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Books > History > The Cultural Heritage of India (Set of 9 Volumes)
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The Cultural Heritage of India (Set of 9 Volumes)
The Cultural Heritage of India (Set of 9 Volumes)
Description

Volume I (The Early Phases: Prehistoric, Vedic and Upanisadic, Jaina and Buddhist)

 

Introduction:Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

ISBN:8185843023

 

Publisher's Note

The Ramakrishna mission established this Institute of Culture in 1938 in fulfillment of one of the projects to commemorate the Birth Centenary of Sri Ramakrishna (1936). At the same time the institute was vested with the entire rights of The Cultural Heritage of India. This publication is thus one of the major responsibilities of the Institute; it also serves to fulfil a primary aim of the Institute, which is to promote the study, interpretation, and dissemination of the cultural heritage of India.

The first edition of The Cultural Heritage of India, in three volumes and about 2,000 pages, the work of one hundred distinguished Indian scholars, was published in 1937 by the Sri Ramakrishna Birth Centenary Publication Committee as a Birth Centenary memorial. This work Presented for the first time a panorama of the cultural history of India, and it was immediately acclaimed as a remarkable contribution to the cultural literature of the world. This edition was sold out within a few years, and the work had long been out of print, when considering the question of the second edition, it was felt that, instead of reprinting the work in its original form, advantage should be taken of the opportunity to enlarge the scope of the work. It was decided to make it more comprehensive, more authoritative, and adequately representative of different aspects of Indian thought, and, at the same time, thoroughly to revise the old articles to bring them up to date.

According to the new scheme drawn up on this basis, the number of volumes has been increased. The plan of arrangement has been improved by grouping the topics in such a way that each volume may be fairly complete and fulfil the requirements of those interested, with separate pagination, bibliography, and index. Since due regard will be paid to historicity and critical treatment, it is hoped that this work will provide a useful guide to the study of the complex pattern of India's cultural history.

The distinguished band of scholars who have co-operated so ably in this task have done their work as a labour of love in a spirit of service to scholarship and world understanding. Equally essential to the success of the undertaking was the assistance of Government of India who made a generous grant towards the cost of publication. Without this dual co-operation, it would have been impossible to set out on a venture of this magnitude; and to the contributors as well as to the Government of India the Institute therefore expresses its deepest gratitude.

 

Contents
  Publisher's Note vii
  The spirit of India xxi
  Rabindranath Tagore  
  Introduction of the first edition xxiii
  Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan  
  Editors Preface xxxvii
I Suniti Kumar Chatterji, M.A., D.Lit.  
II A.D. Pusalker, M.A., LL.B., PH.D.  
III Nalinaksha Dutt, M.A., B.L., PH.D., D. Lit.  
 
PART I
 
 
THE BACKGROUND OF INDIAN CULTURE
 
1 The Geographical background of Indian culture 3
  Nirmal Kumar Bose, M.SC., F.N.I. Reader in Anthropo-Geography, Calcutta University  
2 Race and race movements in India 17
  Sasanka Sekhar sarkar, D.SC. Lecturer in Physical Anthropology, University College of Science, Calcutta  
3 Regional structure of India in relation to language and History 33
  Jay Chandra Narang; Vidyalankara Formerly Honorary Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Bombay University, and Secretary, Bharatiya Itihasa Parisad  
4 Linguistic Survey of India: Languages and scripts 53
  Suniti Kumar Chatterji, M.A. D.Lit. Chairman, Legislative Council, West Bengal, and formerly Khaira Professor of Indian Linguistics and Phonetics, Calcutta University  
5 Contributions from different language- Culture groups 76
  Suniti Kumar Chatterji, M.A., D.Lit.  
 
PART II
 
 
PREHISTORIC INDIA
 
6 The Stone Age in India 93
I Nirmal Kumar Bose, M.Sc., F.N.I.  
II Dharani Sen, M.SC. Lecturer in Prehistoric Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, University College of Science, Calcutta  
7 Indus Valley Civilization 110
  Madho Sarup Vats, M.A. Formerly Director General of Archaeology in India, New Delhi  
8 The Origin of the Indo-Aryans 129
  Bata Krishna Ghosh, D.Phil., D.Litt. Formerly Lecturer in Philology, Calcutta University  
9 Cultural Interrelation Between India and the outside world before Asoka 144
  A. D. Pusalker, M.A., LL.B., Ph.D. Formerly Assistant Director, and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay  
 
PART III
 
 
VEDIC CIVILIZATION
 
10 The Religio- Philosophic culture of India 163
  T. M. P. Mahadevan, M.A., Ph.D. Professor and Head of the Department of Philosophy, Madras University  
11 The Vedas and their religious teachings 182
  Swami Sharvananda  
12 Vedic Culture 199
  C. Kunhan Raja, B.A., D.Phil.Professor of Sanskrit, Andhra University, Waltair  
13 Vedic Society 221
  A.S. Altekar, M.A., LL.B., D.Litt.Director, K. P. Jayaswal Research Institute, Patna, and formerly Professor and Head of the Department of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Patna University  
14 Vedic Rituals 234
  V.M. Apte, M.A., Ph.D.Director of Research, Veda Samsodhana Mandala, Bombay, and formerly Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Saugar University  
15 The Vedangas 264
  V.M. Apte, M.A., M.A., PH. D.  
16 Yaska and panini 293
  Vasudeva Sharma Agrawala, M.A. PH.D., D.Litt. Professor and Head of the Department of Art and Architecture, Banaras Hindu University  
17 Vedic Exegesis 311
  Shrimat Anirvan  
18 The dawn of Indian philosophy 333
  Swami Ghanananda Head of the Ramakrishna Vedanta Centre, London  
19 A Bird's -eye view of the Upanisads 345
  Swami Ghanananda General Secretary, Ramakrishna Math and Mission, Belur, Howrah  
20 Mystical approach in the Upanisads 366
  Mahendranath Sircar, M.A., PH.D.Formerly Professor of Philosophy, Presidency College, Calcutta  
21 Upanisadic Mediatation 375
  Swami Gambhirananda President, Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati, Almora  
 
PART IV
 
 
JAINISM AND BUDDHISM
 
22 Sramana or non-Brahmanical sects 389
  Pandit N. Aiyaswami Sastri Head of the Indo-Tibetan Studies and Buddhism, Visva- Bharati, Santinikatan  
23 Jainism: Its History, Principles, and Precepts 400
  Hiralal Jain, M.A., LL.B., D. Litt. Director, Institute of Post- Graduate Studies and Research in Prakrit, Jainology, and Ahimsa, Muzaffarpur, Bihar  
24 Jainism: Its Philosophy and Ethics 414
  Appaswami Chakravrti, M.A. Formerly Prinicipal, Government College, Kumbakonam  
25 Some fundamental principles of Jainism 434
  Pandit Sukhalal Sanghvi, D. Litt. Formerly Professor and Head of the Department of Jaina Sastra, Banaras Hindu University  
26 Some Aspects of early Buddhism 442
  Beni Madhab Barua, M.A., D.Lit., Tripitakacarya Formerly Professor of Pali and Lecturer in Sanskrit and Ancient Indian History and culture, Calcutta University  
27 Schools and sects of Buddhism 456
I P. V. Bapat, M.A., A.M., PH.D. Professor of Buddhist Studies, Delhi University  
II-IV Nalinaksha Dutt, M.A., B.L., PH.D., D.Lit. Professor and Head of the Department of Pali, Calcutta University  
28 Emergence of Mahayana Buddhism 503
  Nalinaksha Dutt, M.A., B.L., PH.D., D.Lit.  
29 Mahayanic pantheon 518
  Beonoytosh Bhattacharyya, M.A., PH.D. Formerly Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda  
30 Karma 537
  Bimala Churn Law, M.A., B.L., PH.D., D.Litt.  
31 Nirvana 547
  Bimala Churn Law., M.A., B.L., PH.D., D.Litt.  
32 Buddhism in relation to Vedanta 559
  Vidhushekhara Bhattacharya, Sastrin, Mahamahopadhyaya Formerly Asutosh Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Calcutta University  
33 Buddhism in Indian life and Thought 575
  Satkari Mookerjee, M.A., Ph.D. Director, Nava Nalanda Mahavihara, Nalanda, and formerly Asutosh Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Calcutta University  
  Bibliography 601
  Index 615

 

Volume II (Itihasas, Puranas, Dharma and Other Sastras)

 

Author:Ed. Dr. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar

ISBN: 8185843031

Volume II of this literary lour-de-force comprises studies in the Itihasas, Puranas, Dharma and other Sastras. This volume will be specially significant in the light of present-day Indian conditions and would be invaluable for a proper solution of the problem of national integration, which is now exercising the minds of Indian leaders. The conviction of the immanence of the Supreme Being in every all mate entity, leading to a realization of the dignity of each individual is the message taught by this volume and should be of crucial importance for creating those bonds of love and service, which are indispensable for today and tomorrow. From another point of view, the contributions contained in this volume would be of import, as they would put in proper perspective the values emphasized in modern civilization. India, while not disparaging economic advancement or social utility, has always stressed the importance of human personality against all challenges to it. Neither stark individualism nor collectivization can solve the problems confronting humanity today, and this lesson is specially conveyed by the Itihasas and the Puranas.

The Amarakosa, describing the main characteristics of the Puranas, specially points out that the commands of the Vedas are like those of a master (Prabhu Samhita) whereas the teachings of the Itihasas and Puranas may be compared with the advice and counsel of friends ( Suhrt Samhita).

The Epic Age during which the Ramayana and the Mahabharata received their final shape was a period of racial and ideological conflict; and, historically speaking, this period produced the two great Epics as well as the Manu Dharma-Sastra, the Codes of Yajnavalkya, Narada, and Parasara and the earlier Puranas.

 

Contents
  Publisher's Note vii
  Introduction xxi
  Dr. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar  
 
PART I
 
 
THE TWO GREAT EPICS
 
1 Classical Sanskrit as a vehicle of Indian culture 3
  K. K. Handique, M.A. (Cal. Et. Oxon) Vice- Chancellor, Gauhati University  
2 The Ramayana: Its History and Character 14
  A.D. Pusalker, M.A., LL. B., PH.D. Formerly Assistant Director, and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay  
3 The Culture of the Ramayana 32
  Swami Nihsreyasananda Ramakrishna Mission  
4 The Mahabharata: Its history and character 51
I P. L. Vaidya, M.A., PH.D.Mayurbhanj Professor of Sanskrit and Pali, Hindu University, Banaras  
II A.D. Pusalker, M.A., LL. B., PH.D.  
5 The Mahabharata: Some aspects of its culture 71
  Hemchandra Raychaudhuri, M.A., PH.D., F.R.A.S.B.Carmichael Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University  
6 Religion and Philosophy of the Epics 80
  A. P. Karmarkar, M.A., LL.B., PH.D. Professor of Indian History and Ancient Indian Culture, Ramnarain College, Bombay; University Teacher, Bombay University  
7 The Influence of the Indian life and literature 95
  Nilmadhav Sen, M.A., D.Litt. Deccan School of Linguistics, Poona  
8 The Ramayana and the Mahabharata in south- East Asia 119
  Bijan Raj Chatterjee, PH.D., (Lond), D.Litt. (Punjab) Principal, Meerut College, U. P.  
 
PART II
 
 
THE GITA LITERATURE
 
9 The Bhagavad-Gita: A General Review of its History and character 135
  S. K. Belvalkar, M.A., PH.D. (Harvard) Professor of Sanskrit (Emeritus), Deccan College, Poona, and Banaras Hindu University  
10 The teachings of the Bhagavad-Gita 158
  Swami Suddhananda Formerly President, Ramakrishna Mission  
11 The Religion of The Bhagavad-Gita 166
  Swami Tapasyananda President, Ramakrishna Ashrama, Trivandram, Kerala  
12 The Bhagavad-Gita: Its synthetic Character 180
  Swami Viresyananda General Secretary, Ramakrishna Mission  
13 The Bhagavad-Gita: Its Early Commentaries 195
  Mahendra Nath Sarkar, M.A., PH.D.Formerly Professor of Philosophy, Presidency College, Calcutta  
14 Imitations of the Bhagavad-Gita and later Gita Literature 204
  Parameswara Aiyar, B.L. Retired Sub-judge  
 
PART III
 
 
THE PURANAS
 
15 Indian Mythology 223
  R.N. Dandekar, M.A., PH.D. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona  
16 The Puranas 240
  Rajendra Chandra Hazra, M.A., PH.D., D. Litt. Associate Professor of Smrti and Puranas (Research Departmental, Sanskrit College), Calcutta  
17 The Upapuranas 271
  Rajendra Chandra Hazra, M.A., PH.D., D. Litt.  
18 The Ethics of the Puranas 287
  C.S. Venkateswaran, M.A., PH.D. Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Annamalai University  
 
PART IV
 
 
THE DHARMASASTRAS
 
19 The Dharma-sutras and the Dharma sastras 301
  V. A. Ramaswami Sastri, M.A. Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Annamalai University  
20 The Smartis: their outlook and character 312
  T. R. Venkatarama Sastri, C.I.E. Formerly Advocate-General, Madras  
21 The Manu samhita 335
  V. Raghavan, M.A., PH.D. Professor of Sanskrit, Madras University  
22 The Nibandhas 364
  Dinesh Chandra Bhattachrya, M.A. Formerly Professor, Mohsin College, Hooghly  
23 Penances and vows 381
  Dinesh Chandra Bhattachrya, M.A.  
24 The Hindu Sacraments (Samskaras) 390
  Principal, Banaras Hindu University  
25 The Historical Background and theoretic basis of Hindu law 414
  P. B. Gajendragadkar Judge, Spureme Court of India  
26 The Hindu Judicial system 434
  P. B. Mukharji Judge, Calcutta High Court  
 
PART V
 
 
ARTHA-SASTRA, NITI-SASTRA, AND OTHER SOURCES OF POLITICAL AND ORGANIZATION
 
27 A general survey of the literature of Artha- Sastra and Niti -Sastra 451
I U.N. Ghoshal, M.A. PH.D. Formerly Professor of History, Presidency College, Calcutta  
II V. Radhagovinda Basak, M.A., PH.D. Formerly Professor, Presidency College, Calcutta  
28 Political Organization: The Monarchical States 465
  U.N. Ghoshal, M.A., PH.D.  
29 Political Organization: Republics and mixed constitutions 480
  U.N. Ghoshal, M.A., Ph.D.  
30 The state in relation to religion in ancient India 485
  K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, M.A. Formerly Professor of Indian History, Madras University  
31 Some Aspects of social and Political evolution in India 493
  C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar, B.A., B.L., LL.D., D.Litt. Formerly Vice- Chancellor, Banaras Hindu University  
32 Some basic ideas of Political Thinking in ancient India 509
  Benoy Kumar Sircar, M.A., Dr. H. C. Formerly Professor, Calcutta University  
33 The Tiru-K- Kural 530
  C. Rajagopachari, Bharat Ratna, B.A., B.L. Formerly Governor General of India  
34 The Indian organization: An anthropological study 536
  Dr. (Mrs.) Iravati Karve Deccan College, Poona  
35 Some of social life in ancient India 557
  H. C. Chakladar, M.A. Formerly Head of Anthropology, Calcutta University  
36 Monasticism in India 582
  Sukumar Datta, M.A., PH.D. Formerly Reader in English, Delhi University  
37 Some Aspects of the Position of Women in ancient India 594
  D.C. Ganguly, M.A., D.Phil. Curator, Victoria Memorial, Calcutta  
38 Some reflections on the ideals of Indian Womanhood 601
  Roma Chaudhury, M.A., D.Phil. Principal, Lady Brourne College, Calcutta  
39 Foreign elements in India population 610
  Mrs. Debala Mitra, M.A. Assistant Superintendent of Archaeology, Indian Museum, Calcutta  
40 Some Experiments in Social reform in mediaeval India 627
  P. N. Chopra, M.A., PH.D.,Member, Board of Editors, 'History of freedom Movement of India'  
41 Ancient Indian Education 640
I Radha Kumud Mookerji, M.A., PH.D., Formerly Vice- Chancellor, Emeritus Professor of History, Lucknow University  
II- III U.N. Ghoshal, M.A., PH.D.  
42 Economic Ideas of the Hindus 655
  A.D. Pusalker, M.A., LL.B., PH.D.  
43 Guilds and other corporate bodies 670
  U.N. Ghoshal, M.A., PH.D.  
  Bibliography 681
  Index 695

 

Volume III (The Philosophies)

Author:Ed.Haridas Bhattacharyya

ISBN:818584304X

THE PRESENT volume tells the story of the attempts made by India down the ages to grapple with the fundamental problems of life and thought. Philosophy in India began with a quest after the highest truth-truth not as mere objective certitude, but as being closely linked with the development of personally and leading to the attainment of the highest freedom, bliss, and wisdom. It demanded, therefore, not only a philosophical discipline of reasoning, but also a discipline of conduct and the control of emotions and passions.

THUS THE synthesis between deep philosophical analysis and lofty spiritual discipline is an abiding feature of Indian philosophy, and in this its outlook is entirely different from that of western philosophy.

IT IS hoped that this volume will serve not only to make plain the spiritual aspirations of an ancient nation, but also to show the relevance of those aspirations to the modern world and thus forge a powerful link in the chain of human fellowship and universal concord.

