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Books > Language and Literature > A Comprehensive and Critical Dictionary of The Prakrit Languages with Special Reference to Jain Literature - With Transliteration (Set of 5 Volumes)
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A Comprehensive and Critical Dictionary of The Prakrit Languages with Special Reference to Jain Literature - With Transliteration (Set of 5 Volumes)
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A Comprehensive and Critical Dictionary of The Prakrit Languages with Special Reference to Jain Literature - With Transliteration (Set of 5 Volumes)
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INTRODUCTION

I. THE TITLE

The full title of the present lexical work is A Comprehensive and Critical Dictionary of the Prakrit Languages with special reference to Jain literature. This designation is chosen to indicate the main features of the work. Compared to the available dictionaries of the Prakrits, old and new, this dictionary is intended to cover all the available leximes in the Prakrit languages and as such aims at comprehensiveness as far as the Prakrit literature is concerned. It is meant to be critical in the sense that while using the literature for this purpose, a critical attitude is consistently followed, and each item is examined and all quotations for it are thoroughly corrected wherever necessary with 1111 the available material, and are fully interpreted. This is essential because most of the Prakrit works which are at present available are not critically edited and properly translated. In the case of editions of the canonical texts, there are too many differences among them, because they are published at different times and are worked with divergent principles which are often contrary to each other. being based upon different views of their nature Equally chaotic is the method used for the purpose of giving references to passages and many of the entries are based on memo y of the dictionary- makers, Sometimes an attempt is made to put a Sanskrit word into Prakrit without any thought being given to its actual occurrence in the Prakrit language. Short of preparing complete critical editions of the works used for this dictionary, an attempt is made to present the words and examples in as critical a form as possible with the available material A consistent and easily verifiable mode of reference is used which will help the reader to trace the passages in different editions. The meanings given are based on a thorough consideration of all the evidence available including the traditional interpretations and for this purpose extracts from the commentarial literature are given in their proper places with references. By the expression’ Prakrit languages it is intended to take the word in the sense in which it has been used in Indian Classical literature as a whole and more particularly its use as found in the traditional Prakrit grammars, works on rhetorics and dramaturgy, In this sense the word ‘Prakrits’ is not coextensive with what the modern linguists call the Middle Indo Aryan languages (MIA). Hence we exclude from the scope of this work the whole of the Pall literature and extra Indian Prakrit dialects and some of the early inscriptions in MIA. like those of Asoka. This exclusion is based on two considerations: (1) excellent dictionaries are available for Pali literature and an exhaustive one is already in progress. Glossaries for the excluded dialects and inscriptions are also known and meet the needs sufficiently well. (2) Technically the different modes of writing of these dialects make it difficult to include the words in the alphabetical order of the Prakrit Dictionary and their inclusion as separate entries will only increase the bulk of the work without real advantage. However, whenever an etymology of the Prakrit word is attempted, this material is given due consideration. The reference to Jain literature is intended to draw attention to the fact that an extensive material is available here and that the semantic analysis of the peculiar and technical words from this literature is expected to yield a rich harvest and is in need of some amount of special explanation to understand them. The position which the Apabhramsa literature occupies in the history of Indo-Aryan languages fully justifies its inclusion in the Dictionary. All the material bearing on the so-called Vibhasas ‘ sub-dialects of Prakrits ‘ being scanty will be included ID the scope of this work. But the bulk of the Dictionary will be formed by the chief Prakrit languages namely Ardha Magadhi, Jain Maharastri, Jain Sauraseni, Maharastri, Sauraseni, Magadhi and Apabhramsa and illustrations from tbem Will be used throughout A complete lrst of books used for this Dictionary is given separately along with tbe abbreviations used and the mode of reference followed. It contains nearly 500 works and thus covers almost all the material available in the Prakrit languages.

