwan Dash (born Oct. 1934 in Parbatipur, Orissa) has had an outstandingly brilliant academic career. In addition to graduate and postgraduate qualifications in Ayurveda, he holds a Master's degree in Sanskrit and a Doctorate from University of Delhi.

In the course of over forty years dedicated to research and practice of Ayurveda, Dr. Dash has attended several international conferences and seminars held in Brazil, Mexico, Italy and France. He was invited to deliver a course of lectures in Ayurveda at the Patrice Lumumba Friendship University, Moscow and the Australia School of Ayurveda at Adelaide, South Australia.

A Sanskrit scholar, he handles the English Language with equal felicity. A significant advantage to his propensity for research in Ayurveda is Dr. Dash's proficiency in Tibetan Medicine.

Author of over sixty important publications covering different aspects of Ayurveda and Tibetan Medicine, he is recipient of several prestigious awards including a Gold Medal from the Presidency of Italian Senate for outstanding services he has made to the health and well-being of mankind.

He was deputy Adviser in Adviser in Ayurveda to the Government of India in the Ministry of Health and F. W. till 1981, when he took voluntary retirement to enable him to devote more time for academic and research activities. As a Consultant in Traditional Medicine of the World Health Organisation, he had paid several visits to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma and Mongolia to study and advise on the Health Development Programmes of those countries.

 

Introduction

The Caraka-samahita is famous as one of the remarkable accomplishments of ancient Indian science. Its large Sutra- sthana, as a thesaurus of the basic elements of Ayurveda practice, including the intellectual preparation of the physician besides the principles of medicine, is itself an arduous task for transla- tors. While two English translations of the Caraka are presently available, they are too literal, almost requiring that the original Sanskrit be read along with the translation in order to garner the meaning. I am happy to report that the present work, the result of unremitting and sensitive labors by Dr. R. K Sharma and Mr. Bhagwan Dash, is a definite improvement in that its easy narrative style permits a scholar not acquainted with San- skrit syntax to grasp the various concepts of Ayurveda. Moreover, the present translation is the first one to express in English the Ayurveda Dipika commentary by Cakrapani Datta, which sheds light after light on the Caraka.

I believe that the translators are quite justified in leaving un translated certain terms, notably the triad of vata, pitta, and kapha, and certain names for diseases that stand for clusters of diseases rather than for particular well-defined ones Altogether, this translation, consummated as it is on a high level of learning and intelligence, should help the Caraka to assume its justified role in modern-day Ayurveda; and at the very least enhance the admiration due to this great classic in the Eastern and Western worlds.

 

Foreword

I suppose that, in asking me to write a foreword to Dr. Bhagwan Dash's excellent rendering of Caraka Samhita and Ayurveda Dipika of Cakrapani Datta in English, the intention of the publisher is to introduce the young author to the world of Ayurveda, which I have been in contact with much longer, haying entered the field much earlier. The second possible ob- jective is to make available to the prospective reader of the book my assessment of the practical and academic worth of the author's work.

Dr. Bhagwan Dash's current reputation in the field of Ayurvedic scholarship, research and administration is flattering enough to render unnecessary anv fresh evaluation thereof by me. He has risen, like good Generals in Defence services, from the ranks. It has been my privilege and pleasure to see him leave milestone after milestone behind him in his onward march to success in different fields of Ayurvedic activities, both academic and administrative. And the best fruits of his multi-dimensional intellectual labour are to be found in his present interpretation of Caraka Samhita, a work which, in its own right, ranks as the greatest legacy the Seers of ancient India have bequeathed to the sciences of life.

Again, the Ayurveda Dipika of Cakrapani Datta is gener- ally accepted as.the most authentic commentary on the text of Caraka Samhita. This book will probably be the first to offer a standard English translation of Cakrapani's important work to those having no direct access to the Sanskrit language.

I, therefore, attach considerable importance to this publi- cation which is going to remove a great lacuna from the existing Ayurvedic literature available in the English language. Those who wish to undertake an intimate and advanced study of Caraka Samhita and, to an extent, even of Ayurveda as a whole, and are not equipped with an adequate knowledge of Sanskrit to study the originals by themselves, will find it profitable, per- haps even indispensable, to make a serious study of the contents of this treatise. The translations of the Samhita and the commen- tary make an interesting reading. Here and there, the author brings a touch of modernity to the ancient text. He describes the assembly of the Rsis in the Caitraratha forest as a " sympo- sium" "and the Rsis themselves as "participants in this sympo- sium". Punarvasu's expression of views at the end of a discussion is captioned as " The Concluding Remarks of the Chairman- Lord Punarvasu". He has almost bodily lifted the assembly from the beautiful Caitraratha forest and deposited it in a committee room of a modern institution.

Yet the translation remains faithful to the text. The great teacher is referred to as "Lord" Punarvasu only, and not as " His Holiness" or " His Excellency" Punarvasu. The word" Lord" is not an inapt translation of the word" Bhagavan". Therein lies the chief merit of the author's interpretation-there is no de- parture from the true sense of the original text. I consider it a creditable achievement. It is particularly so when the text he has handled is as important and as extensive as that of Caraka Samhita and Ayurveda Dipika. I believe the readers will find the study of this book rewarding and satisfying.

 

CONTENTS
Introduction by Alex Wayman   iii
Foreward by Pandit Shiv Sharma   v
CHAPTER I
   
QUEST FOR LONGEVITY (DIrghnjivitiya)
   
  Verse
Nos.
Page
No.
Introduction 1-2 1
Bharadvaja's approach to Indra for study of Ayurveda 3 12
Chronology of the Propounders of Ayurveda 4-5 15
Assembly of sages 6-15 16
Meditation in search of the Teacher 15-18 19
Teaching of Ayurveda by Indra to Bharadvaja 18-23 20
Three cardinal principles of Ayurveda to Sages 24 21
Bharadvaja's teaching of Ayurveda to Sages 25-29 21
Six disciples of Atreya 30-31 23
Composition of medical texts 32-40 23
Definition of Ayurveda 41 25
Definition and synonyms of Ayus (life) 42 25
Excellence of Ayurveda 43 26
Definition of Samanya (generic concomitance) and visesa (variant factor) 44-45 26
Scope of Ayurveda 46-47 32
Enumeration and classification of dravya (matter) 48 33
Enumeration of gunas (qualities) and karmans (actions) 49 35
Definition of Samavaya (Inseparable concomitance) 50 36
Definition of dravya (matter) 51 37
Definition of Guna (quality) 51 37
Definition of karman (action) 52 38
Object of Ayurveda 53 39
Enumeration of the causes of diseases 54 39
Two types of substrata of diseases and the factor responsible for maintaining positive health 55 40
Definition of Atman (soul) 56 41
Enumeration of three dosas (pathogenic factors) of the body and two dosas of the mind 57 41
Factors responsible for the alleviation of dosas (pathogenic factors) 58 43
Qualities of vayu, patta and slesman and factors responsible for their alleviation 59-61 43
Means of alleviating diseases 62-63 44
Definition of rasa (taste) and factors responsible for its manifestation 64 45
Enumeration of rasas 63 46
Rasas which alleviate different dosas 66 46
Classification of dravyas (matter) on the basis of their prabhava (specific action) 67 47
Classification of dravyas (matter) depending upon the source of origin and their enumeration 68-74 49
Enumeration of dravyas (matter) having therapeutic excellence 74-76 50
Names and actions of sixteen drugs whose fruits are used in medicine 77-80 51
Name and actions of nineteen drugs whose fruits are used in medicine 80-86 51
Enumeration of four snahas (fats) 86-88 53
Enumeration of five types of lavanas (salt) and their usage 88-92 53
Enumeration of eight types of urine and their usage 92-105 54
Enumeration of eight types of milk and their usage 105-113 56
Enumeration of three plants whose latex is used in medicine and their usage 114-115 57
Enumeration of three plants whose bark is used in medicine and their usage 116-119 58
Utility of the knowledge regarding names, morphology and usage of drugs 120-123 58
Dangers in ignorance about the names, morphology and usage of drugs 124-125 59
Responsibility of the physician 126-133 60
Definition of appropriate medicine 134 61
Accomplished physician 135 61
Summary 136-140 61
CHAPTER II
   