 

CONTENTS

 

  Publisher's Note v
  Preface xiii
1. Introduction
Surrendranath Dasgupta, M.A., Ph.D., D.Litt.
Formerly King George V Professor of Philosophy, Calcutta University

 

3
PART I
THE PHILOSOPHICAL SYSTEMS
2. Rise of The Philosophical Schools
T.R.V. Murti, M.A., D.Litt., Vyakaranacarya, Vedantasastri
Sayaji Rao Gaekwad Professor of Indian Civilization and Culture, Banaras Hindu University
27
3. The Samkhya
M. Hiriyanna, M.A.
Formerly Professor of Sanskrit, Maharaja's College, Mysore
41
4. Yoga Psychology
Haridas Bhattacharyya, M.A., B.L., P.R.S., Darsanasagara
Formerly Head of the Department of Philosophy, Dacca University
53
5. Nyaya-Vaisesika
Satkari Mookerjee, M.A., Ph.D.
Asutosh Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Calcutta University
91
6. Navya-Nyaya
Janaki Vallabha Bhattacharyya, M.A., Ph.D.
Lecturer in Sanskrit, Calcutta University
125
7. Purva-Mimamsa
Pramathanath Tarkabhushan, Mahamahopadhyaya
Formerly Principal, College of Oriental Learning, Banaras Hindu University
151
8. Materialists, Sceptics, and Agnostics
Dakshina Ranjan Shastri, M.A., Ph.D., Kavyatirtha
Professor of Sanskrit, Krishnagar College, Nadia

 

168
PART II
THE VEDANTA
9. Brahma-Mimamsa
Anantakrishna Sastri, Mahamahopadhyaya
Formerly Lecturer in Sanskrit, Calcutta University
187
10. Essentials of Vedanta
V. Subrahmanya Iyer, B.A.
Formerly Registrar, Mysore University
211
11. Philosophy of The Advaita
K.A. Krishnaswami Iyer, B.A.
Formerly Headmaster, Government High School, Tumkur
219
12. The Philosophy of Sankara
Surendranath Bhattacharya, M.A.
Professor of Sanskrit, Bihar National College, Patna
237
13. The Advaita and its Spiritual Significance
Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya, M.A.
Formerly King George V Professor of Philosophy, Calcutta University
245
14. Post-Sankara Advaita
Dinesh Chandra Bhattacharya, Sastri, Tarka-Vedanta-tirtha
Formerly Head of the Department of Oriental Studies, Haraganga College, Munshiganj
255
15. Philosophy of the Bhagavata
Swami Tyagisananda
Formerly President, Ramakrishna Ashrama, Bangalore
281
16. The Visistadvaita of Ramanuja
P.N. Srinivasachari, M.A.
Formerly Principal, Pachaiyappa's College, Madras
300
17. Madhva's Brahma-Mimamsa
H.N. Raghavendrachar, M.A., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Maharaja's College, Mysore
313
18. The Nimbarka School of Vedanta
Roma Chaudhuri, M.A., D.Phil. (OXON)
Principal, Lady Brabourne College, Calcutta
333
19. The School of Vallabha
Govindlal Hargovind Bhatt, M.A.
Director, Oriental Institute, M.S. University, Baroda
347
20. Bhedabheda School of Vedanta
P.N.Srinivasachari, M.A.
360
21. The Acintya-Bhedabheda School
Radha Govinda Nath, M.A., Vidyavacaspati
Formerly Principal, Victoria College, Comilla

 

366
PART III
THE RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHIES
22. The Philosophy of Saivism
S.S. Suryanarayana Sastri, M.A., B.Sc., Barrister-at-Law
Formerly Head of the Department of Philosophy, Madras University
387
23. The Path of Yoga in the Gita
D.S. Sarma, M.A.
Formerly Principal, Vivekananda College, Madras
400
24. Philosophy of the Yogavasistha
Bhikkan Lal Atreya, M.A., D.Litt., Darsanacarya
Professor and Head of the Department of Philosophy, Banaras Hindu University
424
25. Philosophy of the Tantras
Swami Pratyagatmananda
437
26. The Philosophy of Mysticism
Radhakamal Mukerjee, M.A., Ph.D.
Director, J.K. Institute of Sociology and Human Relations, Lucknow University
449
27. Philosophy in Popular Literature
Atindranath Bose, M.A., P.R.S., Ph.D.
Lecturer, Calcutta University

 

458
PART IV
THE PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY
28. Religion of The Nyaya and Vaisesika
Ganganath Jha, M.A., D.Litt., Mahamahopadhyaya
Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Allahabad University
471
29. Nature of The Soul
Anukul Chandra Mukerji, M.A.
Formerly Professor and Head of the Department of Philosophy, Allahabad University
475
30. Nature of the Physical World
Umesh Mishra, M.A., D.Litt., Mahamahopadhyaya
Director, Mithila Research Institute, Darbhanga
494
31. Nature of Mind and its Activities
P.T. Raju, M.A., Ph.D., Sastri
Professor of Philosophy, Rajasthan University, Jodhpur
507
32. Extra-Sensory and Super conscious Experiences
Swami Akhilananda
President, The Vedanta Society, Providence (R.I.), U.S.A.

 

520
PART V
THE PHILOSOPHICAL SCIENCES
33. Indian Theism
Swami Hiranmayananda
Secretary, Ramakrishna Mission Sevashrama, Rangoon
535
34. Indian Epistemology
Dhirendra Mohan Datta, M.A., P.R.S., Ph.D., Pracyavidyavaridhi
Professor of Philosophy, Patna College, Patna
548
35. The Art of Philosophical Disputation
Yogendranath Bagchi, Mahamahopadhyaya, Tarka-Samkhya-Vedanta-tirtha
Research Professor, Government Sanskrit College, Calcutta
562
36. Indian Psychology
P.T. Raju, M.A., Ph.D., Sastri
581
37. Types of Human Nature
Hari Mohan Bhattacharyya, M.A.
Professor of Philosophy and Principal of the Women's Section, Asutosh College, Calcutta
608
38. Indian Ethics
Haridas Bhattacharyya, M.A., B.L., P.R.S., Darsanasagara
620
39. Philosophy of Values
M. Hiriyanna, M.A.

 

645
  Bibliography 657
  Index

 

667

 

Volume IV (The Religions of India)

Author: Ed.:Bhagavan Das

ISBN:8185843058

The Present Volume bears ample testimony to the great hospitality of the Indian mind in encouraging and inviting different points of view and different lines of approach to the great quest for the Ultimate Reality. It sketches the more important sects and living religions which India accepts as diverse expressions of religion itself.

Hinduism in its various ramifications derived from a common stock is an exceedingly interesting and instructive subject to pursue. It is not at all a single religion with a creed to which everybody must subscribe, although each individual cult offers its allegiance to the Vedas and the Upanisads as the source and origin of Indian religion and religious experience. Hinduism is thus a federation of different kinds of approach to the Reality behind life. That is the unique character of Hinduism, and that character is unfolded in the pages of this volume.

 

Contents
  Publisher's Note v
  Preface xv
1 Introduction  
  Bharataratna Bhagavan Das, M. A., D. Litt. 3
 
PART I
RELIGIOUS SECTS AND CULTS
 
2 Evolution Of Religio-Philosophic Culture In India R. C. Majumadar  
  Head of the Department of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Nagpur University, and Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Dacca University 31
3 AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF SAIVISM  
  K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, M. A.  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Indology, Mysore University 63
4 KASHMIR SAIVISM  
  Arabinda Basu, M. A.  
  Spalding Lecturer in Indian Philosophy and Religion, Durham University 79
5 VIRASAIVISM  
  Shree Kumaraswamiji, B. A.  
  Head of the Navakalyanamatha, Dharwar 98
6 EARLY HISTORY OF VAISNAVISM  
  Dines Chandra Sircar, M. A., P. R. S. Ph. D.  
  Government Epigraphist for India, Ootacamund 108
7 BHAGAVATA RELIGION: THE CULT OF BHAKTI  
  Jadunath Sinha, M. A., P. R. S., Ph. D.  
  Formerly Professor of Philosophy, Meerut College, Meerut 146
8 THE VAIKHANASAS  
  K. R. Venkataraman, B. A., L. T. Puravrttajyoti  
  Formerly Director of Public Instruction Pudukkottai State 160
9 HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF SRI-VAISNAVISM IN SOUTH INDIA  
  V. Rangacharya, M. A., L. T.  
  Formerly Professor and Head of the Department of History and Economics, University College, Trivandrum 163
10 A SURVEY OF THE CAITANYA MOVEMENT  
  Radha Govinda Nath, M. A. D. Litt., Vidyavacaspati  
  Formerly Principal, Victoria College, Comilla 186
11 SANKARA DEVA AND THE VAISNAVA MOVEMENT IN ASSAM  
  Raj Mohon Nath, B. E., Tattvabhusana  
  Formerly Superintending Engineer, P. W. D., Assam 201
12 EVOLUTION OF THE TANTRAS  
  P. C. Bagchi, M. A., D. Litt.  
  Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 211
13 TANTRA AS A WAY OF REALIZATION  
  Swami Pratyagatmananda 227
14 THE SPIRIT AND CULTURE OF THE TANTRAS  
  Atal Behari Ghosh, M. A., B. L.  
  One of the Founders of the Agama Anusandhana Samiti, Calcutta 241
15 SAKTI CULT IN SOUTH INDIA  
  K. R. Venkataraman, B. A., L. T., Puravrttajyoti 252
16 TANTRIKA CULTURE AMONG THE BUDDHISTS  
  Benoytosh Bhattacharyya, M. A. Ph. D.  
  Formerly Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda 260
17 THE CULT OF THE BUDDHIST SIDDHACARYAS  
  P. C. Bagchi, M. A., D. Litt 273
18 THE NATHA CULT  
  Sukumar Sen, M. A., Ph. D.  
  Khaira Professor of Indian Linguistics and Phonetics, Calcutta University 280
19 SOME LATER YOGIC SCHOOLS  
  Shashi Bhusan Das Gupta, M. A., P. R. S. Ph. D.  
  Ramtanu Lahiri Professor of Bengali Language and Literature and Head of the Department of Modern Indian Languages, Calcutta University 291
20 THE DOCTRINAL CULTURE AND TRADITION OF THE SIDDHAS  
  V. V. Ramana Sastri, M. A., Ph. D., Jyotirbhusana Tanjore 300
21 SKANDA CULT IN SOUTH INDIA  
  K. R. Venkataraman, B. A., L. T., Puravrttajoti 309
22 THE RELIGION OF THE SIKH GURUS  
  Teja Singh, M. A.  
  Formerly Principal, Khalsa College, Bombay 314
23 CULT-SYNCRETISM  
  Jitendra Nath Banerjea, M. A., Ph. D.  
  Carmichael Professor and Head of the Department of Ancient  
  Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University 329
 
PART II
THE SAINTS AND THEIR TEACHINGS
 
24 THE SAIVA SAINTS OF SOUTH INDIA  
  S. Satchidanandam Pillai, B. A., I. T.  
  President, Saiva Siddhanta Mahasamajam, Madras 339
25 THE VAISNAVA SAINTS OF KARNATAKA  
  B. N. K. Sharma, M. A., Ph. D., Vidyabhusana  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit and Ardhamagadhi, Ruparel College, Bombay 349
26 THE MAHARASTRA SAINTS AND THEIR TEACHINGS  
  K. V. Gajendragadkar, M. A.  
  Principal, H. P. T. College, Nasik 356
27 THE MEDIAEVAL MYSTICS OF NORTH INDIA  
  Kshitimohan Sen, M. A., Sastrin  
  Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 377
28 TULASIDASA AND HIS TEACHINGS  
  Srimati Chandra Kumari Handoo, M. A.  
  Bombay 395
29 SAKTI-WORSHIP AND THE SAKTA SAINTS  
  Chintaharan Chakravarti, M. A., Kavyatirtha  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Bengali, Presidency  
  College, Calcutta 408
 
PART III
RELIGION IN PRACTICE
 
30 RELIGIOUS BELIEFS OF THE INDIAN TRIBES  
  Tarak Chandra Das, M. A.  
  Lecturer in Anthropology, Calcutta University 421
31 A GLIMPSE INTO HINDU RELIGIOUS SYMBOLISM  
  Swami Yatiswarananda  
  President, Sri Ramakrishna Ashrama, Bangalore 433
32 RITUALS OF WORSHIP  
  L. A. Ravi Varma, M. B., G. M., D. O. M. S., Gavesakatilaka  
  Trivandrum  
33 INDIAN HYMNOLOGY  
  Sivaprasad Bhattacharyya, M. A. B. T., Kavyatirtha  
  Formerly Senior Professor of Sanskrit, Presidency College, Calcutta 464
34 FESTIVALS AND SACRED DAYS  
  Batuknath Bhattacharya, M. A., L. L. B., Kavyatirtha  
  Formerly Professor of English, Surendranath College, Calcutta 479
35 PILGRIMAGE AND FAIRS: THEIR BEARING ON INDIAN LIFE  
  Swami Pavitrananda  
  Head of the Vedanta Society, New York 495
36 METHODS OF POPULAR RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION IN SOUTH INDIA  
  V. Raghavan, M. A., Ph. D.  
  Professor of Sanskrit, Madras University 503
37 DIFFUSION OF SOCIO-RELIGIOUS CULTURE IN NORTH INDIA  
  I. Khagendranath Mitra, M. A.  
  Formerly Ramtanu Lahiri Professor of Bengali Language and  
  Literature and Head of the Department of Modern Indian  
  Languages, Calcutta University  
  II. Asutosh Bhattacharyya, M. A.  
  Lecturer in Bengali, Calcutta University 515
 
PART IV
RELIGIONS FROM BEYOND THE BORDERS
 
38 ZOROASTRIANISM  
  Irach J. S. Taraporewala, B. A., Ph. D., Bar-at-Law  
  Formerly Director, Deccan College Post-graduate and Research  
  Institute, Poona 533
39 THE RISE AND GROWTH OF CHRISTIANITY IN INDIA  
  Rev. C. E. Abraham, M. A., D. D.  
  Principal, Serampore College, Serampore 547
40 ISLAMIC CULTURE  
  M. T. Akbar, K. C., B. A., LL. B  
  Formerly Senior Puisne Justice of Supreme Court, Geylon 571
41 ISLAM IN INDIA  
  Humayun Kabir, M. A.  
  Formerly Adviser to the Ministry of Education, Government of India 579
42 SUFISM  
  I. Hira Lall Chopra, M . A.  
  Lecturer in Islamic History and Culture, Calcutta University  
  II. N. B. Butani, M. A., B. SC  
  Principal, D. & H. National and W. A. Science College, Bombay 593
 
PART V SOME MODERN REFORM MOVEMENTS
 
43 THE BRAHMO SAMAJ  
  Kalidas Nag, M. A., D. Litt.  
  Formerly Lecturer in Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University 613
44 THE ARYA SAMAJ  
  Pandit Chamupati, M. A.  
  Formerly Governor, Gurukul University, Kangri, Hardwar 634
45 WHAT THEOSOPHISTS BELIEVE  
  C. Jinarajadasa, M. A.  
  Formerly President, Theosophical Society, Adyar, Madras 640
 
PART VI
SRI RAMAKRISHNA AND SPIRITUAL RENAISSANCE
 
46 SRI RAMAKRISHNA AND SPIRITUAL RENAISSANCE  
  Swami Nirvedananda  
  President, Ramakrishna Mission Calcutta Students' Home 653
  BIBLIOGRAPHY 731
  INDEX 741

 

Volume V (Languages and Literatures of India)

Autho:Ed.Suniti Kumar Chatterji

ISBN:8185843066

The Present volume attempts to make a systematic study of India's great literary heritage preserved in various languages of the country, old as well as modern. A perusal of the forty-nine articles in this volume enables one to appreciate the basic phenomenon that despite various diversities-geographical, political, ethnographical, and linguistic-the fundamental unity of India clearly shines forth, and India since time immemorial has formed a solid single unit not only on the cultural plane, but also on the intellectual and literary.

The Volume is indeed an encyclopaedia in its scope and range, and it will certainly provide an authentic and valuable contribution towards the study of Indian languages and literatures in their glory and grandeur; it will also afford a spectacular display of the genius of India reflected in various branches of knowledge. It is needless to add that the literary heritage of India constitutes a priceless possession covetable to any nation, however great it may be, by any standard.

Preface

The Present volume fifth of the celebrated series, The Cultural Heritage of India, published by the Ramakrishna Mission institute of Culture, attempts to make a systematic study of India's great literary heritage preserved in various languages of the country, old as well as modern. A perusal of the articles in this volume enables one to appreciate the basic phenomenon that despite various diversities-geographical, political, ethnographical, and linguistic-the fundamental unity of India clearly shines forth, and India since time immemorial has formed solid single unit not only on the cultural plane, but also on the intellectual and literary.

 

INDIAN LITERATURE : ITS BASIC UNITY

Indian life and thought and Indian literature in ancient, medieval, and modern times (until very recently) have remained imbedded in the Upanisads, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Puranas. Without a knowledge and appreciation of these, no knowledge and appreciation of Indian literature, even for the modern age, is possible. These great works have exercised a tremendous fascination on the Indian mind for some 2,000 years and more, and left a profound influence on all Indian literatures. In fact, these works are India: and in all the languages of India and their literatures, it is the content and the spirit of the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Puranas, with the Upanisads and Dharma-sastras in the background, that have found and are still finding their full play and their natural abode. They have moulded the life and literature of India and constitute the greatest literary heritage of the country. The cultural unity of India, ancient, medieval, and modern, has been primarily nurtured through them. There is, besides, the huge corpus of literature in Sanskrit that has grown round the six orthodox systems of Indian philosophy and various other aspects of human knowledge and interest, to which scholars and writers from different parts of India had contributed. This 'matter' of ancient India or of the Sanskrit world forms the bed-rock of the medieval and modern literatures in most of the modern languages of India. Even a brief perusal of the histories of Hindi, Bengali, Oriya, Assamese, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi, Malayalam, Kannada, and Telugu literature, as well as of those which have not been as yet recognized in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution (viz. Maithili, Magahi, Bhojpuri, Nepali and Rajasthani), will show that, looming behind all these literatures not only as their background but also as their perpetual inspirer and feeder, there are the towering mountains of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the Puranas (especially the Bhagavata Purana) and the philosophy of the Vedanta as in the Upanisads and the Bhagavad-Gita, the ideologies and the ritualism of the Yoga and Bhakti and of the Dharma-sastras, and the poetry of the classic writers of Sanskrit like Kalidasa, Banabhatta, and Bhavabhuti. (There is no lack of the 'matter' of the Sanskrit world in Sindhi, Kashmiri Urdu, and even Tamil, either; but it is there in a comparatively restricted measure.) There are of course the special gifts of the Jaina and Buddhist literatures, which are also regarded as priceless treasures of India, but the influence of the Brahmanical literature of ancient India remains supreme. The streams of the Jaina and Buddhist Literatures easily and naturally merged into the wider 'Hindu', i. e. Brahmanical-cum-Jaina and Buddhist atmosphere, bringing some of their own elements to extend and diversify as well as unify the whole. One of the salient features of almost all the modern Indian languages is that they follow more or less the same pattern in the process of their literary development and growth. Thus, it may be said that if one passes from one modern Indian literature into another, there will be no sense of entering into a different climate. And this will be still more true if one passes from Sanskrit literature into that of any modern Indian language.

 

CHARACTERISTICS: ASSIMILATION AND INTEGRATION

Indian literature, like Indian civilization, is marked by its spirit of acceptance and assimilation. It has imbibed any features from other literatures over the centuries. In the modern period, many features of Western literature have found a welcome entry in the literature of this country. It may be asked to what extent the 'matter' of Islam has been assimilated in Indian literature, Sufistic Islam had many points in common with the Vedanta and Yoga and the essentials of higher Hinduism. The way of the Sufi (Sufiyana tariqa) was, therefore, easily successful in bringing to the Hindus a closer understanding of Islam and vice versa. Through Sufism we find a considerable amount of spiritual understanding between Hindus and Muslims all over the country. Thus in literature, although the divergences in religious practices of the Hindu and the Muslim, when each tried to be specially orthodox in his own way, have been noticed, there have been the spirit of laissez-faire and a broad spirit of tolerance and compromise and integration which have never been absent in Indian literature.

The real integration of India into one single entity, in spite of some basic and fundamental racial, linguistic, and cultural diversities has taken place through the Upanisads, the epics, the Puranas, the Dharma-sastras, and the philosophical literature in Sanskrit, in the ancient and medieval times; and on this integration stand the cultural oneness and the political unity of India.

This has been strengthened during the last one hundred and fifty years by the impact of the mind of Europe on the Indian mind through the literature of English; and the inestimable service of this last in modernizing the mind of India and making it once again conscious of its great heritage of the past and of its stupendous unity cannot be too highly rated. English has been one of the greatest gifts of the modern age to India. The results of this we find in all the modern Indian Literatures.

India is a multi-racial, multi-lingual, and multi-religious country, and in spite of this diversity in racial type, speech, and religious outlook, there has been all through history for the last 3,000 years a great tendency towards an integration of these diverse elements-integration into one single type, which can be called pan-Indian. Of course, there has not been in many cases a complete assimilation. But the various elements have had their interplay in the evolution of Indian life, culture, and religion, as well as to a large extent of a common Indian physical type as of a common Indian mentality.