II. LEXICAL MATERIAL IN PRAKRIT
For a better understanding of the nature of the present dictionary, it may be useful to give a brief survey of the lexical material available for the Prakrits included in this dictionary. As compared with Sanskrit and Pall, the traditional lexical material for the Prakrits is definitely scanty and not of much significance. -It is true that the vast commentarial literature on the AMg canon and post canonical works both in JM. and JS. often cite a few passages which appear like bits of Kosas of the traditional type, just as they quote a few grammatical rules which have given rise to the hope of finding old grammars of Prakrit written in Prakrit Itself, as is the case with the Pali language. But In both cases the expectation is not justified. In the earliest exegetical works in AMg and Pro canonical works in JS. and more particularly in the so called Nijjuttis and Bhasas, where such bits of statements occur, those are due to the tradition of these works to explain the texts in a peculiar manner. Of the various devices used to elucidate the meanings of the sacred texts, there is one called egatthas i.e. giving words all of which have the same meaning. As the idea is to classify the concept which underlies a word more than its exact sense, these bits of egatthas are built on a very loose idea of synonyms and a collection of words is put together to include as many aspects of the concept as possible, which can hardly be called a Kola as usually understood in Ancient Indian literature. A fairly evolved example of this can be seen at the beginning of each chapter of the late canonical book Panhavagaranai In the very first chapter we come across the word panivaha and its 30 names like panivahani, ummulana sarirao, avisambho himsavihimsa, akiccam, ghayana, marana, vahana, upadhavana, tivayana, arambha samarambho etc. called gonnani namani. The Nijjutti on the Suyagada gives purely phonetic variants of its name as : tass ya imani namani / suttagadani, suttakadam, suyagadam ceva gonnai 2.The later work called Angavijja abounds in such collections of synonyms and a modern work called Ekarthakosa puts them together. In spite of the usefulness of such passages, they can hardly be called Kotas or excerpts from Kalas in the usual sense of tbe term as seen in a very large number of works in Sanskrit beginning with the work of Amara. Real Kosas in this sense are only two, Dhanapala’s Paialacchinamamaala and Rutnavali (later known by the name Desinamamala) of Hema candra. The first is a small work of 279 gal has and deals with nearly a thousand words in Prakrit containing mostly tatsamas and tadbhavas along with a few Desi words. The author tells us at the end of the work that he composed it in VS. 1329 and mentions a famous Incident which occurred in that year, viz. the town of Manyakheta was attacked and looted by the king of Malava. The author himself lived in Dhara and wrote his Kosa for his sister Sundari He also indirectly gives his name in a line by the simple device of listing words, the end syllables of which make up his name Dhanavala, The choice of the words is made on the basis of their usefulness for writing poetry. It is obvious that he wants his work to be considered as an aid to poets, which thus belongs to the genre called Kaavisiksa.

The device used to arrange the words is equally simple which explains the limitations placed on the choice of words. Synonyms which number many but not exceeding a gatha are given first, then those which can be accommodated in one line, or one carana or the fourth part of a gatha, two lines of which are divided into two parts each of unequal Iength. The list is concluded with words with their meanings in a single word. It can be easily Imagined that such a plan would give very little scope both for the number of words to be included and the explanations to be given for them Hence its use for a Prakrit lexicographer is very little.

On the other hand the Desinamamala of Hemacandra is of capital importance for Prakrit lexicography. While the tat soma and tad bhava words of Prakrit are easily identified with their Sanskrit counterparts and offer no difficulty of explanation, the so called Desi words, which occur throughout the Prakrit literature, are enigmatic as regards their source and often their meaning cannot be decided, when not extensively used. Hemacandra has devoted one Kala of his to collect and explain this stock of words in his work originally called Rayanavali but renamed by its first editor R. Pischel as Desinamamala as being more expressive of its nature. It consists of eight chapters called vargas based on the division of the alphabet into groups according to a non grammatical astrological tradition of India. This divides the alphabet into vowels from, kavarga cavarga, tavarga, tavarga pavarga and yavarga. Hemacandra has split the last one into two, the first containing y, r, l, and v, the second s, s, s and h. Naturally the Desi words do not show the sound visarga, nasals n, n and y initially and hence they are not necessary for arranging the words on the basis of their initial sounds. He remarks besides arranging the words in the alphabetical order of the first syllable he further arranges them according to the number of syllables they contain. i. e. as having two three, four or five syllables in each group and this is again repeated twice on the consideration, whether they are having a single meaning or many (ekartha, anekartha ) The ekartha group naturally include words having the same meaning, a synonymous Kosa, while the other is a polysemous Kosa, This brings his classification in conformity with the basic division of the Sanskrit Kosa works. Hemacandra has put together as many as 6000 words of this nature in 783 stanzas.

To his text be bas added a Sanskrit commentary explaining the meanings of these words and illustrates their use in a large number of stanzas composed by himself. Pischel is very critical about these as having no literary merit, even after giving’ due consideration to the constraints under which they were composed. In spite of this limitation they are often of use in deciding the meanings of words when they are polysemous in Sanskrit itself and hence they are often cited for this purpose in the dictionary.