DEHUSKED SEEDS OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN
(Apamargatanduliya)
   
Introduction 102 63
Drugs for sirovirecana (elimination of dosas from the head) 3-6 63
Drugs for vamana (emesis) 7-8 64
Drugs for virecana (purgation) 9-10 65
Drugs for asthapana and anuvasana types of enema 11-14 66
Administration of pancakarma (five specialised therapies) 15 67
Propriety in administration of drugs 16 68
Twenty eight recipae of gruel 17-33 68
Summary 34-36 72
CHAPTER III
   
CASSIA FISTULA LINN. (Aragvadhiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 74
Fifteen recipae for the cure of obstinate skin diseases 3-17 74
Five recipe for alleviation of vata 18-20 78
Three recipae for alleviation of vatarakta (gout) 21-23 79
Two recipae for headache 23-24 80
Recipe for parsvaruk (pain in the sides of the chest) 25 80
Two recipae for alleviation of burning sensation 26-27 80
Recipae for alleviation of burning sensation 28 81
Recipae for reducing diaphoresis and correcting bad smell of the body 29 81
Summary 30 82
CHAPTER IV
   
SIS HUNDRED PURGATIVES (Sadvirecanasatasritiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 83
Enumeration of the topics of the chapter 3 83
Six hundred recipae for purgation including emesis 4 84
Six parts of plants used in recipae 5 84
Five types of decoction 6 84
Five pharmaceutical processes 7 84
Fifty groups of important decoctions 8 86
Discussion about the number between Agnivesa and Atreya 21-22 102
Summary 23-29 103
CHAPTER V
   
QUANT IT ATIVE DIETETICS (Matrasitiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 105
Eating in proper quantity 3 105
Quantity of food and digestion 4 106
Quantity of food in relation to quality 5-7 106
Intake of food of proper quality 8-9 108
Unwholesome food 10-11 109
Wholesome food 12-13 109
Personal hygiene 14 110
Time for the use of collyrium 15-17 111
Benefits of the use of collyrium 18-20 112
Smoking 20-27 112
Benefits of smoking 27-33 114
Schedule for smoking 33-38 115
Bad effects of improper smoking 38-39 116
Treatment of complication 39-40 116
Contra-indications for smoking 41-46 117
Routes of smoking 46-49 117
Size and shape of smoking pipe 49-52 118
Signs of proper and improper smoking 52-56 119
Use of nasal drops 56-57 119
Benefits of the use of nasal drops 57-63 120
Anu taila 63-71 120
Teeth brushing and tongue scraping 71-76 122
Chewing 76-77 123
Gargles 78-80 123
Use of oil on head 81-83 124
Dropping of oil in ears 84-124  
Oil massage 85-87 124
Benefits of oil massage and unction 88-96 125
Bath 94 126
Use of clean dress 95 126
Use of Scents 96 126
Use of ornaments 97 126
Cleaning feet and excretory orifices 98 126
Cutting of hair and nails 99 127
Use of foot wears 100 127
Use of umbrella 101 127
Use of walking stick 102 127
Vigilance for maintaining the physique 103 127
Choice of profession 104 128
Summary 105-111 128
CHAPTER VI
   
QUALITATIVE DIET ETICS (Tasyasitiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 130
Improtance of the knowledge of dietetics 3 130
Two Solstics 4-5 130
Effects of adana and visarga kalas on body 6-8 132
Regimen for winter (hemanta and sisira ) 9-21 135
Regimen for spring 22-26 138
Regimen for summer 27-32 139
Regimen for rainy season 33-40 140
Regimen for autumn 41-48 142
Satmya (homologation) 49-50 144
Summary 51 145
CHAPTER VII
   
NON-SUPPRESSION OF NATURAL URGES (Navegandharaniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 146
Enumeration of urges 3-4 146
Diseases caused by the suppression of urges and their management 5-25 146
Urges which should be suppressed 26-30 150
Exercise 31 151
Good effects of exercise 32 152
Bad effects of exercise 33 152
Sings of correct exercise (1) 152
Things which should not be resorted to in excess 34-35 152
Contra-indications for exercise (1-2) 153
Schedule for giving up addictions 36-38 153
Prakrti (physical constitution) 39-40 154
Regiman for persons of different types of prakrti 41 156
Excretory orifices and treatment of their disorders 42-44 156
Importance of proper regimen 45 157
Regimen for prevention of diseases 46-50 157
Extrinsic factors of diseases and their prevention 51-55 159
Unsuitable persons for company 56-57 160
Suitable persons for company 58-60 161
Rules for using curd 61-62 161
Summary 63-66 162
CHAPTER VIII
   
DESCRIPTION OF SENSE ORGANS (Indriyopakramaniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 163
Enumeration of topics of the chapter 3 163
Mind and its characteristics 4-7 164
Five sense faculties 8 166
Material constituents of sense organs 9 166
Five sense organs 10 167
Objects of five sense faculties 11 167
Five sense perceptions 12 167
Spiritual elements and their actions 13 168
Pancabhutas in five sense faculties 14 168
Principle of Psycho-pathogenesis 15-16 169
Prevention of Psychic disturbances 17-18 170
Code of ethics 19-29 173
Summary 30-33 181
CHAPTER IX
   
BRIEF CHAPTER ON THE QUADRUPLE OF THERAPEUTICS
(Khuddakacatuspada)
 
   
Introduction 1-2 183
Four aspects of therapeutics 3 183
Definition of health and ill health 4 184
Definition of treatment 5 186
Qualities of physician 6 186
Qualities of medicament 7 186
Qualities of medical-attendant 8 187
Qualities of patient 9 187
Importance of physician 10-15 187
Quack 15-17 188
Definition of "a Saviour of life" 18-23 189
Duties of a physician 24-25 190
Four aspects of medical profession 26 190
Summary 27-28 191
CHAPTER X
   
DETAILED CHAPTER ON THE QUADRUPLE OF THERAPEUTICS (Mahacatuspada)
   
Introduction 1-2 192
Dialogue between Atreya and Maitreya regarding the utility of medicines 3-6 192
Importance of prognostic consideration in the management of a patient 7-8 196
Classification of disease according to prognosis 9-10 196
Factors determining good and bad prognosis 11-20 197
Importance of thorough examination 21-22 200
Summary 23-24 200
CHAPTER XI
   