 

INDIAN LANGUAGES: THEIR CLASSIFICATION

The Indian people, composed of diverse racial elements, now speak languages belonging to four distinct speech families-the Aryan, the Dravidian, the Sino-Tibetan (or Mongoloid), and the Austric. It has been suggested by some that over and above these four groups, there might have been one or two more-there seems to be some evidence from linguistics for this idea. But nothing definitely has yet been found, and we are quite content to look upon these four groups as the basic ones in the Indian scene. People speaking languages belonging to the above four families of speech at first presented distinct culture groups; and the Aryans in ancient India were quite conscious of that. Following to some extent the Sanskrit or Indo-Aryan nomenclature in this matter, the four main 'language-culture' groups of India, namely, the Aryan, the Dravidian, the Sino-Tibetan, and the Austric, can also be labeled respectively as Arya. Dramida or Dravida, Kirata, and Nasada. Indian civilization, as already said, has elements from all these groups, and basically it is pre-Aryan, with important Aryan modifications within as well as Aryan super-structure at the top. In the four type of speech represented by these, there were, to start with, fundamental differences in formation and vocabulary, in sounds and in syntax. But languages belonging to these four families have lived and developed side by side for 3,000 years and more, and have influenced each other profoundly-particularly the Aryan, the Dravidian, and the Austric speeches; and this has led to either a general evolution, or mutual imposition, in spite of original differences, of some common characteristics, which may be called specifically Indian and which are found in most languages belonging to all these families: e.g. the cerebral or retroflex sounds of t, d, r, n, and l; the use of 'post-positions' in the declension of the noun; points of similarity in the structure of the verb; compound verbs; 'echo-words'; etc.

 

ARYAN

Of these linguistic and cultural groups, the Aryan is the most important, both numerically and intrinsically. As a matter of fact, Indian civilization has found its expression primarily through the Aryan speech as it developed over the centuries-through Vedic Sanskrit (Old Indo-Aryan), then Classical Sanskrit, then Early Middle Indo-Aryan dialects like Pali and Old Ardha-Magadhi, then Buddhist and Jaina Sanskrit and after that the various Prakrits and Apabhramsas, and finally in the last phase, the different Modern Indo-Aryan languages of the country. The hymns and poems collected in the four Vedas, probably sometime during the tenth century B. C., represent the earliest stage of the Aryan speech in India, known as the Old Indo-Aryan. Of these again, the language of the Rg-Vedic hymns gives us the oldest specimens of the speech. From the Punjab, the original nidus of the Aryans in India, Aryan speech spread east along the valley of the Ganga, and by 600 B. C., it was well established throughout the whole of the northern Indian plains up to the eastern borders of Bihar. The non-Aryan Dravidian and Austric dialects (and in some places the Sino-Tibetan speeches too) yielded place to the Aryan language, which, both through natural change and through it adoption by a larger and larger number of people alien to it, began to be modified in many ways; and this modification was largely along the lines of the Dravidian and Austric speeches. The Aryan speech entered in this way into a new stage of development, first in eastern India (Bihar and the eastern U. P. tracts) and then elsewhere. The Punjab, with a larger proportion of born Aryan-speakers, remained true to the spirit of the older Vedic speech-the Old Indo-Aryan-to the last, to even as late as the third century B. C., and possibly still later. This new stage of development, which became established during the middle of the first millennium B. C., is known as that of Middle Indo-Aryan or Prakrit. The spoken dialects of Aryan continued to have their own lines of development in the different parts of North India, and these were also spreading over Sind, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and northern Deccan, as well as Bengal and the sub-Himalayan regions. The whole country in North, East, and central India was thus becoming Aryanized through the spread of the Prakrit or Middle Indo-Aryan dialects.

While spoken forms of the Aryan speech of this second stage were spreading among the masses in this way, a younger form of the Vedic speech was established by the Brahmanas in northern Punjab and in the 'Midland' (i.e. present day eastern U. P.) as a fixed literary language, during the sixth-fifth centuries B. C. This younger form of Vedic or Old Indo-Aryan, which was established just when the Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrit) dialects were taking shape, later came to be known as Sanskrit or Classical Sanskrit. Sanskrit became one of the greatest languages of Indian civilization, and it has been the greatest vehicle of Indian culture for the last 2,500 years (or for the last 3,000 years, if we take if we take its older form Vedic also). Its history-that of Vedic-cum-Sanskrit-as a language of religion and culture has been longer than that of any other language-with the exception possibly of written Chinese and Hebrew. It may be noted that Vedic and later (Classical) Sanskrit stand in the same relation to each other as do Homeric and Attick Greek. Sanskrit spread with the spread of Hindu or ancient Indian culture (of mixed Austric, Mongoloid, Dravidian, and Aryan origin) beyond the frontiers of India: and by A. D. 400, it became a great cultural link over the greater part of Asia, from Bali, Java, and Borneo in the South-East to Central Asia in the North-West, China too falling within its sphere of influence. Gradually, it acquired a still wider currency in the other countries of Asia wherever Indian religion (Buddhism and Brahmanism) was introduced or adopted. A great literature was built up in Sanskrit-epics of national import, belles' letters of various sorts including the drama, technical literature, philosophical treatises-every department of life and thought came to be covered by the literature of Sanskrit. The range and variety of "Sanskrit literature is indeed an astonishing phenomenon, unmistakably testifying to the uniquencess of the wisdom and genius of the ancient Indian masterminds and the expressiveness of the language in a style which has been universally acclaimed as one of the richest and the most elegant the world has ever seen.

The various Prakrits or Middle Indo-Aryan dialects continued to develop and expand. Some of these were adopted by Buddhist and Jaina sects in ancient India as their sacred canonical languages, notably Pali among the Buddhists (of the Hinayana school) and Ardha-Magadhi among the Jains. The Literature produced in these languages particularly in Pali (and also Gandhari Prakrit) migrated to various Asian countries where original contributions in them came into existence. The process of simplification of the Aryan speech, which began with the Second or Middle Indo-Aryan stage, continued, and by A. D. 600 we come to the last phase of Middle Indo-Aryan, known as the Apabhramsa stage. Further modification of the regional Apabhramsas of the period A. D. 600-1000 gave rise, with the beginning of the second millennium A.D., to the New Indo Aryan or Modern Indo-Aryan Languages, or bhasas, which are Current at the Present day.

The New Indo-Aryan languages, coming ultimately from Vedic Sanskrit (or 'Sanskrit', in a loose way), are closely relate to each other, like the Neo-Romanic languages derived out of Latin. It is believed that in spite of local differences in the various forms of Meddle Indo-Aryan, right up to the New Indo-Aryan development, there was a sort of pan-Indian vulgar or koine form of Prakrit or Middle Indo-Aryan. But local differences in Middle Indo-Aryan grew more and more pronounced during the centuries round about A. D. 1000, and this led to the provincial New Indo-Aryan languages taking shape and being born. Taking into consideration these basic local characteristics, the New Indo-Aryan speeches have been classified into a number of local groups, viz. (i) North-Western group, (ii) Southern group, (iii) Eastern group, (iv) East-Central or Mediate group, (v) Central group, and (vi) Northern or Himalayan group. The major languages of the New or Modern Indo-Aryan speech family are: Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sindhi, and Urdu. Kashmiri, one of the major modern Indian languages, belongs to the Dardic branch of the Indo-Iranian group within the Aryan family. Although Dardic by origin, Kashmiri came very early under the profound influence of Sanskrit and the later Prakrits which greatly modified its Dardic bases. Most scholars now think that Dardic is just a branch of Indo-Aryan.

 

DRAVIDIAN

Dravidian is the second important language family of India and has some special characteristics of its own. After the Aryan speech, it has very largely functioned as the exponent of Indian culture, particularly the earlier secular as well as religious literature of Tamil. It forms a solid bloc in South India, embracing the four great literary languages, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, and Telugu and a number of less important speeches all of which are, however, overshadowed by the main four. It is believed that the wonderful city civilization of Sind and South Punjab as well as Baluchistan (fourth-third millennium B. C.) was the work of Dravidian speakers. But we cannot be absolutely certain in this matter, so long as the inscribed seals from the city ruins in those areas like Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, etc. remain undeciphered. The art of writing would appear to have been borrowed from the pre-Aryan Sind and South Punjab people the beginnings of the Brahmi alphabet, the characteristic Indian system of writing connected with Sanskrit and Prakrit in pre-Christian centuries, may be traced.

The Dravidian speech in its antiquity in India is older than Aryan, and yet (leaving apart the problematical writings on the seals found in Sind and South Punjab city ruins) the specimens of connected Dravidian writing or literature that we can read and understand are over a millennium later than the oldest Aryan documents. Of the four great Dravidian languages, Tamil has preserved its Dravidian character best, retaining, though not the old sound system of primitive Dravidian, a good deal of its original nature in its roots, forms, and words. The other three cultivated Dravidian speeches have, in the matter of their words of higher culture, completely surrendered themselves to Sanskrit, the classical and sacred language of Hindu India. Tamil has a unique and a very old literature, and the beginnings of it go back to about 2,000 years from now. Malayalam as a language is an offshoot of Old Tamil. From the ninth century A. D. some Malayalam characteristics begin to appear, but it is from the fifteenth century that Malayalam literature is almost as old as Tamil; and although we have some Telugu inscriptions dating from the sixth/seventh century A. D., the literary career of Telugu started from the eleventh century. Tamil and Malayalam are very close to each other, and are mutually intelligible to a certain extent. Kannada also bears a great resemblance to Tamil and Malayalam. Only Telugu has deviated a good deal from its southern neighbours and sisters. But Telugu and Kannada use practically the same alphabet, which is thus a bond of union between these two languages.

 

SINO-TIBETAN AND AUSTRIC

Peoples of Mongoloid origin, speaking languages of the Sino-Tibetan family, were present in India at least as early as the tenth century B. ., when the four Vedas appear to have been compiled. The Sino-Tibetan languages do not have much numerical importance or cultural significance in India, with the exception of Manipuri or Meithei of Manipur. Everywhere they are gradually receding before the Aryan languages like Bengali and Assamese. The Austric languages represent the oldest speech family of India, but they are spoken by a very small number of people, comparatively. The Austric languages of India have a great interest for the student of linguistics and human culture. They are valuable relics of India's past, and they link up India with Burma, with Indo-China, with Malaya, and with Indonesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Their solidarity is; however, broken as in most places there has been penetration into Austric blocs by the more powerful Aryan speeches with their overwhelming numbers and their prestige. Speakers of Austric in all the walks of life (they are mostly either farmers, or farm and plantation, or colliery labourers) know some Aryan language. In some cases they have become very largely bilingual. Their gradual Aryanization is a process which started some 3,000 years ago when the first Austrics (and Mongoloids as well as Dravidians) in North India started to abandon their native speech for Aryan. But in the process of abandoning their own language and accepting a new one, namely the Aryan, the Austrics (as well as the Dravidians and the Sino-Tibetans) naturally introduced some of their own speech habits and their own words into Aryan. In this way, the Austrics and other non-Aryan peoples helped to modify the character of the Aryan speech in India, from century to century, and even to build up Classical Sanskrit as the great culture speech of India. As the speakers of the Sino-Tibetan and Austric languages had been in a backward state living mostly a rather primitive life in out-of-the-way places, their languages do not show any high literary development excepting, as already said, in the case of Meithei or Manipuri belonging to Sino-Tibetan, which has quite a noteworthy and fairly old literature. They had, however, some kind of village or folk-culture, connected with which there developed in all these languages an oral literature consisting of folk-songs, religious and otherwise, of folk-tales, and of their legends and traditions. And a literature, mainly of Christian inspiration, has been created in some of these speeches by translating the Bible in its entirety or in part. Songs, legends, and tales of the Austric languages have been collected and published, particularly in Santali and Mundari, and in Khasi. Munda and Santali lyrics give pretty, idyllic glimpses of tribal life, some of the Munda love poems having a rare freshness about them; and a number of Santali folk-tales are very beautiful. A few of the folk-tales prevalent in the Sino-Tibetan speeches are also beautiful (e.g. the Mikir tale of a young man who had a god's daughter as his bride, and the Kachari story of a young man who got a swan-maiden as his wife), but they do not appear to compare favourably with the Santali and Mundari languages in the matter of both lyric poems and stories. A systematic study of these languages started only during the nineteenth century when European missionaries and scholars got interested in them. I have discussed in detail the speeches of the Sino-Tibetan and Austric families prevalent in the country in my contribution to this volume, entitled 'Adivasi Languages and Literatures of India.

 

CONCLUSION

There is, as already said, a fundamental unity in the literary types, genres, and expressions among all the modern languages of India in their early, medieval, and modern developments. The reason of this unique phenomenon is that there has been a gradual convergence of Indian Languages belonging to the different linguistic families, Aryan, Dravidian, Sino-Tibetan, and Austric, towards a common Indian type after their intimate contact with each other for at least 3,000 years.

This volume of The cultural Heritage of India is indeed an encyclopaedia in its scope and range, and it will certainly provide an authentic and valuable contribution towards the study of Indian languages and literatures in their glory and grandeur; it will also afford a spectacular display of the genius of India reflected in various branches of knowledge. It is needless to add that the literary heritage of India constitutes a priceless possession covetable to any nation, however great it may be by any standard.

 

Contents
  Publisher's Note v
  Preface xv
1 Introduction  
  K. M. Munshi, B. A., LL. B., D. LITT., LL. D.  
  President, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay 3
 
PART I
RELIGIOUS LITERATURE OF ANCIENT INDIA
 
2 LITERATURE OF BRAHMANISM IN SANSKRIT  
  R. N. Dandekar, M. A., Ph. D.  
  Emeritus Professor of Sanskrit, Poona University, and Honorary Secretary,
Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona
13
3 THE GREAT EPICS  
  S. C. Banerji, M. A., PH. D.  
  Formerly Secretary, Vangiya Samskrta Parisat, Calcutta 49
4 THE PURANAS  
  Diwan Bahadur K. S. Ramaswami Sastri, B. A., B. L.  
  Formerly District and Sessions Judge, Madras 64
5 DHARMA-SASTRAS  
  K. G. Goswami, M. A., P. R. S., PH . D., F. R. A. S.  
  Sastri, Smrti-Mimamsa-tirtha, Vidyavacaspati  
  Formerly Asutosh Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit,  
  Calcutta University 72
6 SAIVA LITERATURE  
  Rao Sahib N. Murugesa Mudaliar, B. A.  
  Formerly Secretary to the Government of Madras and Special Adviser 89
7 VAISNAVA LITERATURE  
  I. Gopikamohan Bhattacharya, M. A., D. PHIL., Kavya-Nyaya-tirtha  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit, Kurukshetra University 107
  II. Prema Nandakumar, M. A., Ph. D.  
  Visakhapatnam 18
8 SAKTA LITERATURE  
  Govinda Gopal Mukherjee, M. A., PH. D., Samkhyatirtha  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Burdwan University 130
9 GANAPATYA, KAUMARA AND SAURA LITERATURE 141
10 LITERATURE OF JAINISM  
  Hiralal Jain, M. A., LL. B., D. LITT.  
  Formerly Director, Institute of Post-graduate Studies and Research in  
  Prakrit, Jainology, and Ahimsa, Muzaffarpur 152
11 PRAKRIT LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE  
  A. N. Upadhye, M. A., D. Litt.  
  Formerly Professor of Prakrit Languages, Rajaram College, Kolhapur 164
12 BUDDHIST LITERATURE  
  Anukul Chandra Banerjee, M. A., LL. B., PH. D., F. A. S., F. R. A. S.  
  Formerly Head of the Department of Pali, Calcutta University 184
 
PART II
SANSKRIT AND SANSKRITIC LITERATURE
 
13 SANSKRIT KAVYA LITERATURE: A GENERAL SURVEY  
  V. Raghavan, M. A., PH. D.  
  Formerly Professor of Sanskrit, Madras University 211
14 SANSKRIT DRAMA: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS  
  S. K . De, M. A., B. L., P. R. S. D. LITT., F. R. A. S.  
  Formerly Senior Professor, Post-graduate Research Department, Sanskrit  
  College, Calcutta, and Emeritus Professor, Jadavpur University 234
15 SANSKRIT PROSE  
  Bishnupada Bhattacharya, M. A., P. R. S., Kavyatirtha  
  Principal, Sanskrit College, Calcutta 253
16 SANSKRIT AND SANSKRITIC FABLES  
  Ramaranjan Mukherji, M. A., D. PHIL., D. LITT.  
  Vice-Chancellor, Burdwan University 273
17 SANSKRIT HISTORIES AND CHRONICLES  
  A. D. Pusalker, M. A., LL. B., PH. D.  
  Formerly Director and Curator, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona 283
18 SANSKRIT POETICS  
  Gaurinath Sastri, M A., P. R. S., D. LITT., F. A. S.  
  President, Asiatic Society, Calcutta; formerly Vice-Chancellor, Sanskrit University, Varanasi  
19 SANSKRIT METRES: THEIR EVOLUTION AND PRINCIPLES OF DIVISION  
  H. D. Velankar, M. A.  
  Formerly R. G. Bhandarkar Professor of Sanskrit, Bombay University 303
20 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR  
  Satya Vrat, M. A., M. O. L., Ph. D., Sastri, Vyakaranacarya  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Delhi University 312
21 THE SPIRITUAL OUTLOOK OF SANSKRIT GRAMMAR  
  Prabhat Chandra Chakravarti, M. A., P. R. S., PH. D., Kavyatirtha  
  Formerly Asutosh Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Calcutta University 321
22 SANSKRIT LEXICOGRAPHY  
  M. M. Patkar, B. A., LL. M., PH. D.  
  Sub-Editor, Sanskrit Dictionary Department, Deccan College, Poona, and Lecturer in Anthropological Linguistics, Poona University 326
23 POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC LITERATURE IN SANSKRIT  
  S. K. Mitra, M. A., LL. B., D. PHIL., F. A. S.  
  Reader in Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University 335
24 SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE IN SANSKRIT  
  K. K. Dutta, M. A., D. PHIL., Sastri, Kavya-Samkhya-tirtha  
  Reader in Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University 335
25. PHILOSOPHICAL LITERATURE  
  I-IV. Kalidas Bhattacharyya, M. A., P. R. S., PH. D.  
  Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 371
  V- VII. Amiya Kumar Majumdar, M. A.  
  Member, Public Service Commission, West Bengal; Formerly of West Bengal Senior Educational Service 379
26 INSCRIPTIONS: THEIR LITERARY VALUE  
  I. Radhagovinda Basak, M. A., PH. D., D. LITT., F. A. S., Vidyavacaspati  
  Formerly Professor of Sanskrit, Presidency College, Calcutta 390
  II. Kamaleswar Bhattacharya, M. A., D. LITT.  
  Maitre de Recherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris 407
 
PART III
MAJOR LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES OF MODERN INDIA
 
27 ASSAMESE  
  Maheswar Neog, M. A., D. PHIL.  
  Jawaharlal Nehru Professor and Head of the Department of Assamese and  
  Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Gauhati University 419
28 BENGALI  
  Sukumar Sen, M. A., PH. D., F. A. S.  
  Formerly Khaira Professor of Indian Linguistics and Phonetics, Calcutta University 435
29 ENGLISH  
  K. R. Srinivasa Iyenger, M. A., D. LITT.  
  Formerly President, Gujarati Board of Study, and Chief Judge, Small Causes Court, Bombay 479
31 HINDI  
  Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, D. LITT.  
  Formerly Tagore Professor of Indian Literature, Punjab University 489
32 KANNADA  
  Prabhu Shankara, M. A., PH. D.  
  Director, Prasaranga, Mysore University 508
33 KASHMIRI  
  Suniti Kumar Chatterji, M. A., D. LITT.  
  National Professor of India in Humanities 524
34 MALAYALAM  
  K. M. George, M. A., PH. D.  
  Chief Editor, Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature 535
35 MARATHI  
  Prabhakar Machwe, M. A., PH. D.  
  Visiting Fellow, Indian Institute of advanced Study, Simla 548
36 ORIYA  
  K. C. Mishra, M. A., D. Phil.  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Oriya, Berhampur University 561
37 PUNJABI  
  S. S. Kohli, M. A., PH. D.  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Punjabi, Punjab University 578
38 SINDHI  
  L. M. Khubchandani, M. A., PH. D., Sahityaratna  
  Formerly Reader in Sindhi Linguistics, Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute, Poona 588
39 TAMIL  
  P. N. Venkatachari, M. A., DIP. LIB.  
  Assistant Editor (Tamil), Indian National Bibliography, Central Reference Library, Calcutta 600
40 TELUGU  
  G. N. Reddy, M. A., M. LITT., PH. D.  
  Professor of Telugu and Dean of the faculty of Oriental Learning, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 623
41 URDU  
  Mohammad Hasan, M. A., PH. D.  
  Professor of Urdu, Centre of Indian languages, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 642
 
PART IV
ADIVASI AND POLK LITERATURES OF INDIA
 
41 ADIVASI LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES OF INDIA  
  Suniti Kumar Chatterji, M. A., D. LITT. 659
43 FOLK-LITERATURE OF INDIA  
  Asutosh Bhattacharyya Tagore Professor of Bengali and head of the  
  Department of Modern Indian Languages, Calcutta University 677
 
PART V
INDIAN LITERATURE ABROAD
 
44 NEPAL  
  Paras Mani Pradhan, D. LITT.  
  Member, Executive Board and General Council, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi 695
45 CENTRAL ASIA (INCLUDING NORTHERN AFGHANISTAN)  
  Bratindra Nath Mukherjee, M. A., PH. D., F. S. A.  
  Carmichael Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University 703
46 TIBET, MONGOLIA, AND SIBERIA  
  Suniti Kumar Pathak, M. A., P. R. S., Kavyatirtha, Suttavisarada, Puranaratna  
  Lecturer in Indo- Tibetan Studies, Visva- Bharati, Santiniketan 720
47 CHINA, KOREA, AND JAPAN  
  I. CHINA  
  (A) K. Venkata Ramanan, M. A., D. LITT.  
  Professor of Chinese Studies, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 730
  (B) Biswadev Mukherjee, M. A., D. PHIL.  
  Lecturer in Chinese Studies, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan  
  II. KOREA AND JAPAN  
  H. B. Sarkar, M. A.  
  Formerly Principal and Professor of History, Kharagpur College, Midnapore 740
48 CEYLON AND SOUTH-EAST ASIA  
  H. B. Sarkar, M. A. 751
49 WESTERN COUNTRIES  
  N. N. Bhattacharyya, M. A., PH. D.  
  Lecturer in Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University 773
  BIBLIOGRAPHY 785
  INDEX 801

 

Volume VI (Science and Technology)

Author:Ed.Priyadaranjan Ray and S. N. Sen

ISBN:8185843147

THE PRESENT volume is devoted to a study of India's work in the filed science and technology. Readers will find with surprise that her achievements in this field are by no means negligible. There are thirty-two articles on the subject, all written by competent scholars. The articles, if not exhaustive, give a fair idea of how the Indian genius, not content with the subjective quest, has also turned its gaze on the objective world.