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Volume I



Volume III



A Comprehensive and Critical Dictionary of The Prakrit Languages with Special Reference to Jain Literature - With Transliteration (Set of 5 Volumes)

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INTRODUCTION

I. THE TITLE

The full title of the present lexical work is A Comprehensive and Critical Dictionary of the Prakrit Languages with special reference to Jain literature. This designation is chosen to indicate the main features of the work. Compared to the available dictionaries of the Prakrits, old and new, this dictionary is intended to cover all the available leximes in the Prakrit languages and as such aims at comprehensiveness as far as the Prakrit literature is concerned. It is meant to be critical in the sense that while using the literature for this purpose, a critical attitude is consistently followed, and each item is examined and all quotations for it are thoroughly corrected wherever necessary with 1111 the available material, and are fully interpreted. This is essential because most of the Prakrit works which are at present available are not critically edited and properly translated. In the case of editions of the canonical texts, there are too many differences among them, because they are published at different times and are worked with divergent principles which are often contrary to each other. being based upon different views of their nature Equally chaotic is the method used for the purpose of giving references to passages and many of the entries are based on memo y of the dictionary- makers, Sometimes an attempt is made to put a Sanskrit word into Prakrit without any thought being given to its actual occurrence in the Prakrit language. Short of preparing complete critical editions of the works used for this dictionary, an attempt is made to present the words and examples in as critical a form as possible with the available material A consistent and easily verifiable mode of reference is used which will help the reader to trace the passages in different editions. The meanings given are based on a thorough consideration of all the evidence available including the traditional interpretations and for this purpose extracts from the commentarial literature are given in their proper places with references. By the expression’ Prakrit languages it is intended to take the word in the sense in which it has been used in Indian Classical literature as a whole and more particularly its use as found in the traditional Prakrit grammars, works on rhetorics and dramaturgy, In this sense the word ‘Prakrits’ is not coextensive with what the modern linguists call the Middle Indo Aryan languages (MIA). Hence we exclude from the scope of this work the whole of the Pall literature and extra Indian Prakrit dialects and some of the early inscriptions in MIA. like those of Asoka. This exclusion is based on two considerations: (1) excellent dictionaries are available for Pali literature and an exhaustive one is already in progress. Glossaries for the excluded dialects and inscriptions are also known and meet the needs sufficiently well. (2) Technically the different modes of writing of these dialects make it difficult to include the words in the alphabetical order of the Prakrit Dictionary and their inclusion as separate entries will only increase the bulk of the work without real advantage. However, whenever an etymology of the Prakrit word is attempted, this material is given due consideration. The reference to Jain literature is intended to draw attention to the fact that an extensive material is available here and that the semantic analysis of the peculiar and technical words from this literature is expected to yield a rich harvest and is in need of some amount of special explanation to understand them. The position which the Apabhramsa literature occupies in the history of Indo-Aryan languages fully justifies its inclusion in the Dictionary. All the material bearing on the so-called Vibhasas ‘ sub-dialects of Prakrits ‘ being scanty will be included ID the scope of this work. But the bulk of the Dictionary will be formed by the chief Prakrit languages namely Ardha Magadhi, Jain Maharastri, Jain Sauraseni, Maharastri, Sauraseni, Magadhi and Apabhramsa and illustrations from tbem Will be used throughout A complete lrst of books used for this Dictionary is given separately along with tbe abbreviations used and the mode of reference followed. It contains nearly 500 works and thus covers almost all the material available in the Prakrit languages.