THREE BASIC DESIRES OF LIFE (Tisraisaniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 201
Three basic desires 3 202
Desire for longevity 4 203
Desire for wealth 5 203
Desire for happiness in future life 6 204
Life after death 7-16 205
Four-fold means of correct knowledge 17-26 210
Proofs of rebirth 27-33 215
Seven Triads 34 219
Three supports of life 35 219
Three types of strength 36 220
Three groups of etiological factors 37-44 221
Classification of disease 45-47 226
Three courses of the disease 48-49 228
Three types of physicians 50-53 230
Three types of therapies 54-63 230
Summary 64-65 233
CHAPTER XII
   
MERITS AND DEMERITS OF VATA (Vatakalakaliya)
   
Introduction 1-2 234
Symposium on Vata 3 234
Qualities of Vata 4 235
Causes of aggravation and alleviation of vata 5-7 235
Functions of normal and abnormal vata 8-10 238
Functions of normal and abnormal pitta 11 240
Functions of normal and abnormal kapha 12 241
Presidential remarks by Punarvasu Atreya 13-15 242
Summary 16-17 242
CHAPTER XIII    
OLEATION THERAPY (Sneha)
   
Introduction 1-2 244
Agnivesa's queries about fats 3-8 244
Atreya's reply-sources of fats 9-11 246
Properties of sesamum and castor oil 12 246
Best unctuous substances 13 247
Properties of ghee, oil, muscle fat and marrow and their use 14-19 248
Complications of untimely administration of fats 20-21 250
Anupana 22 251
Preparations of fats 23-25 251
Administration of pure fat 26 252
Enumeration of preparations of fat 27-28 252
Dosage 29-40 253
Indications for the administration of ghee, oil, muscle fat and bone-marrow 41-52 255
Contra-indications 53-56 257
Sings of under oleation, proper oleation and over oleation 57-59 258
Preparatory therapy 60-61 259
Regimens to be followed during oleation therapy 62-64 260
Oleation therapy for different types of bowel 65-69 260
Complications and their management 70-79 261
Post-therapeutic management 80-81 263
Fat preparations and their indications 82-95 264
Simple 96-97 266
Salt in oleation therapy 98 267
Routine of administration of pancakarma therapy 99 267
Summary 100 267
CHAPTER XIV
   
FOMENTATION THERAPY (Sveda)
   
Introduction 1-2 268
Effects of fomentation therapy 3-5 268
Factors responsible for effectiveness of the therapy 6-9 268
Fomentation over testicles, heart an eyes 10-12 270
Sings of proper fomentation and over fomentation 13-15 270
Contra indications 16-19 271
Indications 20-24 272
Material used for different types of fomentation 25-38 273
Enumeration of thirteen types of fomentation therapy 39-40 276
Sankara svada 41 276
Prastara Sveda 42 276
Nadi sveda 43 277
Pariseka sveda 44 278
Avagaha sveda 45 278
Jentaka sveda 46 278
Asmaghana sveda 47-50 280
Karsu sveda 50-51 281
Kuti sveda 52-54 281
Bhu sveda 55 282
Kumbhi sveda 56-58 282
Kupa sveda 59-60 282
Holaka sveda 61-63 283
Other devices which work like fomentation therapy 64-65 283
Classification of fomentation therapy 65-66 284
Management before and after fomentation therapy 67 284
Summary 68-70 284
CHAPTER XV
   
REQUIREMENT OF A PHYSICIAN (Upakalpaniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 286
A dialogue on the need for the storage of medicine 3-5 286
Hospital building 6 288
Attendants and other requirements for a hospital 7 289
Preparatory treatment 8-9 291
Administration of the therapy 10-12 292
Signs of proper and improper administration of Emetic therapy 13 294
After-care 14-15 295
Diet 16 296
Purgation therapy 17 297
Management of rich and poor patients 18-21 298
Effects of elimination therapy 22 298
Summary 23-25 299
CHAPTER XVI
   
DUTIES OF A QUALIFIED PHYSICIAN (Cikitsaprabhrtiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 300
Need for a qualified physician 3-4 300
Signs of proper and improper purgation 5-10 301
Complications of over-emesis 11-12 302
Indications for elimination therapy 13-16 302
Effects of elimination therapy 17-21 303
Restorative measures 22-23 304
Management of cases where therapy was not properly administered 24-26 304
Natural homoeostasis 27-33 305
Definition and aim of treatment 34-38 307
Summary 39-41 308
CHAPTER XVII
   
ENUMERATION OF DISEASES RELATING TO HEAD (Kiyantah sirasiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 310
Contents of the chapter 3-7 310
Etiology of diseases of head 8-11 311
Description of head 12 312
Diseases of head 13-29 312
Diseases of Heart 23-40  
Sixty two permutations and combinations of dosas 41-61 317
Characteristic features of vitiated and normal dosas 62 322
Signs of vitiated dhatus and malas 63-72 324
Ojas 73-75(i) 325
Causes of emaciation 76-77 326
Etiopathology of diabetos mellitus 78-82 328
Carbuncles 83-89 328
External and internal abscess 90-100 329
Prognosis 101-107 330
Complications of carbuncles 108-111 332
Different courses of dosas 112-118 333
Preservation of Health 19 334
Summary 120-121 335
CHAPTER XVIII
   
THREE TYPES OF SWELLING (Trisothiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 336
Classification of swellings 3 336
Etiology of swellings 4-6 336
Clinical features 7-15 338
Prognosis 16-17 341
Complications 18 341
Localised swellings 19-36 341
Prognostic considerations of diseases in general 37-41 344
Innumerability of diseases 42-43 345
Correct approach to management of diseases 44-47 345
Functions of normal and abnormal dosas 48-53 346
Summary 54-56 348
CHAPTER XIX
   
EIGHT ABDOMINAL DISEASES (Astodariya)
   
Introduction 1-2 349
Number of the various types of diseases 3 349
Enumeration of the types of various diseases 4 350
Role of dosas in etio-pathogenesis of diseases 5-6 356
Exogenous and endogenous diseases 7 358
Summary 8-9 358
CHAPTER XX
   
MAJOR CHAPTER ON DISEASES (Maharogadhyaya)
   
Introduction 1-2 360
General classification of diseases 3 360
Etilogical factors 4-6 361
Role of dosas 7 361
Location of dosas 8 361
Types of diseases 9-10 362
Eighty diseases caused by vita 11-13 363
Forty diseases caused by pitta 14-16 367
Twenty diseases caused by kapha 17-19 370
Importance of diagnosis in treatment 20-22 372
Summary 23-25 372
CHAPTER XXI
   
EIGHT TYPES OF UNDESIRABLE CONSTITUTION (Astauninditiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 374
Eight undesirable constitutions 3 374
Etio-pathology of obesity 4-10 374
Etio-pathology and clinical features of emaciation 10-15 376
Corpulence vis a vis emaciation 16-17 377
Importance of good built 18-19 377
Management of obesity and emaciation 20-34 378
Physiology of sleep 35 381
Effect of sleep 36-38 381
Indications and contra-indications for day sleep 39-49 382
Effect of night awakening 50 384
Role of sleep in obesity 51 384
Measures to induce sleep 52-54 384
Causes of insomnia 55-57 385
Type of sleep 58-59 385
Summary 60-62 386
CHAPTER XXII
   