 

Contents
  Publisher's Note v
  Preface xv
1 Introduction  
  Raja Ramanna, D.SC.  
  Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Defence and Secretary, Defence Research, Government of India, New Delhi 3
 
PART I
 
 
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL INDIA
 
2 Geographical knowledge in ancient and medieval India  
  Sashibhusan Chaudhuri, M.A., PH. D.  
  Late Vice-Chancellor, Burdwan University 5
3 Vedic Mathematics  
  Bibhutibhusan Datta, P.R.S., D.SC.  
  Late Lecturer in Applied Mathematics, Calcutta University 18
4 Post-vedic Mathematics  
  Samarendra Nath Sen, M.Sc.  
  Formerly Register, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta;  
  and  
  A. K. Bag, PH.D.  
  Assistant Executive Secretary (History of Science), Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi 36
5 Astronomy in Ancient India  
  P. C. Sen Gupta, M. A.  
  Late Lecturer in Ancient Astronomy and Mathematics, Calcutta University 56
6 Astronomy in Medieval India  
  Samarendra Nath Sen, M.Sc. 83
7 Physics and mechanics in ancient and medieval India  
  S.D. Chatterjee, D.Sc.  
  Formerly Professor of Physics, Jadavpur University 101
8 Botany in ancient and medieval India  
  Girija Prasanna Majumdar, D.Sc.  
  Late Professor of Botany, Presidency College, Calcutta 115
9 Zoology in ancient and medieval India  
  Priyadaranjan Ray, M.A., F. N. I.  
  Formerly Khaira Professor of Chemistry, University College of Science, Calcutta 128
10 Chemistry in ancient and Medieval India  
  Priyadaranjan Ray, M.A., F. N. I. 136
11 Ayurveda  
  Mira Roy, M.A., PH.D.  
  Keeper of Sanskrit MSS, Department of Sanskrit, Calcutta University; formerly Senior Research Fellow, Indian National Science Academy & Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi 152
12 Agriculture in ancient and Medieval India  
  Satyaprasad Raychaudhuri, M.SC., PH.D., D.SC., F. R. I. C., F. N. A. SC., F. N. I., f. W. A. I.  
  Senior Specialist, Land Resources, Planning Commission, New Delhi; formerly Research Fellow, Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi 177
13 Mining in ancient Medieval India  
  Dilip K. Chaudhuri, M.A., PH.D.  
  Delhi University 188
14 Shipbuilding in ancient and medieval India  
  Mamata Chaudhuri, M.A., PH.D.  
  Research Scholar, Asiatic Society, Calcutta; formerly Research Fellow, India National Science Academy, New Delhi 197
15 Engineering and architecture in ancient and Medieval India  
  R. Sengupta, M.SC.  
  Director (Conservation), Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi 205
16 India and the ancient world: Transmission of scientific Ideas  
  Samarendra Nath Sen, M.SC. 220
 
PART II
 
 
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN MODERN INDIA
 
17 Mathematics  
  Ram Behari, M.A., PH.D., SC. D., F. N. I.  
  Late Vice-Chancellor, Jodhpur University 251
18 Astronomy  
  M. K. V. Bappu, M.Sc., PH.D.  
  Late Director, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 261
19 Physics  
  B. D. Nag Chaudhuri, D.Sc., F. N. I.  
  Formerly Vice- Chancellor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 270
20 Chemistry  
  T. R. Seshadri, F. R. S.  
  Late Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, Delhi University 277
21 Botany  
  S.C. Datta, M.Sc., PH.D., F. B. S.  
  U G C Professor of Botany and in-charge, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology & Ecophysiology, Calcutta University 286
22 Zoology  
  A. K. Ghosh, PH.D., F.E.F.I., F.Z.F.  
  Deputy Director, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta 305
23 Medical Sciences  
  Rudrendra Kumar Pal, M.Sc., M.B.B.S., F.R.C.P., D.SC., F.N.I.  
  Formerly Professor of Physiology, R. G. Kar Medical College, Calcutta 326
24 Geology and Mining  
  C. Karunakaran, M.SC.  
  Director-General, Geological Survey of India, Calcutta 342
25 Geophysics  
  Hari Narain, PH.D.  
  Director, National Geophysical Research Institute, and Surveyor- General, Hyderabad  
  and  
  G. H. Rao, M.SC.  
  Scientist, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad 363
26 Meteorology  
  P. K. Das, F.A.SC.  
  Director-General, India Meteorological Department, Government of India, New Delhi 374
27 Agriculture and Animal Husbandry  
  S. K. Mukherjee, D.SC., F.N.I.  
  Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Calcutta University, and Member, National Commission on Agriculture, New Delhi 388
28 Food Technology  
  A. N. Bose, M.SC., PH.D.  
  Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 427
29 Atomic Energy In India: An Historical Perspective  
  K. R. Rao, M.Sc., PH.D., F.A.SC.  
  Scientific Officer, Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centr, Trombay, Bombay 438
30 Nuclear Energy in India : Growth and Prospects  
  M. K. Pal, M.SC., D.PHIL. (SC.), F.A.SC.  
  Director, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta 453
31 Space Research  
  M. K. Mukherjee, M.A., M.S., PH.D.  
  Adviser, Materials, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 475
32 Defence Research  
  B. D. Nag Chaudhuri, D.SC., F.N.I. 451
  Bibliography 501
  Index 513

 

Volume VII -The Arts (Part One)

Author:Ed.Dr.Kapila Vatsyayan

ISBN:8187332484

The Present volume adheres to a study of Arts in India, here more specifically Architecture, Sculpture. Epigraphy and Numismatics. There are forty-one articles contributed by 32 authors. A large portion of these articles were written 30 to 50 years ago. These articles by renowned scholars stand on their own merit and reflect the state of scholarship at the time they were written. These articles acquire a historical importance as they reflect the perception of a generation of pioneers in the field. The selection of the authors was largely determined from the point of view of those who continue to follow in some measure the approach of the earlier writers. Indian art history has taken many pioneers and those others who continue to subscribe to the validity of the earlier approach. This was necessary in order to maintain a measure of continuity and overall 'unity'. Hopefully it has been possible to place together the writings of a generation of scholars who laid the foundation of art history, as distinct from Indian archaeology. It will be proved from this volume that India's contribution in the field of Arts is not negligible and it will give a fair idea of how it influenced the other countries also. The volume will serve as a most useful reference tool for both the educated man or scholar and also the lay man in this field to know this particular subject.

Work on this volume was started about thirty years ago with Professor S. K. Saraswati, Bageswari Professor of the University of Calcutta, as the chief editor. After his death on 22 September 1980, work on the volume was set back. Later, professor Kalyan Kumar Dasgupta took up the work, but he passed away in 1996. He was succeeded by Professor Kalyan Kumar Ganguly, who died on 6 November 1997. In 1999 we approached Dr. Kapila Vatsyayan, and she kindly agreed to edit Volume VII. The most difficult part of editing this volume was that after so many years the illustrations as well as some of the manuscripts could not be found. To locate illustrations for those old articles, as also to acquire them, was an uphill struggle. However, we are fortunate that Dr. Vatsyayan could bring a her knowledge and experience to bear on this work to maintain the standard of this valuable series.

 

Contents

 

  Publisher's Note v
  Preface xxi
1 INTRODUCTION  
  Ananda K. Coomaraswamy 3
 
ARCHITECTURE
 
2 THE STUPA  
  Amita Ray 37
3 ROCK-CUT CAVES (Buddhist, Jaina and Brahmanical)  
  Asok K. Bhattacharya 74
4 REFLECTIONS ON SCHOOLS AND STYLES OF INDIAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE  
  Nirmal K. Bose 87
5 INDIAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE  
  (early Phase up to 750 A. D.)  
  Michael W. Meister 103
6 NAGARA TEMPLES  
  Nirmal K. Bose 115
7 DRAVIDA AND CALUKYA TEMPLES  
  K. R. Srinivasan 142
8 JAINA ARCHITECTURAL TRADITIONS AND CANONS  
  Gopilal Amar 211
9 SOME ARCHITECTURAL CONVENTIOS OF KERALA  
  K. R. Pisharoti 248
10 THE SPIRIT OF TIBETAN ARCHITECTURE  
  Lama Anagarika Govinda 258
11 INDO-ISLAMIC ARCHITECTRE (1192-1803 A. D.)  
  R. Nath 263
 
SCULPTURE
 
12 INDIAN SCULPTURE: ESSENCE AND FORM  
  O. C. Gangoly 303
13 HARAPPAN ART  
  Jagat Pati Joshi 323
14 ANCIENT INDIAN TERRACOTTAS  
  C. C. Dasgupta 347
15 MAURYA AND SUNGA SCULPTURE  
  Nihar Ranjan Ray 360
16 KUSANA SCULPTURE  
  R. C. Sharma 398
17 GUPTA SCULPTURE  
  Stella Kramrisch 416
18 PALA AND SENA SCULPTURE  
  Stella Kramrisch 440
19 MEDIEVAL SCULPTURE (DECCAN AND THE SOUTH)  
  C. Sivaramamurti 475
20 EARLY JAINA SCULPTURE (300 B. C.-300 A. D.): EAST INDIA  
  Debala Mitra 504
21 EARLY JAINA SCULPTURE (300 B. C.-300 A. D.): WEST INDIA  
  U. P. Shah 520
22 HINDU ICONOGRAPHY  
  N. P. Joshi 528
23 BUDIST ICONOGRAPHY  
  J. N. Banerjea 554
24 DIAGRAMS AND SYMBOLS OF JAINA ICONOGRAPHY  
  U. P. Shah 573
     
25 JINA IMAGE IN AGAMIC AND HYMNIC TRADITION  
  M. A Dhaky 604
26 JAINA ICONOGRAPHY  
  Juthika Maitra 631
27 LATE JAINA WOOD-CARVINGS  
  V. P. Dwivedi 657
28 TEMPLE TERRACOTTA  
 
EPIGRAPHY AND NUMISMATICS
 
29 INDIAN EPIGRAPHY  
  D. C. Sircar 685
30 EPIGRAPHIC BEARING ON EARLY INDIAN ART  
  B. N. Mukherjee 708
31 ART IN THE COINS OF EARLY AND MEDIEVAL INDIA  
  B. N. Mukherjee 719
32 ART AND INDIAN EPIGRAPHY  
  Z. A. Desai 755
33 CALLIGRAPHIC ART IN PERSO-ARABIC EPIGRAPHS  
  Ashok K. Bhattacharyya 785
 
INDIAN ART AND THE EAST
 
34 SOUTH EAST ASIAN ART  
  Ananda K. Coomaraswamy 801
35 INDIA AND CENTRALASIA  
  R. C. Majumdar 874
36 INDIA AND CHINA: THE BEYOND AND HE WITHIN  
  Lokesh Chandra 883
37 INTERFLOW OF ART BETWEEN INDIA AND JAPAN  
  Lokesh Chandra 903
38 INDONESIAN ART: INDIAN ECHOES  
  K. K. Ganguly 931
39 PAGAN: THE INDIAN CONNECTION  
  K. K. Ganguly 939
40 ART OF NEPAL  
  Amita Ray 945
41 ART OF SRI LANKA  
  H. T. Basnayake 997
  INDEX 1015

 

Volume VII -The Arts (Part Two)

ISBN: 9789381325278

About the Book

 

The Present volume deals with study of Arts in India, here more specifically Painting; Music, Dance and Theatre; and Art and Life. There are forty-four articles contributed by 35 authors. The attempt in this volume is to place before the readers writings of a generation of scholars who laid the foundation for identification of schools and genres and their stylistic characteristics.

 

The Articles in the section on Painting present a panoramic view of the painting traditions of India from pre-historic times to the early nineteenth century. A reading of these articles is a convincing proof of the continuity and vibrancy of the painting traditions in different historical brackets and regions and sub-regions.

 

The Seven articles on Music, authored by eminent musicians and scholars, reflect the thinking on different aspects of music over a period of four decades. The articles on Dance cover many styles of Indian classical dance.

 

The Group of articles on handicrafts, dress and personal ornaments represents the Indian concern with the creative hand, more, with the relationship of utility and beauty.

 

The Sheer joy of life is intrinsic to culture, sports and recreations. The arts of attack and defence in play are typical. The Sanskrit literature is characterized by not only wit and humour but also sharp satire.

 

Preface

 

The Cultural Heritage of India series of the Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture has become a collector’s item, indispensable for any library or for scholars in different disciplines who wish to know about diverse aspects of the cultural heritage of India as also Asia. Volumes I to VI cover a broad range of subjects from philosophy to science. Volume VII deals with Arts, ranging from architecture, sculpture, paintings and music and dance. Volume VIII is devoted to modern India.

 

Volume VII Part I of the series was published in 2006. It was hoped that Part II of Volume VII would be published soon after. However, for variety of reasons, it was not possible to adhere to the original schedule. In the meantime, Volume VIII has been published. Now, with the publication of Part II of Volume VII, the monumental enterprise of The Cultural Heritage of India series of the Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture will come to a closure.

 

Part I of Volume VII was divided into four sections: Architecture; Sculpture; Epigraphy and Numismatics; and Indian Art and the East. Part II of Volume VII is divided into three section, viz., Indian Painting; Music, Dance and Theatre; and Art and Life. This was the original schema envisaged by the late Professor S. K. Saraswati, followed by subsequent editors, viz., Professor Kalyan Kumar Dasgupta, Professor Kalyan Kumar Ganguli, Shri Pradyut Kumar Ganguli and Dr. Amitabha Mukherjee.

 

In my Preface to Part I of Volume VII, I had outlined the historiography of completing the work of my predecessors. I consider it appropriate to include this Preface in this volume. In it I have used the metaphor of Kantha, i.e., stitching together pieces of great but incomplete writing so as to make a reasonable whole. It is my earnest hope that the readers will peruse the Preface to Volume VII Part I which not only narrates the history of editing but also attempts to give an overview of the history of scholarship on Indian architecture, sculpture, numismatics and India’s relationship with the East. It is necessary to take account of this when perusing the contents of Part II of Volume VII. The articles in this volume by and large are also the writing of scholars of the decades ranging from 30s to the 70s. It is necessary to take note of the time frame.

 

Contents

 

1.

Publisher's Note

v

 

Preface

xxvii

 

Preface to Part One

xlix

1.

Pre-Historic Rock Art

3

2.

The Indian Painter and his Art

39

3

Indian Painting: Early Phase

52

4

Mural Paintings of the Colas

60

5

Early Jaina Art

71

6

Cave Temple and Paintings of Sittannavasal

84

7

Painting in lepaksi

116

8

Kerala Murals

139

9

Indian Painting: Later Phase

149

10

East Indian Manuscript Painting

172

11

Eastern School of Medieval Indian painting

201

12

Manuscript Painting: Jaina Tradition

224

13

Painting in the Sultanate Period

251

14

An Illustrated Avadhi Ms. of Laur-Canda in the Bharat Kala Bhavan, Banaras

277

15

Mughal Painting

285

16

The Jahangirnama

314

17

Rajput Painting

337

18

Painting of Malwa

363

19

Mewar Painting in the Seventeenth Century

371

20

The Origin and Development of Pahari Painting

387

21

The Regional Styles of Assam Miniatures

405

22

The Cultural Aspects of Indian Music and Dancing

461

23

Theory of Indian Music

488

24

Music: Aesthetic Versus Spiritual

510

25

The Music of India

522

26

Indian Culture and Music

534

27

Development of Indian Music (South India)

547

28

Indian Musical Instruments

559

29

Indian Classical Dance

573

30

Bharata Natyam

585

31

Kathakali

597

32

Manipuri Dance

608

33

Classical Dance Tradition in Assam

651

34

History and Development of Kathak

674

35

Aesthetic Theory and Kathak Dance of India

691

36

The Old Indian

708

37

Art and Life

725

38

Handicrafts of India

753

39

Dress and Decorations

771

40

Personal Ornaments

794

41

Sports and Recreations

804

42

Wit, Humour and Satire in Ancient Indian Literature

834

43

Food, Drink and Cooking

857

44

Town-Planning in Ancient India

869

 

Index

 

 

Volume VIII (The Making Of Modern India:1765-1947)

Author:Ed.Dr. Sukumar Bhattacharyya and Dr. Uma Das Gupta

ISBN:9789381325018

 

About the Book

The present volume attempts to narrate the events of the Indian Renaissance, the advancement of learning and the-reawakening of our own heritage during the years 1765-1947,ie. From the grant of Diwani to the East India Company till India Independence.

An Attempt has also been made in this volume to relate to the past through Indological studies of the excavations of monuments, as well as epigraphically, paleographical and numismatic material. Historiographical studies have also been included. The influence of Indian culture on foreign countries has also been discussed. Study of Indian Culture abroad, influence of the West on our society and how the Eastern peoples viewed India have also been dealt with. Great men of that time, e.g. Sri Ramakrishna, Sri Aurobindo, Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranatha Tagore, Mahatma Gandi, sister Nivedita and others, showed the right way to proceed-their ideas an impact on Indian society have been treated in detail.