II. LEXICAL MATERIAL IN PRAKRIT
For a better understanding of the nature of the present dictionary, it may be useful to give a brief survey of the lexical material available for the Prakrits included in this dictionary. As compared with Sanskrit and Pall, the traditional lexical material for the Prakrits is definitely scanty and not of much significance. -It is true that the vast commentarial literature on the AMg canon and post canonical works both in JM. and JS. often cite a few passages which appear like bits of Kosas of the traditional type, just as they quote a few grammatical rules which have given rise to the hope of finding old grammars of Prakrit written in Prakrit Itself, as is the case with the Pali language. But In both cases the expectation is not justified. In the earliest exegetical works in AMg and Pro canonical works in JS. and more particularly in the so called Nijjuttis and Bhasas, where such bits of statements occur, those are due to the tradition of these works to explain the texts in a peculiar manner. Of the various devices used to elucidate the meanings of the sacred texts, there is one called egatthas i.e. giving words all of which have the same meaning. As the idea is to classify the concept which underlies a word more than its exact sense, these bits of egatthas are built on a very loose idea of synonyms and a collection of words is put together to include as many aspects of the concept as possible, which can hardly be called a Kola as usually understood in Ancient Indian literature. A fairly evolved example of this can be seen at the beginning of each chapter of the late canonical book Panhavagaranai In the very first chapter we come across the word panivaha and its 30 names like panivahani, ummulana sarirao, avisambho himsavihimsa, akiccam, ghayana, marana, vahana, upadhavana, tivayana, arambha samarambho etc. called gonnani namani. The Nijjutti on the Suyagada gives purely phonetic variants of its name as : tass ya imani namani / suttagadani, suttakadam, suyagadam ceva gonnai 2.The later work called Angavijja abounds in such collections of synonyms and a modern work called Ekarthakosa puts them together. In spite of the usefulness of such passages, they can hardly be called Kotas or excerpts from Kalas in the usual sense of tbe term as seen in a very large number of works in Sanskrit beginning with the work of Amara. Real Kosas in this sense are only two, Dhanapala’s Paialacchinamamaala and Rutnavali (later known by the name Desinamamala) of Hema candra. The first is a small work of 279 gal has and deals with nearly a thousand words in Prakrit containing mostly tatsamas and tadbhavas along with a few Desi words. The author tells us at the end of the work that he composed it in VS. 1329 and mentions a famous Incident which occurred in that year, viz. the town of Manyakheta was attacked and looted by the king of Malava. The author himself lived in Dhara and wrote his Kosa for his sister Sundari He also indirectly gives his name in a line by the simple device of listing words, the end syllables of which make up his name Dhanavala, The choice of the words is made on the basis of their usefulness for writing poetry. It is obvious that he wants his work to be considered as an aid to poets, which thus belongs to the genre called Kaavisiksa.

The device used to arrange the words is equally simple which explains the limitations placed on the choice of words. Synonyms which number many but not exceeding a gatha are given first, then those which can be accommodated in one line, or one carana or the fourth part of a gatha, two lines of which are divided into two parts each of unequal Iength. The list is concluded with words with their meanings in a single word. It can be easily Imagined that such a plan would give very little scope both for the number of words to be included and the explanations to be given for them Hence its use for a Prakrit lexicographer is very little.

On the other hand the Desinamamala of Hemacandra is of capital importance for Prakrit lexicography. While the tat soma and tad bhava words of Prakrit are easily identified with their Sanskrit counterparts and offer no difficulty of explanation, the so called Desi words, which occur throughout the Prakrit literature, are enigmatic as regards their source and often their meaning cannot be decided, when not extensively used. Hemacandra has devoted one Kala of his to collect and explain this stock of words in his work originally called Rayanavali but renamed by its first editor R. Pischel as Desinamamala as being more expressive of its nature. It consists of eight chapters called vargas based on the division of the alphabet into groups according to a non grammatical astrological tradition of India. This divides the alphabet into vowels from, kavarga cavarga, tavarga, tavarga pavarga and yavarga. Hemacandra has split the last one into two, the first containing y, r, l, and v, the second s, s, s and h. Naturally the Desi words do not show the sound visarga, nasals n, n and y initially and hence they are not necessary for arranging the words on the basis of their initial sounds. He remarks besides arranging the words in the alphabetical order of the first syllable he further arranges them according to the number of syllables they contain. i. e. as having two three, four or five syllables in each group and this is again repeated twice on the consideration, whether they are having a single meaning or many (ekartha, anekartha ) The ekartha group naturally include words having the same meaning, a synonymous Kosa, while the other is a polysemous Kosa, This brings his classification in conformity with the basic division of the Sanskrit Kosa works. Hemacandra has put together as many as 6000 words of this nature in 783 stanzas.

To his text be bas added a Sanskrit commentary explaining the meanings of these words and illustrates their use in a large number of stanzas composed by himself. Pischel is very critical about these as having no literary merit, even after giving’ due consideration to the constraints under which they were composed. In spite of this limitation they are often of use in deciding the meanings of words when they are polysemous in Sanskrit itself and hence they are often cited for this purpose in the dictionary.

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Volume I



Volume III



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