REDUCING AND NOURISHING THERAPIES (Langhanabrmhaniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 387
Dialogue regarding reducing and Nourishing therapies 3-8 387
Definition and pharmacology of six therapies 9-17 388
Ten types of langhana therapy 18-24 389
Definition and indications for these therapies 25-43 391
Summary 44 394
CHAPTER XXIII
   
REFRESHING REGIMEN (Santarpaniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 395
Disadvantages of taking ecessive nourishing diet and their management 3-26 395
Diseases caused by improper use of emaciating regimen and their management 26-38 399
Recipe for nourishing therapy 39 401
Summary 40 401
CHAPTER XXIV
   
BLOOD FORMATION AND THE REGIMEN THEREFOR (Vidhisonitiy)
   
Introduction 1-2 403
Factors responsible for normal haemopoiesis 3 403
Function of normal blood 4 403
Causes of vitiation of blood 5-10 403
Diseases caused by vitiated blood 11-17 404
Principles of treatment for the diseases of blood 18 406
Care during blood-letting 19 406
Features of vitiated blood 20-21 406
Features o pure blood 22 407
Diet after blood-letting 23 407
Features of men having normal blood 24 407
Pathogenesis of psychic disorders 25-29 408
Signs of Murcha 30-34 408
Signs of Murcha 35-41 409
Differential diagnosis and treatment of coma 42-53 410
Management of Mada and Kurcha 54-58 412
Summary 59-60 413
CHAPTER XXV
   
ORIGIN OF MAN ND HIS DISEASES (Jajjahpurusiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 414
Seminar on Purusa and diseases 3-25 414
Punarvasu Atreya's concluding remarks 26-29 418
Dialogue on diet 30-37 419
Most wholesome and unwholesome dietetic articles 38-39 422
Most important drugs and regimen 40-47 425
Alcoholic preparations 48-50 439
Summary 51 444
CHAPTER XXVI
   
DISCOURSE AMONG ATREYA, BHADRAKAPYA ETC., (Atreybhadrakapiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 445
Participants in the seminar on dietatics 3-7 445
Views on rasas (tastes) 8 446
Concluding remarks by Chairman 9 448
Classification of matter 10 451
Physical properties of pancamahabhutas 11 452
Therapeutic utility of all matter 12 453
Pharmacodynamics of drugs 13 453
Sixty three types of rasas 14-27 454
Rasa and anurasa 28 459
Attributes of drugs 29-37 439
Pancamahabhautika origin of rasa 38-41 462
Action of drugs having different tastes 42-57 465
Vipaka 57-63 473
Virya 64-66 476
Prabhava 67-73 477
Characteristics of six tastes 73-79 480
Dialogue on unwholesome diet 80-106 481
Summary 107-113 488
CHAPTER XXVII
   
PROPERTIES OF DIET AND DRINKS (Annapanavidhi)
   
Introduction 1-2 490
Importance of wholesome food 3 490
Action of various types of food 4 491
Classification of food articles 5-7 493
Sukadhanya (corns with bristles) 8-22 493
Pulses 23-34 497
Meat of animals 35-88 499
Vegetables 88-124 509
Fruits 125-165 515
Harita (Plants used in salad form) 166-177 522
Alcoholic drinks 178-195 524
Different types of water 196-216 527
Milk and milk products 217-236 533
Sugar cane and its products 237-242 538
Honey 243-249 510
Food preparations 250-285 542
Adjuvants of food 286-308 550
Choice of grains 309-310 555
Choice of meat 311-312 555
Meat soup and its qualities 312-315 556
Unwholesome vegetable preparations 316-318 556
Drinks 319-328 557
Reason for brevity 329-330 559
Factors determing the qualities of dietetic articles 331-344 560
Food-intake, a form of yajna 345-351 564
Summary 351-352 565
CHAPTER XXVIII
   
VARIOUS TYPES OF FOOD AND DRINKS (Vividhasitapitiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 566
Primary function of food 3 566
Digestion and nourishment 4-5 567
Dialogue on wholesomeness of food and diseases 6-7 573
Diseases caused by the vitiation of dhatus etc., 8-22 575
Management of diseases caused by improper food 23-30 578
Latent disease 31-33 580
Wholesome regimen 34-44 581
Summary 45-48 583
CHAPTER XXIX
   
TEN RESORTS OF LIFE (Dasapranayataniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 585
Ten repositories of life 3-4 585
Types of physician 5 585
Qualities of a good physician 6-7 586
Characteristics of a bad physician 8-13 589
Summary 14 591
CHAPTER XXX
   
TEN VESSELS HAVING THEIR ROOTS IN THE HEART (Arthedasamahamuliya)
   
Introduction 1-2 592
Synonyms and importance of heart 3-6 592
Heart, the seat of ojas 6-14 593
Best of the regimens 15 596
Proper study of Ayurveda 16-15 597
Debatable points on various aspects of Ayurveda 20 597
Source of Ayurveda 21 598
Definition of Ayus 22 598
Definition of Ayurveda 23 599
Different aspects of life 24 599
Determination of the span of life 25 600
Objects of Ayurveda 26 600
Eternity of Ayurveda 27 601
Eight disciplines of Ayurveda 28 603
Eligibility for the study of Ayurveda 29 603
Examination of physicians 30 604
Synonyms & scope of Ayurvedic text 31-32 604
Sections of the text 33-34 605
Scope of each section 35 606
Enumeration of chapters in various sthanas 36-68 606
Query and its scope 69-71 614
Utility of debates 72-85 615
Summary 86-89 618
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Caraka Samhita (Volume I Sutra-Sthana)

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From the Jacket

The Caraka Samhita stands at the top of the ancient texts representing the School of Medicine in Ayurveda founded by the great Scholar-Sage Punarvasu Atreya. Its value is further enhanced by the fact that it is the only text available in complete form where-as other contemporary Samhitas such as of Jatukarna, temporary Samhitas such as of Jatukarna, Parasara etc. perished, that of Bhela is incomplete and that of Harita is dragged into controversy. Thus any scholar desirous to know about the fundamentals of Ayurveda and its approach to life, health and disease has essentially to take resort to the study of this text unique in depth and divergence. It is rightly said, "whatever is not here can not be found anywhere else."

Historically too, it is quite interesting, Like an archaeological edifice. If it is dug into one would come across three distinct strate of authorship ascribed to Agnivesa, Caraka and Drdhabala in successive order.

And Translation This immensely valuable text needed since long a faithful and simple translation into English communicating the ideas as they are without divulging into dogmatic details which make the situation terse particularly for a young scholar. This comes from the pen of two erudite scholars of Ayurveda who has devoted the major part of the life in studying the text intensively from various angles and has command over both the languages concerned.

Thus the present work is a definite improvement in that its easy narrative style permits a Scholar not acquainted with Sanskrit syntax to grasp the various concepts of Ayurveda. Moreover, the present translation represents the first attempt of its kind to express in English the Ayurveda Dipika commentary by Cakrapanidatta, which sheds light after light on the text.

Vaidya Bhagwan Dash

Alongside what can be termed official medical science, the search for new drugs, and all the activity connected with the discovery of nature's secrets there exists a vast body of knowledge which stretches back into the ancient realms of time.

People without number throughout the world are fascinated by, and drawn to the world of alternative medicine which is receiving evermore recognition and appreciation in view of the use of the elements which our mother earth offers.