The Purpose of this volume is to make its readers acquainted with the broad features and phases of development that characterize the history of this period. A perusal of the 67 articles by 61 eminent scholars in this volume enables one to know about the epoch-making changes that happened in India in the modern period.

The work for the present volume was begun more than four decades ago. /a sub-comitttee was formed in 1964, consisting of (1) Dr. R. C. Majumdar, (2) Dr. Suniti Kumar Chatterjee, (3) Dr. Nihar Ranjan Ray, (4) Dr. Asim Datta, (5) Dr. Gouri Nath Sastri, (6) Dr. Bhabatosh Datta and (7) Shri Bireswar Mazumdar. The progress of the work under the direction of the eminent historian Dr. R. C. Majumdar was halted with his demise. Over the years that followed other scholars like Dr. Pratima Bowes gave their time and energy but the work could not be finished. In 2000 Dr. Tapan Raychaudhuri was requested to join this project as adviser and an editorial board was formed, consisting of Dr. Nemai Sadhan Bose, Dr. Amitabha Mukherjee and Dr. Uma Das Gupta. After the sad demise of Dr. Amitabh Mukherjee in July, 2002 Dr. Sukumar Bhattacharyya was appointed one of the editions. Unfortunately Dr. Neami Sadhan Bose passed away in July, 2004.

It is important to note that the majority of the articles in the present volume were assigned and written during the initial period. As those contributions to the volume were seminal, the present editorial committee which finalized the eighth volume decided to honors those contributions and includes them in this volume. However, wherever possible, those articles written during the initial period of this volume

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Volume VII

PART I















 

PART II















 

Volume VIII














The Cultural Heritage of India (Set of 9 Volumes)

Item Code:
NAF605
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2013
ISBN:
8185843015
Language:
English
Size:
10.0 inch x 7.5 inch
Pages:
8034
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Weight of the book: 16.5 kg
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Volume I (The Early Phases: Prehistoric, Vedic and Upanisadic, Jaina and Buddhist)

 

Introduction:Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

ISBN:8185843023

 

Publisher's Note

The Ramakrishna mission established this Institute of Culture in 1938 in fulfillment of one of the projects to commemorate the Birth Centenary of Sri Ramakrishna (1936). At the same time the institute was vested with the entire rights of The Cultural Heritage of India. This publication is thus one of the major responsibilities of the Institute; it also serves to fulfil a primary aim of the Institute, which is to promote the study, interpretation, and dissemination of the cultural heritage of India.

The first edition of The Cultural Heritage of India, in three volumes and about 2,000 pages, the work of one hundred distinguished Indian scholars, was published in 1937 by the Sri Ramakrishna Birth Centenary Publication Committee as a Birth Centenary memorial. This work Presented for the first time a panorama of the cultural history of India, and it was immediately acclaimed as a remarkable contribution to the cultural literature of the world. This edition was sold out within a few years, and the work had long been out of print, when considering the question of the second edition, it was felt that, instead of reprinting the work in its original form, advantage should be taken of the opportunity to enlarge the scope of the work. It was decided to make it more comprehensive, more authoritative, and adequately representative of different aspects of Indian thought, and, at the same time, thoroughly to revise the old articles to bring them up to date.

According to the new scheme drawn up on this basis, the number of volumes has been increased. The plan of arrangement has been improved by grouping the topics in such a way that each volume may be fairly complete and fulfil the requirements of those interested, with separate pagination, bibliography, and index. Since due regard will be paid to historicity and critical treatment, it is hoped that this work will provide a useful guide to the study of the complex pattern of India's cultural history.

The distinguished band of scholars who have co-operated so ably in this task have done their work as a labour of love in a spirit of service to scholarship and world understanding. Equally essential to the success of the undertaking was the assistance of Government of India who made a generous grant towards the cost of publication. Without this dual co-operation, it would have been impossible to set out on a venture of this magnitude; and to the contributors as well as to the Government of India the Institute therefore expresses its deepest gratitude.

 

Contents
  Publisher's Note vii
  The spirit of India xxi
  Rabindranath Tagore  
  Introduction of the first edition xxiii
  Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan  
  Editors Preface xxxvii
I Suniti Kumar Chatterji, M.A., D.Lit.  
II A.D. Pusalker, M.A., LL.B., PH.D.  
III Nalinaksha Dutt, M.A., B.L., PH.D., D. Lit.  
 
PART I
 
 
THE BACKGROUND OF INDIAN CULTURE
 
1 The Geographical background of Indian culture 3
  Nirmal Kumar Bose, M.SC., F.N.I. Reader in Anthropo-Geography, Calcutta University  
2 Race and race movements in India 17
  Sasanka Sekhar sarkar, D.SC. Lecturer in Physical Anthropology, University College of Science, Calcutta  
3 Regional structure of India in relation to language and History 33
  Jay Chandra Narang; Vidyalankara Formerly Honorary Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Bombay University, and Secretary, Bharatiya Itihasa Parisad  
4 Linguistic Survey of India: Languages and scripts 53
  Suniti Kumar Chatterji, M.A. D.Lit. Chairman, Legislative Council, West Bengal, and formerly Khaira Professor of Indian Linguistics and Phonetics, Calcutta University  
5 Contributions from different language- Culture groups 76
  Suniti Kumar Chatterji, M.A., D.Lit.  
 
PART II
 
 
PREHISTORIC INDIA
 
6 The Stone Age in India 93
I Nirmal Kumar Bose, M.Sc., F.N.I.  
II Dharani Sen, M.SC. Lecturer in Prehistoric Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, University College of Science, Calcutta  
7 Indus Valley Civilization 110
  Madho Sarup Vats, M.A. Formerly Director General of Archaeology in India, New Delhi  
8 The Origin of the Indo-Aryans 129
  Bata Krishna Ghosh, D.Phil., D.Litt. Formerly Lecturer in Philology, Calcutta University  
9 Cultural Interrelation Between India and the outside world before Asoka 144
  A. D. Pusalker, M.A., LL.B., Ph.D. Formerly Assistant Director, and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay  
 
PART III
 
 
VEDIC CIVILIZATION
 
10 The Religio- Philosophic culture of India 163
  T. M. P. Mahadevan, M.A., Ph.D. Professor and Head of the Department of Philosophy, Madras University  
11 The Vedas and their religious teachings 182
  Swami Sharvananda  
12 Vedic Culture 199
  C. Kunhan Raja, B.A., D.Phil.Professor of Sanskrit, Andhra University, Waltair  
13 Vedic Society 221
  A.S. Altekar, M.A., LL.B., D.Litt.Director, K. P. Jayaswal Research Institute, Patna, and formerly Professor and Head of the Department of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Patna University  
14 Vedic Rituals 234
  V.M. Apte, M.A., Ph.D.Director of Research, Veda Samsodhana Mandala, Bombay, and formerly Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Saugar University  
15 The Vedangas 264
  V.M. Apte, M.A., M.A., PH. D.  
16 Yaska and panini 293
  Vasudeva Sharma Agrawala, M.A. PH.D., D.Litt. Professor and Head of the Department of Art and Architecture, Banaras Hindu University  
17 Vedic Exegesis 311
  Shrimat Anirvan  
18 The dawn of Indian philosophy 333
  Swami Ghanananda Head of the Ramakrishna Vedanta Centre, London  
19 A Bird's -eye view of the Upanisads 345
  Swami Ghanananda General Secretary, Ramakrishna Math and Mission, Belur, Howrah  
20 Mystical approach in the Upanisads 366
  Mahendranath Sircar, M.A., PH.D.Formerly Professor of Philosophy, Presidency College, Calcutta  
21 Upanisadic Mediatation 375
  Swami Gambhirananda President, Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati, Almora  
 
PART IV
 
 
JAINISM AND BUDDHISM
 
22 Sramana or non-Brahmanical sects 389
  Pandit N. Aiyaswami Sastri Head of the Indo-Tibetan Studies and Buddhism, Visva- Bharati, Santinikatan  
23 Jainism: Its History, Principles, and Precepts 400
  Hiralal Jain, M.A., LL.B., D. Litt. Director, Institute of Post- Graduate Studies and Research in Prakrit, Jainology, and Ahimsa, Muzaffarpur, Bihar  
24 Jainism: Its Philosophy and Ethics 414
  Appaswami Chakravrti, M.A. Formerly Prinicipal, Government College, Kumbakonam  
25 Some fundamental principles of Jainism 434
  Pandit Sukhalal Sanghvi, D. Litt. Formerly Professor and Head of the Department of Jaina Sastra, Banaras Hindu University  
26 Some Aspects of early Buddhism 442
  Beni Madhab Barua, M.A., D.Lit., Tripitakacarya Formerly Professor of Pali and Lecturer in Sanskrit and Ancient Indian History and culture, Calcutta University  
27 Schools and sects of Buddhism 456
I P. V. Bapat, M.A., A.M., PH.D. Professor of Buddhist Studies, Delhi University  
II-IV Nalinaksha Dutt, M.A., B.L., PH.D., D.Lit. Professor and Head of the Department of Pali, Calcutta University  
28 Emergence of Mahayana Buddhism 503
  Nalinaksha Dutt, M.A., B.L., PH.D., D.Lit.  
29 Mahayanic pantheon 518
  Beonoytosh Bhattacharyya, M.A., PH.D. Formerly Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda  
30 Karma 537
  Bimala Churn Law, M.A., B.L., PH.D., D.Litt.  
31 Nirvana 547
  Bimala Churn Law., M.A., B.L., PH.D., D.Litt.  
32 Buddhism in relation to Vedanta 559
  Vidhushekhara Bhattacharya, Sastrin, Mahamahopadhyaya Formerly Asutosh Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Calcutta University  
33 Buddhism in Indian life and Thought 575
  Satkari Mookerjee, M.A., Ph.D. Director, Nava Nalanda Mahavihara, Nalanda, and formerly Asutosh Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Calcutta University  
  Bibliography 601
  Index 615

 

Volume II (Itihasas, Puranas, Dharma and Other Sastras)

 

Author:Ed. Dr. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar

ISBN: 8185843031

Volume II of this literary lour-de-force comprises studies in the Itihasas, Puranas, Dharma and other Sastras. This volume will be specially significant in the light of present-day Indian conditions and would be invaluable for a proper solution of the problem of national integration, which is now exercising the minds of Indian leaders. The conviction of the immanence of the Supreme Being in every all mate entity, leading to a realization of the dignity of each individual is the message taught by this volume and should be of crucial importance for creating those bonds of love and service, which are indispensable for today and tomorrow. From another point of view, the contributions contained in this volume would be of import, as they would put in proper perspective the values emphasized in modern civilization. India, while not disparaging economic advancement or social utility, has always stressed the importance of human personality against all challenges to it. Neither stark individualism nor collectivization can solve the problems confronting humanity today, and this lesson is specially conveyed by the Itihasas and the Puranas.

The Amarakosa, describing the main characteristics of the Puranas, specially points out that the commands of the Vedas are like those of a master (Prabhu Samhita) whereas the teachings of the Itihasas and Puranas may be compared with the advice and counsel of friends ( Suhrt Samhita).

The Epic Age during which the Ramayana and the Mahabharata received their final shape was a period of racial and ideological conflict; and, historically speaking, this period produced the two great Epics as well as the Manu Dharma-Sastra, the Codes of Yajnavalkya, Narada, and Parasara and the earlier Puranas.

 

Contents
  Publisher's Note vii
  Introduction xxi
  Dr. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar  
 
PART I
 
 
THE TWO GREAT EPICS
 
1 Classical Sanskrit as a vehicle of Indian culture 3
  K. K. Handique, M.A. (Cal. Et. Oxon) Vice- Chancellor, Gauhati University  
2 The Ramayana: Its History and Character 14
  A.D. Pusalker, M.A., LL. B., PH.D. Formerly Assistant Director, and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay  
3 The Culture of the Ramayana 32
  Swami Nihsreyasananda Ramakrishna Mission  
4 The Mahabharata: Its history and character 51
I P. L. Vaidya, M.A., PH.D.Mayurbhanj Professor of Sanskrit and Pali, Hindu University, Banaras  
II A.D. Pusalker, M.A., LL. B., PH.D.  
5 The Mahabharata: Some aspects of its culture 71
  Hemchandra Raychaudhuri, M.A., PH.D., F.R.A.S.B.Carmichael Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University  
6 Religion and Philosophy of the Epics 80
  A. P. Karmarkar, M.A., LL.B., PH.D. Professor of Indian History and Ancient Indian Culture, Ramnarain College, Bombay; University Teacher, Bombay University  
7 The Influence of the Indian life and literature 95
  Nilmadhav Sen, M.A., D.Litt. Deccan School of Linguistics, Poona  
8 The Ramayana and the Mahabharata in south- East Asia 119
  Bijan Raj Chatterjee, PH.D., (Lond), D.Litt. (Punjab) Principal, Meerut College, U. P.  
 
PART II
 
 
THE GITA LITERATURE
 
9 The Bhagavad-Gita: A General Review of its History and character 135
  S. K. Belvalkar, M.A., PH.D. (Harvard) Professor of Sanskrit (Emeritus), Deccan College, Poona, and Banaras Hindu University  
10 The teachings of the Bhagavad-Gita 158
  Swami Suddhananda Formerly President, Ramakrishna Mission  
11 The Religion of The Bhagavad-Gita 166
  Swami Tapasyananda President, Ramakrishna Ashrama, Trivandram, Kerala  
12 The Bhagavad-Gita: Its synthetic Character 180
  Swami Viresyananda General Secretary, Ramakrishna Mission  
13 The Bhagavad-Gita: Its Early Commentaries 195
  Mahendra Nath Sarkar, M.A., PH.D.Formerly Professor of Philosophy, Presidency College, Calcutta  
14 Imitations of the Bhagavad-Gita and later Gita Literature 204
  Parameswara Aiyar, B.L. Retired Sub-judge  
 
PART III
 
 
THE PURANAS
 
15 Indian Mythology 223
  R.N. Dandekar, M.A., PH.D. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona  
16 The Puranas 240
  Rajendra Chandra Hazra, M.A., PH.D., D. Litt. Associate Professor of Smrti and Puranas (Research Departmental, Sanskrit College), Calcutta  
17 The Upapuranas 271
  Rajendra Chandra Hazra, M.A., PH.D., D. Litt.  
18 The Ethics of the Puranas 287
  C.S. Venkateswaran, M.A., PH.D. Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Annamalai University  
 
PART IV
 
 
THE DHARMASASTRAS
 
19 The Dharma-sutras and the Dharma sastras 301
  V. A. Ramaswami Sastri, M.A. Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Annamalai University  
20 The Smartis: their outlook and character 312
  T. R. Venkatarama Sastri, C.I.E. Formerly Advocate-General, Madras  
21 The Manu samhita 335
  V. Raghavan, M.A., PH.D. Professor of Sanskrit, Madras University  
22 The Nibandhas 364
  Dinesh Chandra Bhattachrya, M.A. Formerly Professor, Mohsin College, Hooghly  
23 Penances and vows 381
  Dinesh Chandra Bhattachrya, M.A.  
24 The Hindu Sacraments (Samskaras) 390
  Principal, Banaras Hindu University  
25 The Historical Background and theoretic basis of Hindu law 414
  P. B. Gajendragadkar Judge, Spureme Court of India  
26 The Hindu Judicial system 434
  P. B. Mukharji Judge, Calcutta High Court  
 
PART V
 
 
ARTHA-SASTRA, NITI-SASTRA, AND OTHER SOURCES OF POLITICAL AND ORGANIZATION
 
27 A general survey of the literature of Artha- Sastra and Niti -Sastra 451
I U.N. Ghoshal, M.A. PH.D. Formerly Professor of History, Presidency College, Calcutta  
II V. Radhagovinda Basak, M.A., PH.D. Formerly Professor, Presidency College, Calcutta  
28 Political Organization: The Monarchical States 465
  U.N. Ghoshal, M.A., PH.D.  
29 Political Organization: Republics and mixed constitutions 480
  U.N. Ghoshal, M.A., Ph.D.  
30 The state in relation to religion in ancient India 485
  K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, M.A. Formerly Professor of Indian History, Madras University  
31 Some Aspects of social and Political evolution in India 493
  C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar, B.A., B.L., LL.D., D.Litt. Formerly Vice- Chancellor, Banaras Hindu University  
32 Some basic ideas of Political Thinking in ancient India 509
  Benoy Kumar Sircar, M.A., Dr. H. C. Formerly Professor, Calcutta University  
33 The Tiru-K- Kural 530
  C. Rajagopachari, Bharat Ratna, B.A., B.L. Formerly Governor General of India  
34 The Indian organization: An anthropological study 536
  Dr. (Mrs.) Iravati Karve Deccan College, Poona  
35 Some of social life in ancient India 557
  H. C. Chakladar, M.A. Formerly Head of Anthropology, Calcutta University  
36 Monasticism in India 582
  Sukumar Datta, M.A., PH.D. Formerly Reader in English, Delhi University  
37 Some Aspects of the Position of Women in ancient India 594
  D.C. Ganguly, M.A., D.Phil. Curator, Victoria Memorial, Calcutta  
38 Some reflections on the ideals of Indian Womanhood 601
  Roma Chaudhury, M.A., D.Phil. Principal, Lady Brourne College, Calcutta  
39 Foreign elements in India population 610
  Mrs. Debala Mitra, M.A. Assistant Superintendent of Archaeology, Indian Museum, Calcutta  
40 Some Experiments in Social reform in mediaeval India 627
  P. N. Chopra, M.A., PH.D.,Member, Board of Editors, 'History of freedom Movement of India'  
41 Ancient Indian Education 640
I Radha Kumud Mookerji, M.A., PH.D., Formerly Vice- Chancellor, Emeritus Professor of History, Lucknow University  
II- III U.N. Ghoshal, M.A., PH.D.  
42 Economic Ideas of the Hindus 655
  A.D. Pusalker, M.A., LL.B., PH.D.  
43 Guilds and other corporate bodies 670
  U.N. Ghoshal, M.A., PH.D.  
  Bibliography 681
  Index 695

 

Volume III (The Philosophies)

Author:Ed.Haridas Bhattacharyya

ISBN:818584304X

THE PRESENT volume tells the story of the attempts made by India down the ages to grapple with the fundamental problems of life and thought. Philosophy in India began with a quest after the highest truth-truth not as mere objective certitude, but as being closely linked with the development of personally and leading to the attainment of the highest freedom, bliss, and wisdom. It demanded, therefore, not only a philosophical discipline of reasoning, but also a discipline of conduct and the control of emotions and passions.

THUS THE synthesis between deep philosophical analysis and lofty spiritual discipline is an abiding feature of Indian philosophy, and in this its outlook is entirely different from that of western philosophy.

IT IS hoped that this volume will serve not only to make plain the spiritual aspirations of an ancient nation, but also to show the relevance of those aspirations to the modern world and thus forge a powerful link in the chain of human fellowship and universal concord.

 

CONTENTS

 

  Publisher's Note v
  Preface xiii
1. Introduction
Surrendranath Dasgupta, M.A., Ph.D., D.Litt.
Formerly King George V Professor of Philosophy, Calcutta University

 

3
PART I
THE PHILOSOPHICAL SYSTEMS
2. Rise of The Philosophical Schools
T.R.V. Murti, M.A., D.Litt., Vyakaranacarya, Vedantasastri
Sayaji Rao Gaekwad Professor of Indian Civilization and Culture, Banaras Hindu University
27
3. The Samkhya
M. Hiriyanna, M.A.
Formerly Professor of Sanskrit, Maharaja's College, Mysore
41
4. Yoga Psychology
Haridas Bhattacharyya, M.A., B.L., P.R.S., Darsanasagara
Formerly Head of the Department of Philosophy, Dacca University
53
5. Nyaya-Vaisesika
Satkari Mookerjee, M.A., Ph.D.
Asutosh Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Calcutta University
91
6. Navya-Nyaya
Janaki Vallabha Bhattacharyya, M.A., Ph.D.
Lecturer in Sanskrit, Calcutta University
125
7. Purva-Mimamsa
Pramathanath Tarkabhushan, Mahamahopadhyaya
Formerly Principal, College of Oriental Learning, Banaras Hindu University
151
8. Materialists, Sceptics, and Agnostics
Dakshina Ranjan Shastri, M.A., Ph.D., Kavyatirtha
Professor of Sanskrit, Krishnagar College, Nadia

 

168
PART II
THE VEDANTA
9. Brahma-Mimamsa
Anantakrishna Sastri, Mahamahopadhyaya
Formerly Lecturer in Sanskrit, Calcutta University
187
10. Essentials of Vedanta
V. Subrahmanya Iyer, B.A.
Formerly Registrar, Mysore University
211
11. Philosophy of The Advaita
K.A. Krishnaswami Iyer, B.A.
Formerly Headmaster, Government High School, Tumkur
219
12. The Philosophy of Sankara
Surendranath Bhattacharya, M.A.
Professor of Sanskrit, Bihar National College, Patna
237
13. The Advaita and its Spiritual Significance
Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya, M.A.
Formerly King George V Professor of Philosophy, Calcutta University
245
14. Post-Sankara Advaita
Dinesh Chandra Bhattacharya, Sastri, Tarka-Vedanta-tirtha
Formerly Head of the Department of Oriental Studies, Haraganga College, Munshiganj
255
15. Philosophy of the Bhagavata
Swami Tyagisananda
Formerly President, Ramakrishna Ashrama, Bangalore
281
16. The Visistadvaita of Ramanuja
P.N. Srinivasachari, M.A.
Formerly Principal, Pachaiyappa's College, Madras
300
17. Madhva's Brahma-Mimamsa
H.N. Raghavendrachar, M.A., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Maharaja's College, Mysore
313
18. The Nimbarka School of Vedanta
Roma Chaudhuri, M.A., D.Phil. (OXON)
Principal, Lady Brabourne College, Calcutta
333
19. The School of Vallabha
Govindlal Hargovind Bhatt, M.A.
Director, Oriental Institute, M.S. University, Baroda
347
20. Bhedabheda School of Vedanta
P.N.Srinivasachari, M.A.
360
21. The Acintya-Bhedabheda School
Radha Govinda Nath, M.A., Vidyavacaspati
Formerly Principal, Victoria College, Comilla

 

366
PART III
THE RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHIES
22. The Philosophy of Saivism
S.S. Suryanarayana Sastri, M.A., B.Sc., Barrister-at-Law
Formerly Head of the Department of Philosophy, Madras University
387
23. The Path of Yoga in the Gita
D.S. Sarma, M.A.
Formerly Principal, Vivekananda College, Madras
400
24. Philosophy of the Yogavasistha
Bhikkan Lal Atreya, M.A., D.Litt., Darsanacarya
Professor and Head of the Department of Philosophy, Banaras Hindu University
424
25. Philosophy of the Tantras
Swami Pratyagatmananda
437
26. The Philosophy of Mysticism
Radhakamal Mukerjee, M.A., Ph.D.
Director, J.K. Institute of Sociology and Human Relations, Lucknow University
449
27. Philosophy in Popular Literature
Atindranath Bose, M.A., P.R.S., Ph.D.
Lecturer, Calcutta University

 

458
PART IV
THE PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY
28. Religion of The Nyaya and Vaisesika
Ganganath Jha, M.A., D.Litt., Mahamahopadhyaya
Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Allahabad University
471
29. Nature of The Soul
Anukul Chandra Mukerji, M.A.
Formerly Professor and Head of the Department of Philosophy, Allahabad University
475
30. Nature of the Physical World
Umesh Mishra, M.A., D.Litt., Mahamahopadhyaya
Director, Mithila Research Institute, Darbhanga
494
31. Nature of Mind and its Activities
P.T. Raju, M.A., Ph.D., Sastri
Professor of Philosophy, Rajasthan University, Jodhpur
507
32. Extra-Sensory and Super conscious Experiences
Swami Akhilananda
President, The Vedanta Society, Providence (R.I.), U.S.A.

 

520
PART V
THE PHILOSOPHICAL SCIENCES
33. Indian Theism
Swami Hiranmayananda
Secretary, Ramakrishna Mission Sevashrama, Rangoon
535
34. Indian Epistemology
Dhirendra Mohan Datta, M.A., P.R.S., Ph.D., Pracyavidyavaridhi
Professor of Philosophy, Patna College, Patna
548
35. The Art of Philosophical Disputation
Yogendranath Bagchi, Mahamahopadhyaya, Tarka-Samkhya-Vedanta-tirtha
Research Professor, Government Sanskrit College, Calcutta
562
36. Indian Psychology
P.T. Raju, M.A., Ph.D., Sastri
581
37. Types of Human Nature
Hari Mohan Bhattacharyya, M.A.
Professor of Philosophy and Principal of the Women's Section, Asutosh College, Calcutta
608
38. Indian Ethics
Haridas Bhattacharyya, M.A., B.L., P.R.S., Darsanasagara
620
39. Philosophy of Values
M. Hiriyanna, M.A.

 

645
  Bibliography 657
  Index

 

667

 

Volume IV (The Religions of India)

Author: Ed.:Bhagavan Das

ISBN:8185843058

The Present Volume bears ample testimony to the great hospitality of the Indian mind in encouraging and inviting different points of view and different lines of approach to the great quest for the Ultimate Reality. It sketches the more important sects and living religions which India accepts as diverse expressions of religion itself.

Hinduism in its various ramifications derived from a common stock is an exceedingly interesting and instructive subject to pursue. It is not at all a single religion with a creed to which everybody must subscribe, although each individual cult offers its allegiance to the Vedas and the Upanisads as the source and origin of Indian religion and religious experience. Hinduism is thus a federation of different kinds of approach to the Reality behind life. That is the unique character of Hinduism, and that character is unfolded in the pages of this volume.

 

Contents
  Publisher's Note v
  Preface xv
1 Introduction  
  Bharataratna Bhagavan Das, M. A., D. Litt. 3
 
PART I
RELIGIOUS SECTS AND CULTS
 
2 Evolution Of Religio-Philosophic Culture In India R. C. Majumadar  
  Head of the Department of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Nagpur University, and Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Dacca University 31
3 AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF SAIVISM  
  K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, M. A.  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Indology, Mysore University 63
4 KASHMIR SAIVISM  
  Arabinda Basu, M. A.  
  Spalding Lecturer in Indian Philosophy and Religion, Durham University 79
5 VIRASAIVISM  
  Shree Kumaraswamiji, B. A.  
  Head of the Navakalyanamatha, Dharwar 98
6 EARLY HISTORY OF VAISNAVISM  
  Dines Chandra Sircar, M. A., P. R. S. Ph. D.  
  Government Epigraphist for India, Ootacamund 108
7 BHAGAVATA RELIGION: THE CULT OF BHAKTI  
  Jadunath Sinha, M. A., P. R. S., Ph. D.  
  Formerly Professor of Philosophy, Meerut College, Meerut 146
8 THE VAIKHANASAS  
  K. R. Venkataraman, B. A., L. T. Puravrttajyoti  
  Formerly Director of Public Instruction Pudukkottai State 160
9 HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF SRI-VAISNAVISM IN SOUTH INDIA  
  V. Rangacharya, M. A., L. T.  
  Formerly Professor and Head of the Department of History and Economics, University College, Trivandrum 163
10 A SURVEY OF THE CAITANYA MOVEMENT  
  Radha Govinda Nath, M. A. D. Litt., Vidyavacaspati  
  Formerly Principal, Victoria College, Comilla 186
11 SANKARA DEVA AND THE VAISNAVA MOVEMENT IN ASSAM  
  Raj Mohon Nath, B. E., Tattvabhusana  
  Formerly Superintending Engineer, P. W. D., Assam 201
12 EVOLUTION OF THE TANTRAS  
  P. C. Bagchi, M. A., D. Litt.  
  Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 211
13 TANTRA AS A WAY OF REALIZATION  
  Swami Pratyagatmananda 227
14 THE SPIRIT AND CULTURE OF THE TANTRAS  
  Atal Behari Ghosh, M. A., B. L.  
  One of the Founders of the Agama Anusandhana Samiti, Calcutta 241
15 SAKTI CULT IN SOUTH INDIA  
  K. R. Venkataraman, B. A., L. T., Puravrttajyoti 252
16 TANTRIKA CULTURE AMONG THE BUDDHISTS  
  Benoytosh Bhattacharyya, M. A. Ph. D.  
  Formerly Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda 260
17 THE CULT OF THE BUDDHIST SIDDHACARYAS  
  P. C. Bagchi, M. A., D. Litt 273
18 THE NATHA CULT  
  Sukumar Sen, M. A., Ph. D.  
  Khaira Professor of Indian Linguistics and Phonetics, Calcutta University 280
19 SOME LATER YOGIC SCHOOLS  
  Shashi Bhusan Das Gupta, M. A., P. R. S. Ph. D.  
  Ramtanu Lahiri Professor of Bengali Language and Literature and Head of the Department of Modern Indian Languages, Calcutta University 291
20 THE DOCTRINAL CULTURE AND TRADITION OF THE SIDDHAS  
  V. V. Ramana Sastri, M. A., Ph. D., Jyotirbhusana Tanjore 300
21 SKANDA CULT IN SOUTH INDIA  
  K. R. Venkataraman, B. A., L. T., Puravrttajoti 309
22 THE RELIGION OF THE SIKH GURUS  
  Teja Singh, M. A.  
  Formerly Principal, Khalsa College, Bombay 314
23 CULT-SYNCRETISM  
  Jitendra Nath Banerjea, M. A., Ph. D.  
  Carmichael Professor and Head of the Department of Ancient  
  Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University 329
 
PART II
THE SAINTS AND THEIR TEACHINGS
 
24 THE SAIVA SAINTS OF SOUTH INDIA  
  S. Satchidanandam Pillai, B. A., I. T.  
  President, Saiva Siddhanta Mahasamajam, Madras 339
25 THE VAISNAVA SAINTS OF KARNATAKA  
  B. N. K. Sharma, M. A., Ph. D., Vidyabhusana  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit and Ardhamagadhi, Ruparel College, Bombay 349
26 THE MAHARASTRA SAINTS AND THEIR TEACHINGS  
  K. V. Gajendragadkar, M. A.  
  Principal, H. P. T. College, Nasik 356
27 THE MEDIAEVAL MYSTICS OF NORTH INDIA  
  Kshitimohan Sen, M. A., Sastrin  
  Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 377
28 TULASIDASA AND HIS TEACHINGS  
  Srimati Chandra Kumari Handoo, M. A.  
  Bombay 395
29 SAKTI-WORSHIP AND THE SAKTA SAINTS  
  Chintaharan Chakravarti, M. A., Kavyatirtha  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Bengali, Presidency  
  College, Calcutta 408
 
PART III
RELIGION IN PRACTICE
 
30 RELIGIOUS BELIEFS OF THE INDIAN TRIBES  
  Tarak Chandra Das, M. A.  
  Lecturer in Anthropology, Calcutta University 421
31 A GLIMPSE INTO HINDU RELIGIOUS SYMBOLISM  
  Swami Yatiswarananda  
  President, Sri Ramakrishna Ashrama, Bangalore 433
32 RITUALS OF WORSHIP  
  L. A. Ravi Varma, M. B., G. M., D. O. M. S., Gavesakatilaka  
  Trivandrum  
33 INDIAN HYMNOLOGY  
  Sivaprasad Bhattacharyya, M. A. B. T., Kavyatirtha  
  Formerly Senior Professor of Sanskrit, Presidency College, Calcutta 464
34 FESTIVALS AND SACRED DAYS  
  Batuknath Bhattacharya, M. A., L. L. B., Kavyatirtha  
  Formerly Professor of English, Surendranath College, Calcutta 479
35 PILGRIMAGE AND FAIRS: THEIR BEARING ON INDIAN LIFE  
  Swami Pavitrananda  
  Head of the Vedanta Society, New York 495
36 METHODS OF POPULAR RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION IN SOUTH INDIA  
  V. Raghavan, M. A., Ph. D.  
  Professor of Sanskrit, Madras University 503
37 DIFFUSION OF SOCIO-RELIGIOUS CULTURE IN NORTH INDIA  
  I. Khagendranath Mitra, M. A.  
  Formerly Ramtanu Lahiri Professor of Bengali Language and  
  Literature and Head of the Department of Modern Indian  
  Languages, Calcutta University  
  II. Asutosh Bhattacharyya, M. A.  
  Lecturer in Bengali, Calcutta University 515
 
PART IV
RELIGIONS FROM BEYOND THE BORDERS
 
38 ZOROASTRIANISM  
  Irach J. S. Taraporewala, B. A., Ph. D., Bar-at-Law  
  Formerly Director, Deccan College Post-graduate and Research  
  Institute, Poona 533
39 THE RISE AND GROWTH OF CHRISTIANITY IN INDIA  
  Rev. C. E. Abraham, M. A., D. D.  
  Principal, Serampore College, Serampore 547
40 ISLAMIC CULTURE  
  M. T. Akbar, K. C., B. A., LL. B  
  Formerly Senior Puisne Justice of Supreme Court, Geylon 571
41 ISLAM IN INDIA  
  Humayun Kabir, M. A.  
  Formerly Adviser to the Ministry of Education, Government of India 579
42 SUFISM  
  I. Hira Lall Chopra, M . A.  
  Lecturer in Islamic History and Culture, Calcutta University  
  II. N. B. Butani, M. A., B. SC  
  Principal, D. & H. National and W. A. Science College, Bombay 593
 
PART V SOME MODERN REFORM MOVEMENTS
 
43 THE BRAHMO SAMAJ  
  Kalidas Nag, M. A., D. Litt.  
  Formerly Lecturer in Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University 613
44 THE ARYA SAMAJ  
  Pandit Chamupati, M. A.  
  Formerly Governor, Gurukul University, Kangri, Hardwar 634
45 WHAT THEOSOPHISTS BELIEVE  
  C. Jinarajadasa, M. A.  
  Formerly President, Theosophical Society, Adyar, Madras 640
 
PART VI
SRI RAMAKRISHNA AND SPIRITUAL RENAISSANCE
 
46 SRI RAMAKRISHNA AND SPIRITUAL RENAISSANCE  
  Swami Nirvedananda  
  President, Ramakrishna Mission Calcutta Students' Home 653
  BIBLIOGRAPHY 731
  INDEX 741

 

Volume V (Languages and Literatures of India)

Autho:Ed.Suniti Kumar Chatterji

ISBN:8185843066

The Present volume attempts to make a systematic study of India's great literary heritage preserved in various languages of the country, old as well as modern. A perusal of the forty-nine articles in this volume enables one to appreciate the basic phenomenon that despite various diversities-geographical, political, ethnographical, and linguistic-the fundamental unity of India clearly shines forth, and India since time immemorial has formed a solid single unit not only on the cultural plane, but also on the intellectual and literary.

The Volume is indeed an encyclopaedia in its scope and range, and it will certainly provide an authentic and valuable contribution towards the study of Indian languages and literatures in their glory and grandeur; it will also afford a spectacular display of the genius of India reflected in various branches of knowledge. It is needless to add that the literary heritage of India constitutes a priceless possession covetable to any nation, however great it may be, by any standard.

Preface

The Present volume fifth of the celebrated series, The Cultural Heritage of India, published by the Ramakrishna Mission institute of Culture, attempts to make a systematic study of India's great literary heritage preserved in various languages of the country, old as well as modern. A perusal of the articles in this volume enables one to appreciate the basic phenomenon that despite various diversities-geographical, political, ethnographical, and linguistic-the fundamental unity of India clearly shines forth, and India since time immemorial has formed solid single unit not only on the cultural plane, but also on the intellectual and literary.

 

INDIAN LITERATURE : ITS BASIC UNITY

Indian life and thought and Indian literature in ancient, medieval, and modern times (until very recently) have remained imbedded in the Upanisads, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Puranas. Without a knowledge and appreciation of these, no knowledge and appreciation of Indian literature, even for the modern age, is possible. These great works have exercised a tremendous fascination on the Indian mind for some 2,000 years and more, and left a profound influence on all Indian literatures. In fact, these works are India: and in all the languages of India and their literatures, it is the content and the spirit of the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Puranas, with the Upanisads and Dharma-sastras in the background, that have found and are still finding their full play and their natural abode. They have moulded the life and literature of India and constitute the greatest literary heritage of the country. The cultural unity of India, ancient, medieval, and modern, has been primarily nurtured through them. There is, besides, the huge corpus of literature in Sanskrit that has grown round the six orthodox systems of Indian philosophy and various other aspects of human knowledge and interest, to which scholars and writers from different parts of India had contributed. This 'matter' of ancient India or of the Sanskrit world forms the bed-rock of the medieval and modern literatures in most of the modern languages of India. Even a brief perusal of the histories of Hindi, Bengali, Oriya, Assamese, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi, Malayalam, Kannada, and Telugu literature, as well as of those which have not been as yet recognized in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution (viz. Maithili, Magahi, Bhojpuri, Nepali and Rajasthani), will show that, looming behind all these literatures not only as their background but also as their perpetual inspirer and feeder, there are the towering mountains of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the Puranas (especially the Bhagavata Purana) and the philosophy of the Vedanta as in the Upanisads and the Bhagavad-Gita, the ideologies and the ritualism of the Yoga and Bhakti and of the Dharma-sastras, and the poetry of the classic writers of Sanskrit like Kalidasa, Banabhatta, and Bhavabhuti. (There is no lack of the 'matter' of the Sanskrit world in Sindhi, Kashmiri Urdu, and even Tamil, either; but it is there in a comparatively restricted measure.) There are of course the special gifts of the Jaina and Buddhist literatures, which are also regarded as priceless treasures of India, but the influence of the Brahmanical literature of ancient India remains supreme. The streams of the Jaina and Buddhist Literatures easily and naturally merged into the wider 'Hindu', i. e. Brahmanical-cum-Jaina and Buddhist atmosphere, bringing some of their own elements to extend and diversify as well as unify the whole. One of the salient features of almost all the modern Indian languages is that they follow more or less the same pattern in the process of their literary development and growth. Thus, it may be said that if one passes from one modern Indian literature into another, there will be no sense of entering into a different climate. And this will be still more true if one passes from Sanskrit literature into that of any modern Indian language.

 

CHARACTERISTICS: ASSIMILATION AND INTEGRATION

Indian literature, like Indian civilization, is marked by its spirit of acceptance and assimilation. It has imbibed any features from other literatures over the centuries. In the modern period, many features of Western literature have found a welcome entry in the literature of this country. It may be asked to what extent the 'matter' of Islam has been assimilated in Indian literature, Sufistic Islam had many points in common with the Vedanta and Yoga and the essentials of higher Hinduism. The way of the Sufi (Sufiyana tariqa) was, therefore, easily successful in bringing to the Hindus a closer understanding of Islam and vice versa. Through Sufism we find a considerable amount of spiritual understanding between Hindus and Muslims all over the country. Thus in literature, although the divergences in religious practices of the Hindu and the Muslim, when each tried to be specially orthodox in his own way, have been noticed, there have been the spirit of laissez-faire and a broad spirit of tolerance and compromise and integration which have never been absent in Indian literature.