Vaidya Bhagwan Dash, former deputy adviser on Ayurveda to the Indian Ministry of Health, is a leading expert in a field which brings together ancient traditions and innovation in an attempt to meet the enormous needs of a country such as India.

On the sound basis of his medical training and research, Dash has furthered his studies, and as a recognised authority in Ayurveda has taken his knowledge and caring beyond his country.

He can look back on a long career in medicine and public service and among the many appointments he has held figures that of Director of the Yoga Research Institute in New Delhi.

The Pie Manzu Centre intends recognizing the contribution which Vaidya Bhagwan Dash has made to the health and well-being of mankind by awarding him the medal of the Presidency of the Italian Senate.

About the Author

Dr. Ram Karan Sharma (born March 20, 1927 at Shivapur, Saran, Bihar) was initiated to Vedic and allied studies (including Ayurveda) on traditional lines by Pandit Ambikadatta Sharma at Lokamanya Brahmacaryasrama, Muzaffarpur. As a full bright scholar, he worked with Prof. M. B. Emeneau at the University of California, Berkeley, U. S. A. College Muzaffarpur and Dr. Ishvara Datta (Patna College) affiliated to Patna University.

He was founder Director, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan; vice Chancellor, Sampurnanand and Sanskrit University and Kameshvara Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University; Joint Educational Adviser, Govt. of India; Visiting of Bihar. Presently he is the President of International Association of Sanskrit Studies. Areas of his special interest are: Panini, Mahabharata, Darsana, Kavya and Ayurveda. More than one hundred research papers and about a dozen major publications he has authored. His creative writings include Sandhya (Poetry), a recipient of Sahitya Akademi award and Sima (Novel) a recipient of Bharatiya Bhasha Parishad award.

Vaidya Bhagwan Dash (born Oct. 1934 in Parbatipur, Orissa) has had an outstandingly brilliant academic career. In addition to graduate and postgraduate qualifications in Ayurveda, he holds a Master's degree in Sanskrit and a Doctorate from University of Delhi.

In the course of over forty years dedicated to research and practice of Ayurveda, Dr. Dash has attended several international conferences and seminars held in Brazil, Mexico, Italy and France. He was invited to deliver a course of lectures in Ayurveda at the Patrice Lumumba Friendship University, Moscow and the Australia School of Ayurveda at Adelaide, South Australia.

A Sanskrit scholar, he handles the English Language with equal felicity. A significant advantage to his propensity for research in Ayurveda is Dr. Dash's proficiency in Tibetan Medicine.

Author of over sixty important publications covering different aspects of Ayurveda and Tibetan Medicine, he is recipient of several prestigious awards including a Gold Medal from the Presidency of Italian Senate for outstanding services he has made to the health and well-being of mankind.

He was deputy Adviser in Adviser in Ayurveda to the Government of India in the Ministry of Health and F. W. till 1981, when he took voluntary retirement to enable him to devote more time for academic and research activities. As a Consultant in Traditional Medicine of the World Health Organisation, he had paid several visits to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma and Mongolia to study and advise on the Health Development Programmes of those countries.

 

Introduction

The Caraka-samahita is famous as one of the remarkable accomplishments of ancient Indian science. Its large Sutra- sthana, as a thesaurus of the basic elements of Ayurveda practice, including the intellectual preparation of the physician besides the principles of medicine, is itself an arduous task for transla- tors. While two English translations of the Caraka are presently available, they are too literal, almost requiring that the original Sanskrit be read along with the translation in order to garner the meaning. I am happy to report that the present work, the result of unremitting and sensitive labors by Dr. R. K Sharma and Mr. Bhagwan Dash, is a definite improvement in that its easy narrative style permits a scholar not acquainted with San- skrit syntax to grasp the various concepts of Ayurveda. Moreover, the present translation is the first one to express in English the Ayurveda Dipika commentary by Cakrapani Datta, which sheds light after light on the Caraka.

I believe that the translators are quite justified in leaving un translated certain terms, notably the triad of vata, pitta, and kapha, and certain names for diseases that stand for clusters of diseases rather than for particular well-defined ones Altogether, this translation, consummated as it is on a high level of learning and intelligence, should help the Caraka to assume its justified role in modern-day Ayurveda; and at the very least enhance the admiration due to this great classic in the Eastern and Western worlds.

 

Foreword

I suppose that, in asking me to write a foreword to Dr. Bhagwan Dash's excellent rendering of Caraka Samhita and Ayurveda Dipika of Cakrapani Datta in English, the intention of the publisher is to introduce the young author to the world of Ayurveda, which I have been in contact with much longer, haying entered the field much earlier. The second possible ob- jective is to make available to the prospective reader of the book my assessment of the practical and academic worth of the author's work.

Dr. Bhagwan Dash's current reputation in the field of Ayurvedic scholarship, research and administration is flattering enough to render unnecessary anv fresh evaluation thereof by me. He has risen, like good Generals in Defence services, from the ranks. It has been my privilege and pleasure to see him leave milestone after milestone behind him in his onward march to success in different fields of Ayurvedic activities, both academic and administrative. And the best fruits of his multi-dimensional intellectual labour are to be found in his present interpretation of Caraka Samhita, a work which, in its own right, ranks as the greatest legacy the Seers of ancient India have bequeathed to the sciences of life.

Again, the Ayurveda Dipika of Cakrapani Datta is gener- ally accepted as.the most authentic commentary on the text of Caraka Samhita. This book will probably be the first to offer a standard English translation of Cakrapani's important work to those having no direct access to the Sanskrit language.

I, therefore, attach considerable importance to this publi- cation which is going to remove a great lacuna from the existing Ayurvedic literature available in the English language. Those who wish to undertake an intimate and advanced study of Caraka Samhita and, to an extent, even of Ayurveda as a whole, and are not equipped with an adequate knowledge of Sanskrit to study the originals by themselves, will find it profitable, per- haps even indispensable, to make a serious study of the contents of this treatise. The translations of the Samhita and the commen- tary make an interesting reading. Here and there, the author brings a touch of modernity to the ancient text. He describes the assembly of the Rsis in the Caitraratha forest as a " sympo- sium" "and the Rsis themselves as "participants in this sympo- sium". Punarvasu's expression of views at the end of a discussion is captioned as " The Concluding Remarks of the Chairman- Lord Punarvasu". He has almost bodily lifted the assembly from the beautiful Caitraratha forest and deposited it in a committee room of a modern institution.

Yet the translation remains faithful to the text. The great teacher is referred to as "Lord" Punarvasu only, and not as " His Holiness" or " His Excellency" Punarvasu. The word" Lord" is not an inapt translation of the word" Bhagavan". Therein lies the chief merit of the author's interpretation-there is no de- parture from the true sense of the original text. I consider it a creditable achievement. It is particularly so when the text he has handled is as important and as extensive as that of Caraka Samhita and Ayurveda Dipika. I believe the readers will find the study of this book rewarding and satisfying.

 

CONTENTS
Introduction by Alex Wayman   iii
Foreward by Pandit Shiv Sharma   v
CHAPTER I
   
QUEST FOR LONGEVITY (DIrghnjivitiya)
   
  Verse
Nos.
Page
No.
Introduction 1-2 1
Bharadvaja's approach to Indra for study of Ayurveda 3 12
Chronology of the Propounders of Ayurveda 4-5 15
Assembly of sages 6-15 16
Meditation in search of the Teacher 15-18 19
Teaching of Ayurveda by Indra to Bharadvaja 18-23 20
Three cardinal principles of Ayurveda to Sages 24 21
Bharadvaja's teaching of Ayurveda to Sages 25-29 21
Six disciples of Atreya 30-31 23
Composition of medical texts 32-40 23
Definition of Ayurveda 41 25
Definition and synonyms of Ayus (life) 42 25
Excellence of Ayurveda 43 26
Definition of Samanya (generic concomitance) and visesa (variant factor) 44-45 26
Scope of Ayurveda 46-47 32
Enumeration and classification of dravya (matter) 48 33
Enumeration of gunas (qualities) and karmans (actions) 49 35
Definition of Samavaya (Inseparable concomitance) 50 36
Definition of dravya (matter) 51 37
Definition of Guna (quality) 51 37
Definition of karman (action) 52 38
Object of Ayurveda 53 39
Enumeration of the causes of diseases 54 39
Two types of substrata of diseases and the factor responsible for maintaining positive health 55 40
Definition of Atman (soul) 56 41
Enumeration of three dosas (pathogenic factors) of the body and two dosas of the mind 57 41
Factors responsible for the alleviation of dosas (pathogenic factors) 58 43
Qualities of vayu, patta and slesman and factors responsible for their alleviation 59-61 43
Means of alleviating diseases 62-63 44
Definition of rasa (taste) and factors responsible for its manifestation 64 45
Enumeration of rasas 63 46
Rasas which alleviate different dosas 66 46
Classification of dravyas (matter) on the basis of their prabhava (specific action) 67 47
Classification of dravyas (matter) depending upon the source of origin and their enumeration 68-74 49
Enumeration of dravyas (matter) having therapeutic excellence 74-76 50
Names and actions of sixteen drugs whose fruits are used in medicine 77-80 51
Name and actions of nineteen drugs whose fruits are used in medicine 80-86 51
Enumeration of four snahas (fats) 86-88 53
Enumeration of five types of lavanas (salt) and their usage 88-92 53
Enumeration of eight types of urine and their usage 92-105 54
Enumeration of eight types of milk and their usage 105-113 56
Enumeration of three plants whose latex is used in medicine and their usage 114-115 57
Enumeration of three plants whose bark is used in medicine and their usage 116-119 58
Utility of the knowledge regarding names, morphology and usage of drugs 120-123 58
Dangers in ignorance about the names, morphology and usage of drugs 124-125 59
Responsibility of the physician 126-133 60
Definition of appropriate medicine 134 61
Accomplished physician 135 61
Summary 136-140 61
CHAPTER II
   
DEHUSKED SEEDS OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN
(Apamargatanduliya)
   
Introduction 102 63
Drugs for sirovirecana (elimination of dosas from the head) 3-6 63
Drugs for vamana (emesis) 7-8 64
Drugs for virecana (purgation) 9-10 65
Drugs for asthapana and anuvasana types of enema 11-14 66
Administration of pancakarma (five specialised therapies) 15 67
Propriety in administration of drugs 16 68
Twenty eight recipae of gruel 17-33 68
Summary 34-36 72
CHAPTER III
   
CASSIA FISTULA LINN. (Aragvadhiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 74
Fifteen recipae for the cure of obstinate skin diseases 3-17 74
Five recipe for alleviation of vata 18-20 78
Three recipae for alleviation of vatarakta (gout) 21-23 79
Two recipae for headache 23-24 80
Recipe for parsvaruk (pain in the sides of the chest) 25 80
Two recipae for alleviation of burning sensation 26-27 80
Recipae for alleviation of burning sensation 28 81
Recipae for reducing diaphoresis and correcting bad smell of the body 29 81
Summary 30 82
CHAPTER IV
   
SIS HUNDRED PURGATIVES (Sadvirecanasatasritiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 83
Enumeration of the topics of the chapter 3 83
Six hundred recipae for purgation including emesis 4 84
Six parts of plants used in recipae 5 84
Five types of decoction 6 84
Five pharmaceutical processes 7 84
Fifty groups of important decoctions 8 86
Discussion about the number between Agnivesa and Atreya 21-22 102
Summary 23-29 103
CHAPTER V
   
QUANT IT ATIVE DIETETICS (Matrasitiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 105
Eating in proper quantity 3 105
Quantity of food and digestion 4 106
Quantity of food in relation to quality 5-7 106
Intake of food of proper quality 8-9 108
Unwholesome food 10-11 109
Wholesome food 12-13 109
Personal hygiene 14 110
Time for the use of collyrium 15-17 111
Benefits of the use of collyrium 18-20 112
Smoking 20-27 112
Benefits of smoking 27-33 114
Schedule for smoking 33-38 115
Bad effects of improper smoking 38-39 116
Treatment of complication 39-40 116
Contra-indications for smoking 41-46 117
Routes of smoking 46-49 117
Size and shape of smoking pipe 49-52 118
Signs of proper and improper smoking 52-56 119
Use of nasal drops 56-57 119
Benefits of the use of nasal drops 57-63 120
Anu taila 63-71 120
Teeth brushing and tongue scraping 71-76 122
Chewing 76-77 123
Gargles 78-80 123
Use of oil on head 81-83 124
Dropping of oil in ears 84-124  
Oil massage 85-87 124
Benefits of oil massage and unction 88-96 125
Bath 94 126
Use of clean dress 95 126
Use of Scents 96 126
Use of ornaments 97 126
Cleaning feet and excretory orifices 98 126
Cutting of hair and nails 99 127
Use of foot wears 100 127
Use of umbrella 101 127
Use of walking stick 102 127
Vigilance for maintaining the physique 103 127
Choice of profession 104 128
Summary 105-111 128
CHAPTER VI
   
QUALITATIVE DIET ETICS (Tasyasitiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 130
Improtance of the knowledge of dietetics 3 130
Two Solstics 4-5 130
Effects of adana and visarga kalas on body 6-8 132
Regimen for winter (hemanta and sisira ) 9-21 135
Regimen for spring 22-26 138
Regimen for summer 27-32 139
Regimen for rainy season 33-40 140
Regimen for autumn 41-48 142
Satmya (homologation) 49-50 144
Summary 51 145
CHAPTER VII
   
NON-SUPPRESSION OF NATURAL URGES (Navegandharaniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 146
Enumeration of urges 3-4 146
Diseases caused by the suppression of urges and their management 5-25 146
Urges which should be suppressed 26-30 150
Exercise 31 151
Good effects of exercise 32 152
Bad effects of exercise 33 152
Sings of correct exercise (1) 152
Things which should not be resorted to in excess 34-35 152
Contra-indications for exercise (1-2) 153
Schedule for giving up addictions 36-38 153
Prakrti (physical constitution) 39-40 154
Regiman for persons of different types of prakrti 41 156
Excretory orifices and treatment of their disorders 42-44 156
Importance of proper regimen 45 157
Regimen for prevention of diseases 46-50 157
Extrinsic factors of diseases and their prevention 51-55 159
Unsuitable persons for company 56-57 160
Suitable persons for company 58-60 161
Rules for using curd 61-62 161
Summary 63-66 162
CHAPTER VIII
   