The real integration of India into one single entity, in spite of some basic and fundamental racial, linguistic, and cultural diversities has taken place through the Upanisads, the epics, the Puranas, the Dharma-sastras, and the philosophical literature in Sanskrit, in the ancient and medieval times; and on this integration stand the cultural oneness and the political unity of India.

This has been strengthened during the last one hundred and fifty years by the impact of the mind of Europe on the Indian mind through the literature of English; and the inestimable service of this last in modernizing the mind of India and making it once again conscious of its great heritage of the past and of its stupendous unity cannot be too highly rated. English has been one of the greatest gifts of the modern age to India. The results of this we find in all the modern Indian Literatures.

India is a multi-racial, multi-lingual, and multi-religious country, and in spite of this diversity in racial type, speech, and religious outlook, there has been all through history for the last 3,000 years a great tendency towards an integration of these diverse elements-integration into one single type, which can be called pan-Indian. Of course, there has not been in many cases a complete assimilation. But the various elements have had their interplay in the evolution of Indian life, culture, and religion, as well as to a large extent of a common Indian physical type as of a common Indian mentality.

 

INDIAN LANGUAGES: THEIR CLASSIFICATION

The Indian people, composed of diverse racial elements, now speak languages belonging to four distinct speech families-the Aryan, the Dravidian, the Sino-Tibetan (or Mongoloid), and the Austric. It has been suggested by some that over and above these four groups, there might have been one or two more-there seems to be some evidence from linguistics for this idea. But nothing definitely has yet been found, and we are quite content to look upon these four groups as the basic ones in the Indian scene. People speaking languages belonging to the above four families of speech at first presented distinct culture groups; and the Aryans in ancient India were quite conscious of that. Following to some extent the Sanskrit or Indo-Aryan nomenclature in this matter, the four main 'language-culture' groups of India, namely, the Aryan, the Dravidian, the Sino-Tibetan, and the Austric, can also be labeled respectively as Arya. Dramida or Dravida, Kirata, and Nasada. Indian civilization, as already said, has elements from all these groups, and basically it is pre-Aryan, with important Aryan modifications within as well as Aryan super-structure at the top. In the four type of speech represented by these, there were, to start with, fundamental differences in formation and vocabulary, in sounds and in syntax. But languages belonging to these four families have lived and developed side by side for 3,000 years and more, and have influenced each other profoundly-particularly the Aryan, the Dravidian, and the Austric speeches; and this has led to either a general evolution, or mutual imposition, in spite of original differences, of some common characteristics, which may be called specifically Indian and which are found in most languages belonging to all these families: e.g. the cerebral or retroflex sounds of t, d, r, n, and l; the use of 'post-positions' in the declension of the noun; points of similarity in the structure of the verb; compound verbs; 'echo-words'; etc.

 

ARYAN

Of these linguistic and cultural groups, the Aryan is the most important, both numerically and intrinsically. As a matter of fact, Indian civilization has found its expression primarily through the Aryan speech as it developed over the centuries-through Vedic Sanskrit (Old Indo-Aryan), then Classical Sanskrit, then Early Middle Indo-Aryan dialects like Pali and Old Ardha-Magadhi, then Buddhist and Jaina Sanskrit and after that the various Prakrits and Apabhramsas, and finally in the last phase, the different Modern Indo-Aryan languages of the country. The hymns and poems collected in the four Vedas, probably sometime during the tenth century B. C., represent the earliest stage of the Aryan speech in India, known as the Old Indo-Aryan. Of these again, the language of the Rg-Vedic hymns gives us the oldest specimens of the speech. From the Punjab, the original nidus of the Aryans in India, Aryan speech spread east along the valley of the Ganga, and by 600 B. C., it was well established throughout the whole of the northern Indian plains up to the eastern borders of Bihar. The non-Aryan Dravidian and Austric dialects (and in some places the Sino-Tibetan speeches too) yielded place to the Aryan language, which, both through natural change and through it adoption by a larger and larger number of people alien to it, began to be modified in many ways; and this modification was largely along the lines of the Dravidian and Austric speeches. The Aryan speech entered in this way into a new stage of development, first in eastern India (Bihar and the eastern U. P. tracts) and then elsewhere. The Punjab, with a larger proportion of born Aryan-speakers, remained true to the spirit of the older Vedic speech-the Old Indo-Aryan-to the last, to even as late as the third century B. C., and possibly still later. This new stage of development, which became established during the middle of the first millennium B. C., is known as that of Middle Indo-Aryan or Prakrit. The spoken dialects of Aryan continued to have their own lines of development in the different parts of North India, and these were also spreading over Sind, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and northern Deccan, as well as Bengal and the sub-Himalayan regions. The whole country in North, East, and central India was thus becoming Aryanized through the spread of the Prakrit or Middle Indo-Aryan dialects.

While spoken forms of the Aryan speech of this second stage were spreading among the masses in this way, a younger form of the Vedic speech was established by the Brahmanas in northern Punjab and in the 'Midland' (i.e. present day eastern U. P.) as a fixed literary language, during the sixth-fifth centuries B. C. This younger form of Vedic or Old Indo-Aryan, which was established just when the Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrit) dialects were taking shape, later came to be known as Sanskrit or Classical Sanskrit. Sanskrit became one of the greatest languages of Indian civilization, and it has been the greatest vehicle of Indian culture for the last 2,500 years (or for the last 3,000 years, if we take if we take its older form Vedic also). Its history-that of Vedic-cum-Sanskrit-as a language of religion and culture has been longer than that of any other language-with the exception possibly of written Chinese and Hebrew. It may be noted that Vedic and later (Classical) Sanskrit stand in the same relation to each other as do Homeric and Attick Greek. Sanskrit spread with the spread of Hindu or ancient Indian culture (of mixed Austric, Mongoloid, Dravidian, and Aryan origin) beyond the frontiers of India: and by A. D. 400, it became a great cultural link over the greater part of Asia, from Bali, Java, and Borneo in the South-East to Central Asia in the North-West, China too falling within its sphere of influence. Gradually, it acquired a still wider currency in the other countries of Asia wherever Indian religion (Buddhism and Brahmanism) was introduced or adopted. A great literature was built up in Sanskrit-epics of national import, belles' letters of various sorts including the drama, technical literature, philosophical treatises-every department of life and thought came to be covered by the literature of Sanskrit. The range and variety of "Sanskrit literature is indeed an astonishing phenomenon, unmistakably testifying to the uniquencess of the wisdom and genius of the ancient Indian masterminds and the expressiveness of the language in a style which has been universally acclaimed as one of the richest and the most elegant the world has ever seen.

The various Prakrits or Middle Indo-Aryan dialects continued to develop and expand. Some of these were adopted by Buddhist and Jaina sects in ancient India as their sacred canonical languages, notably Pali among the Buddhists (of the Hinayana school) and Ardha-Magadhi among the Jains. The Literature produced in these languages particularly in Pali (and also Gandhari Prakrit) migrated to various Asian countries where original contributions in them came into existence. The process of simplification of the Aryan speech, which began with the Second or Middle Indo-Aryan stage, continued, and by A. D. 600 we come to the last phase of Middle Indo-Aryan, known as the Apabhramsa stage. Further modification of the regional Apabhramsas of the period A. D. 600-1000 gave rise, with the beginning of the second millennium A.D., to the New Indo Aryan or Modern Indo-Aryan Languages, or bhasas, which are Current at the Present day.

The New Indo-Aryan languages, coming ultimately from Vedic Sanskrit (or 'Sanskrit', in a loose way), are closely relate to each other, like the Neo-Romanic languages derived out of Latin. It is believed that in spite of local differences in the various forms of Meddle Indo-Aryan, right up to the New Indo-Aryan development, there was a sort of pan-Indian vulgar or koine form of Prakrit or Middle Indo-Aryan. But local differences in Middle Indo-Aryan grew more and more pronounced during the centuries round about A. D. 1000, and this led to the provincial New Indo-Aryan languages taking shape and being born. Taking into consideration these basic local characteristics, the New Indo-Aryan speeches have been classified into a number of local groups, viz. (i) North-Western group, (ii) Southern group, (iii) Eastern group, (iv) East-Central or Mediate group, (v) Central group, and (vi) Northern or Himalayan group. The major languages of the New or Modern Indo-Aryan speech family are: Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sindhi, and Urdu. Kashmiri, one of the major modern Indian languages, belongs to the Dardic branch of the Indo-Iranian group within the Aryan family. Although Dardic by origin, Kashmiri came very early under the profound influence of Sanskrit and the later Prakrits which greatly modified its Dardic bases. Most scholars now think that Dardic is just a branch of Indo-Aryan.

 

DRAVIDIAN

Dravidian is the second important language family of India and has some special characteristics of its own. After the Aryan speech, it has very largely functioned as the exponent of Indian culture, particularly the earlier secular as well as religious literature of Tamil. It forms a solid bloc in South India, embracing the four great literary languages, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, and Telugu and a number of less important speeches all of which are, however, overshadowed by the main four. It is believed that the wonderful city civilization of Sind and South Punjab as well as Baluchistan (fourth-third millennium B. C.) was the work of Dravidian speakers. But we cannot be absolutely certain in this matter, so long as the inscribed seals from the city ruins in those areas like Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, etc. remain undeciphered. The art of writing would appear to have been borrowed from the pre-Aryan Sind and South Punjab people the beginnings of the Brahmi alphabet, the characteristic Indian system of writing connected with Sanskrit and Prakrit in pre-Christian centuries, may be traced.

The Dravidian speech in its antiquity in India is older than Aryan, and yet (leaving apart the problematical writings on the seals found in Sind and South Punjab city ruins) the specimens of connected Dravidian writing or literature that we can read and understand are over a millennium later than the oldest Aryan documents. Of the four great Dravidian languages, Tamil has preserved its Dravidian character best, retaining, though not the old sound system of primitive Dravidian, a good deal of its original nature in its roots, forms, and words. The other three cultivated Dravidian speeches have, in the matter of their words of higher culture, completely surrendered themselves to Sanskrit, the classical and sacred language of Hindu India. Tamil has a unique and a very old literature, and the beginnings of it go back to about 2,000 years from now. Malayalam as a language is an offshoot of Old Tamil. From the ninth century A. D. some Malayalam characteristics begin to appear, but it is from the fifteenth century that Malayalam literature is almost as old as Tamil; and although we have some Telugu inscriptions dating from the sixth/seventh century A. D., the literary career of Telugu started from the eleventh century. Tamil and Malayalam are very close to each other, and are mutually intelligible to a certain extent. Kannada also bears a great resemblance to Tamil and Malayalam. Only Telugu has deviated a good deal from its southern neighbours and sisters. But Telugu and Kannada use practically the same alphabet, which is thus a bond of union between these two languages.

 

SINO-TIBETAN AND AUSTRIC

Peoples of Mongoloid origin, speaking languages of the Sino-Tibetan family, were present in India at least as early as the tenth century B. ., when the four Vedas appear to have been compiled. The Sino-Tibetan languages do not have much numerical importance or cultural significance in India, with the exception of Manipuri or Meithei of Manipur. Everywhere they are gradually receding before the Aryan languages like Bengali and Assamese. The Austric languages represent the oldest speech family of India, but they are spoken by a very small number of people, comparatively. The Austric languages of India have a great interest for the student of linguistics and human culture. They are valuable relics of India's past, and they link up India with Burma, with Indo-China, with Malaya, and with Indonesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Their solidarity is; however, broken as in most places there has been penetration into Austric blocs by the more powerful Aryan speeches with their overwhelming numbers and their prestige. Speakers of Austric in all the walks of life (they are mostly either farmers, or farm and plantation, or colliery labourers) know some Aryan language. In some cases they have become very largely bilingual. Their gradual Aryanization is a process which started some 3,000 years ago when the first Austrics (and Mongoloids as well as Dravidians) in North India started to abandon their native speech for Aryan. But in the process of abandoning their own language and accepting a new one, namely the Aryan, the Austrics (as well as the Dravidians and the Sino-Tibetans) naturally introduced some of their own speech habits and their own words into Aryan. In this way, the Austrics and other non-Aryan peoples helped to modify the character of the Aryan speech in India, from century to century, and even to build up Classical Sanskrit as the great culture speech of India. As the speakers of the Sino-Tibetan and Austric languages had been in a backward state living mostly a rather primitive life in out-of-the-way places, their languages do not show any high literary development excepting, as already said, in the case of Meithei or Manipuri belonging to Sino-Tibetan, which has quite a noteworthy and fairly old literature. They had, however, some kind of village or folk-culture, connected with which there developed in all these languages an oral literature consisting of folk-songs, religious and otherwise, of folk-tales, and of their legends and traditions. And a literature, mainly of Christian inspiration, has been created in some of these speeches by translating the Bible in its entirety or in part. Songs, legends, and tales of the Austric languages have been collected and published, particularly in Santali and Mundari, and in Khasi. Munda and Santali lyrics give pretty, idyllic glimpses of tribal life, some of the Munda love poems having a rare freshness about them; and a number of Santali folk-tales are very beautiful. A few of the folk-tales prevalent in the Sino-Tibetan speeches are also beautiful (e.g. the Mikir tale of a young man who had a god's daughter as his bride, and the Kachari story of a young man who got a swan-maiden as his wife), but they do not appear to compare favourably with the Santali and Mundari languages in the matter of both lyric poems and stories. A systematic study of these languages started only during the nineteenth century when European missionaries and scholars got interested in them. I have discussed in detail the speeches of the Sino-Tibetan and Austric families prevalent in the country in my contribution to this volume, entitled 'Adivasi Languages and Literatures of India.

 

CONCLUSION

There is, as already said, a fundamental unity in the literary types, genres, and expressions among all the modern languages of India in their early, medieval, and modern developments. The reason of this unique phenomenon is that there has been a gradual convergence of Indian Languages belonging to the different linguistic families, Aryan, Dravidian, Sino-Tibetan, and Austric, towards a common Indian type after their intimate contact with each other for at least 3,000 years.

This volume of The cultural Heritage of India is indeed an encyclopaedia in its scope and range, and it will certainly provide an authentic and valuable contribution towards the study of Indian languages and literatures in their glory and grandeur; it will also afford a spectacular display of the genius of India reflected in various branches of knowledge. It is needless to add that the literary heritage of India constitutes a priceless possession covetable to any nation, however great it may be by any standard.

 

Contents
  Publisher's Note v
  Preface xv
1 Introduction  
  K. M. Munshi, B. A., LL. B., D. LITT., LL. D.  
  President, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay 3
 
PART I
RELIGIOUS LITERATURE OF ANCIENT INDIA
 
2 LITERATURE OF BRAHMANISM IN SANSKRIT  
  R. N. Dandekar, M. A., Ph. D.  
  Emeritus Professor of Sanskrit, Poona University, and Honorary Secretary,
Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona
13
3 THE GREAT EPICS  
  S. C. Banerji, M. A., PH. D.  
  Formerly Secretary, Vangiya Samskrta Parisat, Calcutta 49
4 THE PURANAS  
  Diwan Bahadur K. S. Ramaswami Sastri, B. A., B. L.  
  Formerly District and Sessions Judge, Madras 64
5 DHARMA-SASTRAS  
  K. G. Goswami, M. A., P. R. S., PH . D., F. R. A. S.  
  Sastri, Smrti-Mimamsa-tirtha, Vidyavacaspati  
  Formerly Asutosh Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit,  
  Calcutta University 72
6 SAIVA LITERATURE  
  Rao Sahib N. Murugesa Mudaliar, B. A.  
  Formerly Secretary to the Government of Madras and Special Adviser 89
7 VAISNAVA LITERATURE  
  I. Gopikamohan Bhattacharya, M. A., D. PHIL., Kavya-Nyaya-tirtha  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit, Kurukshetra University 107
  II. Prema Nandakumar, M. A., Ph. D.  
  Visakhapatnam 18
8 SAKTA LITERATURE  
  Govinda Gopal Mukherjee, M. A., PH. D., Samkhyatirtha  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Burdwan University 130
9 GANAPATYA, KAUMARA AND SAURA LITERATURE 141
10 LITERATURE OF JAINISM  
  Hiralal Jain, M. A., LL. B., D. LITT.  
  Formerly Director, Institute of Post-graduate Studies and Research in  
  Prakrit, Jainology, and Ahimsa, Muzaffarpur 152
11 PRAKRIT LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE  
  A. N. Upadhye, M. A., D. Litt.  
  Formerly Professor of Prakrit Languages, Rajaram College, Kolhapur 164
12 BUDDHIST LITERATURE  
  Anukul Chandra Banerjee, M. A., LL. B., PH. D., F. A. S., F. R. A. S.  
  Formerly Head of the Department of Pali, Calcutta University 184
 
PART II
SANSKRIT AND SANSKRITIC LITERATURE
 
13 SANSKRIT KAVYA LITERATURE: A GENERAL SURVEY  
  V. Raghavan, M. A., PH. D.  
  Formerly Professor of Sanskrit, Madras University 211
14 SANSKRIT DRAMA: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS  
  S. K . De, M. A., B. L., P. R. S. D. LITT., F. R. A. S.  
  Formerly Senior Professor, Post-graduate Research Department, Sanskrit  
  College, Calcutta, and Emeritus Professor, Jadavpur University 234
15 SANSKRIT PROSE  
  Bishnupada Bhattacharya, M. A., P. R. S., Kavyatirtha  
  Principal, Sanskrit College, Calcutta 253
16 SANSKRIT AND SANSKRITIC FABLES  
  Ramaranjan Mukherji, M. A., D. PHIL., D. LITT.  
  Vice-Chancellor, Burdwan University 273
17 SANSKRIT HISTORIES AND CHRONICLES  
  A. D. Pusalker, M. A., LL. B., PH. D.  
  Formerly Director and Curator, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona 283
18 SANSKRIT POETICS  
  Gaurinath Sastri, M A., P. R. S., D. LITT., F. A. S.  
  President, Asiatic Society, Calcutta; formerly Vice-Chancellor, Sanskrit University, Varanasi  
19 SANSKRIT METRES: THEIR EVOLUTION AND PRINCIPLES OF DIVISION  
  H. D. Velankar, M. A.  
  Formerly R. G. Bhandarkar Professor of Sanskrit, Bombay University 303
20 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR  
  Satya Vrat, M. A., M. O. L., Ph. D., Sastri, Vyakaranacarya  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Delhi University 312
21 THE SPIRITUAL OUTLOOK OF SANSKRIT GRAMMAR  
  Prabhat Chandra Chakravarti, M. A., P. R. S., PH. D., Kavyatirtha  
  Formerly Asutosh Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit, Calcutta University 321
22 SANSKRIT LEXICOGRAPHY  
  M. M. Patkar, B. A., LL. M., PH. D.  
  Sub-Editor, Sanskrit Dictionary Department, Deccan College, Poona, and Lecturer in Anthropological Linguistics, Poona University 326
23 POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC LITERATURE IN SANSKRIT  
  S. K. Mitra, M. A., LL. B., D. PHIL., F. A. S.  
  Reader in Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University 335
24 SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE IN SANSKRIT  
  K. K. Dutta, M. A., D. PHIL., Sastri, Kavya-Samkhya-tirtha  
  Reader in Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University 335
25. PHILOSOPHICAL LITERATURE  
  I-IV. Kalidas Bhattacharyya, M. A., P. R. S., PH. D.  
  Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 371
  V- VII. Amiya Kumar Majumdar, M. A.  
  Member, Public Service Commission, West Bengal; Formerly of West Bengal Senior Educational Service 379
26 INSCRIPTIONS: THEIR LITERARY VALUE  
  I. Radhagovinda Basak, M. A., PH. D., D. LITT., F. A. S., Vidyavacaspati  
  Formerly Professor of Sanskrit, Presidency College, Calcutta 390
  II. Kamaleswar Bhattacharya, M. A., D. LITT.  
  Maitre de Recherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris 407
 