DESCRIPTION OF SENSE ORGANS (Indriyopakramaniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 163
Enumeration of topics of the chapter 3 163
Mind and its characteristics 4-7 164
Five sense faculties 8 166
Material constituents of sense organs 9 166
Five sense organs 10 167
Objects of five sense faculties 11 167
Five sense perceptions 12 167
Spiritual elements and their actions 13 168
Pancabhutas in five sense faculties 14 168
Principle of Psycho-pathogenesis 15-16 169
Prevention of Psychic disturbances 17-18 170
Code of ethics 19-29 173
Summary 30-33 181
CHAPTER IX
   
BRIEF CHAPTER ON THE QUADRUPLE OF THERAPEUTICS
(Khuddakacatuspada)
 
   
Introduction 1-2 183
Four aspects of therapeutics 3 183
Definition of health and ill health 4 184
Definition of treatment 5 186
Qualities of physician 6 186
Qualities of medicament 7 186
Qualities of medical-attendant 8 187
Qualities of patient 9 187
Importance of physician 10-15 187
Quack 15-17 188
Definition of "a Saviour of life" 18-23 189
Duties of a physician 24-25 190
Four aspects of medical profession 26 190
Summary 27-28 191
CHAPTER X
   
DETAILED CHAPTER ON THE QUADRUPLE OF THERAPEUTICS (Mahacatuspada)
   
Introduction 1-2 192
Dialogue between Atreya and Maitreya regarding the utility of medicines 3-6 192
Importance of prognostic consideration in the management of a patient 7-8 196
Classification of disease according to prognosis 9-10 196
Factors determining good and bad prognosis 11-20 197
Importance of thorough examination 21-22 200
Summary 23-24 200
CHAPTER XI
   
THREE BASIC DESIRES OF LIFE (Tisraisaniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 201
Three basic desires 3 202
Desire for longevity 4 203
Desire for wealth 5 203
Desire for happiness in future life 6 204
Life after death 7-16 205
Four-fold means of correct knowledge 17-26 210
Proofs of rebirth 27-33 215
Seven Triads 34 219
Three supports of life 35 219
Three types of strength 36 220
Three groups of etiological factors 37-44 221
Classification of disease 45-47 226
Three courses of the disease 48-49 228
Three types of physicians 50-53 230
Three types of therapies 54-63 230
Summary 64-65 233
CHAPTER XII
   
MERITS AND DEMERITS OF VATA (Vatakalakaliya)
   
Introduction 1-2 234
Symposium on Vata 3 234
Qualities of Vata 4 235
Causes of aggravation and alleviation of vata 5-7 235
Functions of normal and abnormal vata 8-10 238
Functions of normal and abnormal pitta 11 240
Functions of normal and abnormal kapha 12 241
Presidential remarks by Punarvasu Atreya 13-15 242
Summary 16-17 242
CHAPTER XIII    
OLEATION THERAPY (Sneha)
   
Introduction 1-2 244
Agnivesa's queries about fats 3-8 244
Atreya's reply-sources of fats 9-11 246
Properties of sesamum and castor oil 12 246
Best unctuous substances 13 247
Properties of ghee, oil, muscle fat and marrow and their use 14-19 248
Complications of untimely administration of fats 20-21 250
Anupana 22 251
Preparations of fats 23-25 251
Administration of pure fat 26 252
Enumeration of preparations of fat 27-28 252
Dosage 29-40 253
Indications for the administration of ghee, oil, muscle fat and bone-marrow 41-52 255
Contra-indications 53-56 257
Sings of under oleation, proper oleation and over oleation 57-59 258
Preparatory therapy 60-61 259
Regimens to be followed during oleation therapy 62-64 260
Oleation therapy for different types of bowel 65-69 260
Complications and their management 70-79 261
Post-therapeutic management 80-81 263
Fat preparations and their indications 82-95 264
Simple 96-97 266
Salt in oleation therapy 98 267
Routine of administration of pancakarma therapy 99 267
Summary 100 267
CHAPTER XIV
   
FOMENTATION THERAPY (Sveda)
   
Introduction 1-2 268
Effects of fomentation therapy 3-5 268
Factors responsible for effectiveness of the therapy 6-9 268
Fomentation over testicles, heart an eyes 10-12 270
Sings of proper fomentation and over fomentation 13-15 270
Contra indications 16-19 271
Indications 20-24 272
Material used for different types of fomentation 25-38 273
Enumeration of thirteen types of fomentation therapy 39-40 276
Sankara svada 41 276
Prastara Sveda 42 276
Nadi sveda 43 277
Pariseka sveda 44 278
Avagaha sveda 45 278
Jentaka sveda 46 278
Asmaghana sveda 47-50 280
Karsu sveda 50-51 281
Kuti sveda 52-54 281
Bhu sveda 55 282
Kumbhi sveda 56-58 282
Kupa sveda 59-60 282
Holaka sveda 61-63 283
Other devices which work like fomentation therapy 64-65 283
Classification of fomentation therapy 65-66 284
Management before and after fomentation therapy 67 284
Summary 68-70 284
CHAPTER XV
   
REQUIREMENT OF A PHYSICIAN (Upakalpaniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 286
A dialogue on the need for the storage of medicine 3-5 286
Hospital building 6 288
Attendants and other requirements for a hospital 7 289
Preparatory treatment 8-9 291
Administration of the therapy 10-12 292
Signs of proper and improper administration of Emetic therapy 13 294
After-care 14-15 295
Diet 16 296
Purgation therapy 17 297
Management of rich and poor patients 18-21 298
Effects of elimination therapy 22 298
Summary 23-25 299
CHAPTER XVI
   
DUTIES OF A QUALIFIED PHYSICIAN (Cikitsaprabhrtiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 300
Need for a qualified physician 3-4 300
Signs of proper and improper purgation 5-10 301
Complications of over-emesis 11-12 302
Indications for elimination therapy 13-16 302
Effects of elimination therapy 17-21 303
Restorative measures 22-23 304
Management of cases where therapy was not properly administered 24-26 304
Natural homoeostasis 27-33 305
Definition and aim of treatment 34-38 307
Summary 39-41 308
CHAPTER XVII
   
ENUMERATION OF DISEASES RELATING TO HEAD (Kiyantah sirasiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 310
Contents of the chapter 3-7 310
Etiology of diseases of head 8-11 311
Description of head 12 312
Diseases of head 13-29 312
Diseases of Heart 23-40  
Sixty two permutations and combinations of dosas 41-61 317
Characteristic features of vitiated and normal dosas 62 322
Signs of vitiated dhatus and malas 63-72 324
Ojas 73-75(i) 325
Causes of emaciation 76-77 326
Etiopathology of diabetos mellitus 78-82 328
Carbuncles 83-89 328
External and internal abscess 90-100 329
Prognosis 101-107 330
Complications of carbuncles 108-111 332
Different courses of dosas 112-118 333
Preservation of Health 19 334
Summary 120-121 335
CHAPTER XVIII
   
THREE TYPES OF SWELLING (Trisothiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 336
Classification of swellings 3 336
Etiology of swellings 4-6 336
Clinical features 7-15 338
Prognosis 16-17 341
Complications 18 341
Localised swellings 19-36 341
Prognostic considerations of diseases in general 37-41 344
Innumerability of diseases 42-43 345
Correct approach to management of diseases 44-47 345
Functions of normal and abnormal dosas 48-53 346
Summary 54-56 348
CHAPTER XIX
   
EIGHT ABDOMINAL DISEASES (Astodariya)
   
Introduction 1-2 349
Number of the various types of diseases 3 349
Enumeration of the types of various diseases 4 350
Role of dosas in etio-pathogenesis of diseases 5-6 356
Exogenous and endogenous diseases 7 358
Summary 8-9 358
CHAPTER XX
   
MAJOR CHAPTER ON DISEASES (Maharogadhyaya)
   
Introduction 1-2 360
General classification of diseases 3 360
Etilogical factors 4-6 361
Role of dosas 7 361
Location of dosas 8 361
Types of diseases 9-10 362
Eighty diseases caused by vita 11-13 363
Forty diseases caused by pitta 14-16 367
Twenty diseases caused by kapha 17-19 370
Importance of diagnosis in treatment 20-22 372
Summary 23-25 372
CHAPTER XXI
   
EIGHT TYPES OF UNDESIRABLE CONSTITUTION (Astauninditiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 374
Eight undesirable constitutions 3 374
Etio-pathology of obesity 4-10 374
Etio-pathology and clinical features of emaciation 10-15 376
Corpulence vis a vis emaciation 16-17 377
Importance of good built 18-19 377
Management of obesity and emaciation 20-34 378
Physiology of sleep 35 381
Effect of sleep 36-38 381
Indications and contra-indications for day sleep 39-49 382
Effect of night awakening 50 384
Role of sleep in obesity 51 384
Measures to induce sleep 52-54 384
Causes of insomnia 55-57 385
Type of sleep 58-59 385
Summary 60-62 386
CHAPTER XXII
   
REDUCING AND NOURISHING THERAPIES (Langhanabrmhaniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 387
Dialogue regarding reducing and Nourishing therapies 3-8 387
Definition and pharmacology of six therapies 9-17 388
Ten types of langhana therapy 18-24 389
Definition and indications for these therapies 25-43 391
Summary 44 394
CHAPTER XXIII
   
REFRESHING REGIMEN (Santarpaniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 395
Disadvantages of taking ecessive nourishing diet and their management 3-26 395
Diseases caused by improper use of emaciating regimen and their management 26-38 399
Recipe for nourishing therapy 39 401
Summary 40 401
CHAPTER XXIV
   
BLOOD FORMATION AND THE REGIMEN THEREFOR (Vidhisonitiy)
   
Introduction 1-2 403
Factors responsible for normal haemopoiesis 3 403
Function of normal blood 4 403
Causes of vitiation of blood 5-10 403
Diseases caused by vitiated blood 11-17 404
Principles of treatment for the diseases of blood 18 406
Care during blood-letting 19 406
Features of vitiated blood 20-21 406
Features o pure blood 22 407
Diet after blood-letting 23 407
Features of men having normal blood 24 407
Pathogenesis of psychic disorders 25-29 408
Signs of Murcha 30-34 408
Signs of Murcha 35-41 409
Differential diagnosis and treatment of coma 42-53 410
Management of Mada and Kurcha 54-58 412
Summary 59-60 413
CHAPTER XXV
   
ORIGIN OF MAN ND HIS DISEASES (Jajjahpurusiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 414
Seminar on Purusa and diseases 3-25 414
Punarvasu Atreya's concluding remarks 26-29 418
Dialogue on diet 30-37 419
Most wholesome and unwholesome dietetic articles 38-39 422
Most important drugs and regimen 40-47 425
Alcoholic preparations 48-50 439
Summary 51 444
CHAPTER XXVI
   
DISCOURSE AMONG ATREYA, BHADRAKAPYA ETC., (Atreybhadrakapiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 445
Participants in the seminar on dietatics 3-7 445
Views on rasas (tastes) 8 446
Concluding remarks by Chairman 9 448
Classification of matter 10 451
Physical properties of pancamahabhutas 11 452
Therapeutic utility of all matter 12 453
Pharmacodynamics of drugs 13 453
Sixty three types of rasas 14-27 454
Rasa and anurasa 28 459
Attributes of drugs 29-37 439
Pancamahabhautika origin of rasa 38-41 462
Action of drugs having different tastes 42-57 465
Vipaka 57-63 473
Virya 64-66 476
Prabhava 67-73 477
Characteristics of six tastes 73-79 480
Dialogue on unwholesome diet 80-106 481
Summary 107-113 488
CHAPTER XXVII
   
PROPERTIES OF DIET AND DRINKS (Annapanavidhi)
   
Introduction 1-2 490
Importance of wholesome food 3 490
Action of various types of food 4 491
Classification of food articles 5-7 493
Sukadhanya (corns with bristles) 8-22 493
Pulses 23-34 497
Meat of animals 35-88 499
Vegetables 88-124 509
Fruits 125-165 515
Harita (Plants used in salad form) 166-177 522
Alcoholic drinks 178-195 524
Different types of water 196-216 527
Milk and milk products 217-236 533
Sugar cane and its products 237-242 538
Honey 243-249 510
Food preparations 250-285 542
Adjuvants of food 286-308 550
Choice of grains 309-310 555
Choice of meat 311-312 555
Meat soup and its qualities 312-315 556
Unwholesome vegetable preparations 316-318 556
Drinks 319-328 557
Reason for brevity 329-330 559
Factors determing the qualities of dietetic articles 331-344 560
Food-intake, a form of yajna 345-351 564
Summary 351-352 565
CHAPTER XXVIII
   
VARIOUS TYPES OF FOOD AND DRINKS (Vividhasitapitiya)
   
Introduction 1-2 566
Primary function of food 3 566
Digestion and nourishment 4-5 567
Dialogue on wholesomeness of food and diseases 6-7 573
Diseases caused by the vitiation of dhatus etc., 8-22 575
Management of diseases caused by improper food 23-30 578
Latent disease 31-33 580
Wholesome regimen 34-44 581
Summary 45-48 583
CHAPTER XXIX
   
TEN RESORTS OF LIFE (Dasapranayataniya)
   
Introduction 1-2 585
Ten repositories of life 3-4 585
Types of physician 5 585
Qualities of a good physician 6-7 586
Characteristics of a bad physician 8-13 589
Summary 14 591
CHAPTER XXX
   
TEN VESSELS HAVING THEIR ROOTS IN THE HEART (Arthedasamahamuliya)
   
Introduction 1-2 592
Synonyms and importance of heart 3-6 592
Heart, the seat of ojas 6-14 593
Best of the regimens 15 596
Proper study of Ayurveda 16-15 597
Debatable points on various aspects of Ayurveda 20 597
Source of Ayurveda 21 598
Definition of Ayus 22 598
Definition of Ayurveda 23 599
Different aspects of life 24 599
Determination of the span of life 25 600
Objects of Ayurveda 26 600
Eternity of Ayurveda 27 601
Eight disciplines of Ayurveda 28 603
Eligibility for the study of Ayurveda 29 603
Examination of physicians 30 604
Synonyms & scope of Ayurvedic text 31-32 604
Sections of the text 33-34 605
Scope of each section 35 606
Enumeration of chapters in various sthanas 36-68 606
Query and its scope 69-71 614
Utility of debates 72-85 615
Summary 86-89 618
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