PART III
MAJOR LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES OF MODERN INDIA
 
27 ASSAMESE  
  Maheswar Neog, M. A., D. PHIL.  
  Jawaharlal Nehru Professor and Head of the Department of Assamese and  
  Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Gauhati University 419
28 BENGALI  
  Sukumar Sen, M. A., PH. D., F. A. S.  
  Formerly Khaira Professor of Indian Linguistics and Phonetics, Calcutta University 435
29 ENGLISH  
  K. R. Srinivasa Iyenger, M. A., D. LITT.  
  Formerly President, Gujarati Board of Study, and Chief Judge, Small Causes Court, Bombay 479
31 HINDI  
  Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, D. LITT.  
  Formerly Tagore Professor of Indian Literature, Punjab University 489
32 KANNADA  
  Prabhu Shankara, M. A., PH. D.  
  Director, Prasaranga, Mysore University 508
33 KASHMIRI  
  Suniti Kumar Chatterji, M. A., D. LITT.  
  National Professor of India in Humanities 524
34 MALAYALAM  
  K. M. George, M. A., PH. D.  
  Chief Editor, Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature 535
35 MARATHI  
  Prabhakar Machwe, M. A., PH. D.  
  Visiting Fellow, Indian Institute of advanced Study, Simla 548
36 ORIYA  
  K. C. Mishra, M. A., D. Phil.  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Oriya, Berhampur University 561
37 PUNJABI  
  S. S. Kohli, M. A., PH. D.  
  Professor and Head of the Department of Punjabi, Punjab University 578
38 SINDHI  
  L. M. Khubchandani, M. A., PH. D., Sahityaratna  
  Formerly Reader in Sindhi Linguistics, Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute, Poona 588
39 TAMIL  
  P. N. Venkatachari, M. A., DIP. LIB.  
  Assistant Editor (Tamil), Indian National Bibliography, Central Reference Library, Calcutta 600
40 TELUGU  
  G. N. Reddy, M. A., M. LITT., PH. D.  
  Professor of Telugu and Dean of the faculty of Oriental Learning, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 623
41 URDU  
  Mohammad Hasan, M. A., PH. D.  
  Professor of Urdu, Centre of Indian languages, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 642
 
PART IV
ADIVASI AND POLK LITERATURES OF INDIA
 
41 ADIVASI LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES OF INDIA  
  Suniti Kumar Chatterji, M. A., D. LITT. 659
43 FOLK-LITERATURE OF INDIA  
  Asutosh Bhattacharyya Tagore Professor of Bengali and head of the  
  Department of Modern Indian Languages, Calcutta University 677
 
PART V
INDIAN LITERATURE ABROAD
 
44 NEPAL  
  Paras Mani Pradhan, D. LITT.  
  Member, Executive Board and General Council, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi 695
45 CENTRAL ASIA (INCLUDING NORTHERN AFGHANISTAN)  
  Bratindra Nath Mukherjee, M. A., PH. D., F. S. A.  
  Carmichael Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University 703
46 TIBET, MONGOLIA, AND SIBERIA  
  Suniti Kumar Pathak, M. A., P. R. S., Kavyatirtha, Suttavisarada, Puranaratna  
  Lecturer in Indo- Tibetan Studies, Visva- Bharati, Santiniketan 720
47 CHINA, KOREA, AND JAPAN  
  I. CHINA  
  (A) K. Venkata Ramanan, M. A., D. LITT.  
  Professor of Chinese Studies, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 730
  (B) Biswadev Mukherjee, M. A., D. PHIL.  
  Lecturer in Chinese Studies, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan  
  II. KOREA AND JAPAN  
  H. B. Sarkar, M. A.  
  Formerly Principal and Professor of History, Kharagpur College, Midnapore 740
48 CEYLON AND SOUTH-EAST ASIA  
  H. B. Sarkar, M. A. 751
49 WESTERN COUNTRIES  
  N. N. Bhattacharyya, M. A., PH. D.  
  Lecturer in Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University 773
  BIBLIOGRAPHY 785
  INDEX 801

 

Volume VI (Science and Technology)

Author:Ed.Priyadaranjan Ray and S. N. Sen

ISBN:8185843147

THE PRESENT volume is devoted to a study of India's work in the filed science and technology. Readers will find with surprise that her achievements in this field are by no means negligible. There are thirty-two articles on the subject, all written by competent scholars. The articles, if not exhaustive, give a fair idea of how the Indian genius, not content with the subjective quest, has also turned its gaze on the objective world.

 

Contents
  Publisher's Note v
  Preface xv
1 Introduction  
  Raja Ramanna, D.SC.  
  Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Defence and Secretary, Defence Research, Government of India, New Delhi 3
 
PART I
 
 
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL INDIA
 
2 Geographical knowledge in ancient and medieval India  
  Sashibhusan Chaudhuri, M.A., PH. D.  
  Late Vice-Chancellor, Burdwan University 5
3 Vedic Mathematics  
  Bibhutibhusan Datta, P.R.S., D.SC.  
  Late Lecturer in Applied Mathematics, Calcutta University 18
4 Post-vedic Mathematics  
  Samarendra Nath Sen, M.Sc.  
  Formerly Register, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta;  
  and  
  A. K. Bag, PH.D.  
  Assistant Executive Secretary (History of Science), Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi 36
5 Astronomy in Ancient India  
  P. C. Sen Gupta, M. A.  
  Late Lecturer in Ancient Astronomy and Mathematics, Calcutta University 56
6 Astronomy in Medieval India  
  Samarendra Nath Sen, M.Sc. 83
7 Physics and mechanics in ancient and medieval India  
  S.D. Chatterjee, D.Sc.  
  Formerly Professor of Physics, Jadavpur University 101
8 Botany in ancient and medieval India  
  Girija Prasanna Majumdar, D.Sc.  
  Late Professor of Botany, Presidency College, Calcutta 115
9 Zoology in ancient and medieval India  
  Priyadaranjan Ray, M.A., F. N. I.  
  Formerly Khaira Professor of Chemistry, University College of Science, Calcutta 128
10 Chemistry in ancient and Medieval India  
  Priyadaranjan Ray, M.A., F. N. I. 136
11 Ayurveda  
  Mira Roy, M.A., PH.D.  
  Keeper of Sanskrit MSS, Department of Sanskrit, Calcutta University; formerly Senior Research Fellow, Indian National Science Academy & Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi 152
12 Agriculture in ancient and Medieval India  
  Satyaprasad Raychaudhuri, M.SC., PH.D., D.SC., F. R. I. C., F. N. A. SC., F. N. I., f. W. A. I.  
  Senior Specialist, Land Resources, Planning Commission, New Delhi; formerly Research Fellow, Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi 177
13 Mining in ancient Medieval India  
  Dilip K. Chaudhuri, M.A., PH.D.  
  Delhi University 188
14 Shipbuilding in ancient and medieval India  
  Mamata Chaudhuri, M.A., PH.D.  
  Research Scholar, Asiatic Society, Calcutta; formerly Research Fellow, India National Science Academy, New Delhi 197
15 Engineering and architecture in ancient and Medieval India  
  R. Sengupta, M.SC.  
  Director (Conservation), Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi 205
16 India and the ancient world: Transmission of scientific Ideas  
  Samarendra Nath Sen, M.SC. 220
 
PART II
 
 
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN MODERN INDIA
 
17 Mathematics  
  Ram Behari, M.A., PH.D., SC. D., F. N. I.  
  Late Vice-Chancellor, Jodhpur University 251
18 Astronomy  
  M. K. V. Bappu, M.Sc., PH.D.  
  Late Director, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 261
19 Physics  
  B. D. Nag Chaudhuri, D.Sc., F. N. I.  
  Formerly Vice- Chancellor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 270
20 Chemistry  
  T. R. Seshadri, F. R. S.  
  Late Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, Delhi University 277
21 Botany  
  S.C. Datta, M.Sc., PH.D., F. B. S.  
  U G C Professor of Botany and in-charge, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology & Ecophysiology, Calcutta University 286
22 Zoology  
  A. K. Ghosh, PH.D., F.E.F.I., F.Z.F.  
  Deputy Director, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta 305
23 Medical Sciences  
  Rudrendra Kumar Pal, M.Sc., M.B.B.S., F.R.C.P., D.SC., F.N.I.  
  Formerly Professor of Physiology, R. G. Kar Medical College, Calcutta 326
24 Geology and Mining  
  C. Karunakaran, M.SC.  
  Director-General, Geological Survey of India, Calcutta 342
25 Geophysics  
  Hari Narain, PH.D.  
  Director, National Geophysical Research Institute, and Surveyor- General, Hyderabad  
  and  
  G. H. Rao, M.SC.  
  Scientist, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad 363
26 Meteorology  
  P. K. Das, F.A.SC.  
  Director-General, India Meteorological Department, Government of India, New Delhi 374
27 Agriculture and Animal Husbandry  
  S. K. Mukherjee, D.SC., F.N.I.  
  Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Calcutta University, and Member, National Commission on Agriculture, New Delhi 388
28 Food Technology  
  A. N. Bose, M.SC., PH.D.  
  Formerly Vice-Chancellor, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 427
29 Atomic Energy In India: An Historical Perspective  
  K. R. Rao, M.Sc., PH.D., F.A.SC.  
  Scientific Officer, Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centr, Trombay, Bombay 438
30 Nuclear Energy in India : Growth and Prospects  
  M. K. Pal, M.SC., D.PHIL. (SC.), F.A.SC.  
  Director, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta 453
31 Space Research  
  M. K. Mukherjee, M.A., M.S., PH.D.  
  Adviser, Materials, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 475
32 Defence Research  
  B. D. Nag Chaudhuri, D.SC., F.N.I. 451
  Bibliography 501
  Index 513

 

Volume VII -The Arts (Part One)

Author:Ed.Dr.Kapila Vatsyayan

ISBN:8187332484

The Present volume adheres to a study of Arts in India, here more specifically Architecture, Sculpture. Epigraphy and Numismatics. There are forty-one articles contributed by 32 authors. A large portion of these articles were written 30 to 50 years ago. These articles by renowned scholars stand on their own merit and reflect the state of scholarship at the time they were written. These articles acquire a historical importance as they reflect the perception of a generation of pioneers in the field. The selection of the authors was largely determined from the point of view of those who continue to follow in some measure the approach of the earlier writers. Indian art history has taken many pioneers and those others who continue to subscribe to the validity of the earlier approach. This was necessary in order to maintain a measure of continuity and overall 'unity'. Hopefully it has been possible to place together the writings of a generation of scholars who laid the foundation of art history, as distinct from Indian archaeology. It will be proved from this volume that India's contribution in the field of Arts is not negligible and it will give a fair idea of how it influenced the other countries also. The volume will serve as a most useful reference tool for both the educated man or scholar and also the lay man in this field to know this particular subject.

Work on this volume was started about thirty years ago with Professor S. K. Saraswati, Bageswari Professor of the University of Calcutta, as the chief editor. After his death on 22 September 1980, work on the volume was set back. Later, professor Kalyan Kumar Dasgupta took up the work, but he passed away in 1996. He was succeeded by Professor Kalyan Kumar Ganguly, who died on 6 November 1997. In 1999 we approached Dr. Kapila Vatsyayan, and she kindly agreed to edit Volume VII. The most difficult part of editing this volume was that after so many years the illustrations as well as some of the manuscripts could not be found. To locate illustrations for those old articles, as also to acquire them, was an uphill struggle. However, we are fortunate that Dr. Vatsyayan could bring a her knowledge and experience to bear on this work to maintain the standard of this valuable series.

 

Contents

 

  Publisher's Note v
  Preface xxi
1 INTRODUCTION  
  Ananda K. Coomaraswamy 3
 
ARCHITECTURE
 
2 THE STUPA  
  Amita Ray 37
3 ROCK-CUT CAVES (Buddhist, Jaina and Brahmanical)  
  Asok K. Bhattacharya 74
4 REFLECTIONS ON SCHOOLS AND STYLES OF INDIAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE  
  Nirmal K. Bose 87
5 INDIAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE  
  (early Phase up to 750 A. D.)  
  Michael W. Meister 103
6 NAGARA TEMPLES  
  Nirmal K. Bose 115
7 DRAVIDA AND CALUKYA TEMPLES  
  K. R. Srinivasan 142
8 JAINA ARCHITECTURAL TRADITIONS AND CANONS  
  Gopilal Amar 211
9 SOME ARCHITECTURAL CONVENTIOS OF KERALA  
  K. R. Pisharoti 248
10 THE SPIRIT OF TIBETAN ARCHITECTURE  
  Lama Anagarika Govinda 258
11 INDO-ISLAMIC ARCHITECTRE (1192-1803 A. D.)  
  R. Nath 263
 
SCULPTURE
 
12 INDIAN SCULPTURE: ESSENCE AND FORM  
  O. C. Gangoly 303
13 HARAPPAN ART  
  Jagat Pati Joshi 323
14 ANCIENT INDIAN TERRACOTTAS  
  C. C. Dasgupta 347
15 MAURYA AND SUNGA SCULPTURE  
  Nihar Ranjan Ray 360
16 KUSANA SCULPTURE  
  R. C. Sharma 398
17 GUPTA SCULPTURE  
  Stella Kramrisch 416
18 PALA AND SENA SCULPTURE  
  Stella Kramrisch 440
19 MEDIEVAL SCULPTURE (DECCAN AND THE SOUTH)  
  C. Sivaramamurti 475
20 EARLY JAINA SCULPTURE (300 B. C.-300 A. D.): EAST INDIA  
  Debala Mitra 504
21 EARLY JAINA SCULPTURE (300 B. C.-300 A. D.): WEST INDIA  
  U. P. Shah 520
22 HINDU ICONOGRAPHY  
  N. P. Joshi 528
23 BUDIST ICONOGRAPHY  
  J. N. Banerjea 554
24 DIAGRAMS AND SYMBOLS OF JAINA ICONOGRAPHY  
  U. P. Shah 573
     
25 JINA IMAGE IN AGAMIC AND HYMNIC TRADITION  
  M. A Dhaky 604
26 JAINA ICONOGRAPHY  
  Juthika Maitra 631
27 LATE JAINA WOOD-CARVINGS  
  V. P. Dwivedi 657
28 TEMPLE TERRACOTTA  
 
EPIGRAPHY AND NUMISMATICS
 
29 INDIAN EPIGRAPHY  
  D. C. Sircar 685
30 EPIGRAPHIC BEARING ON EARLY INDIAN ART  
  B. N. Mukherjee 708
31 ART IN THE COINS OF EARLY AND MEDIEVAL INDIA  
  B. N. Mukherjee 719
32 ART AND INDIAN EPIGRAPHY  
  Z. A. Desai 755
33 CALLIGRAPHIC ART IN PERSO-ARABIC EPIGRAPHS  
  Ashok K. Bhattacharyya 785
 
INDIAN ART AND THE EAST
 
34 SOUTH EAST ASIAN ART  
  Ananda K. Coomaraswamy 801
35 INDIA AND CENTRALASIA  
  R. C. Majumdar 874
36 INDIA AND CHINA: THE BEYOND AND HE WITHIN  
  Lokesh Chandra 883
37 INTERFLOW OF ART BETWEEN INDIA AND JAPAN  
  Lokesh Chandra 903
38 INDONESIAN ART: INDIAN ECHOES  
  K. K. Ganguly 931
39 PAGAN: THE INDIAN CONNECTION  
  K. K. Ganguly 939
40 ART OF NEPAL  
  Amita Ray 945
41 ART OF SRI LANKA  
  H. T. Basnayake 997
  INDEX 1015

 

Volume VII -The Arts (Part Two)

ISBN: 9789381325278

About the Book

 

The Present volume deals with study of Arts in India, here more specifically Painting; Music, Dance and Theatre; and Art and Life. There are forty-four articles contributed by 35 authors. The attempt in this volume is to place before the readers writings of a generation of scholars who laid the foundation for identification of schools and genres and their stylistic characteristics.

 

The Articles in the section on Painting present a panoramic view of the painting traditions of India from pre-historic times to the early nineteenth century. A reading of these articles is a convincing proof of the continuity and vibrancy of the painting traditions in different historical brackets and regions and sub-regions.

 

The Seven articles on Music, authored by eminent musicians and scholars, reflect the thinking on different aspects of music over a period of four decades. The articles on Dance cover many styles of Indian classical dance.

 

The Group of articles on handicrafts, dress and personal ornaments represents the Indian concern with the creative hand, more, with the relationship of utility and beauty.

 

The Sheer joy of life is intrinsic to culture, sports and recreations. The arts of attack and defence in play are typical. The Sanskrit literature is characterized by not only wit and humour but also sharp satire.

 

Preface

 

The Cultural Heritage of India series of the Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture has become a collector’s item, indispensable for any library or for scholars in different disciplines who wish to know about diverse aspects of the cultural heritage of India as also Asia. Volumes I to VI cover a broad range of subjects from philosophy to science. Volume VII deals with Arts, ranging from architecture, sculpture, paintings and music and dance. Volume VIII is devoted to modern India.

 

Volume VII Part I of the series was published in 2006. It was hoped that Part II of Volume VII would be published soon after. However, for variety of reasons, it was not possible to adhere to the original schedule. In the meantime, Volume VIII has been published. Now, with the publication of Part II of Volume VII, the monumental enterprise of The Cultural Heritage of India series of the Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture will come to a closure.

 

Part I of Volume VII was divided into four sections: Architecture; Sculpture; Epigraphy and Numismatics; and Indian Art and the East. Part II of Volume VII is divided into three section, viz., Indian Painting; Music, Dance and Theatre; and Art and Life. This was the original schema envisaged by the late Professor S. K. Saraswati, followed by subsequent editors, viz., Professor Kalyan Kumar Dasgupta, Professor Kalyan Kumar Ganguli, Shri Pradyut Kumar Ganguli and Dr. Amitabha Mukherjee.

 

In my Preface to Part I of Volume VII, I had outlined the historiography of completing the work of my predecessors. I consider it appropriate to include this Preface in this volume. In it I have used the metaphor of Kantha, i.e., stitching together pieces of great but incomplete writing so as to make a reasonable whole. It is my earnest hope that the readers will peruse the Preface to Volume VII Part I which not only narrates the history of editing but also attempts to give an overview of the history of scholarship on Indian architecture, sculpture, numismatics and India’s relationship with the East. It is necessary to take account of this when perusing the contents of Part II of Volume VII. The articles in this volume by and large are also the writing of scholars of the decades ranging from 30s to the 70s. It is necessary to take note of the time frame.

 

Contents

 

1.

Publisher's Note

v

 

Preface

xxvii

 

Preface to Part One

xlix

1.

Pre-Historic Rock Art

3

2.

The Indian Painter and his Art

39

3

Indian Painting: Early Phase

52

4

Mural Paintings of the Colas

60

5

Early Jaina Art

71

6

Cave Temple and Paintings of Sittannavasal

84

7

Painting in lepaksi

116

8

Kerala Murals

139

9

Indian Painting: Later Phase

149

10

East Indian Manuscript Painting

172

11

Eastern School of Medieval Indian painting

201

12

Manuscript Painting: Jaina Tradition

224

13

Painting in the Sultanate Period

251

14

An Illustrated Avadhi Ms. of Laur-Canda in the Bharat Kala Bhavan, Banaras

277

15

Mughal Painting

285

16

The Jahangirnama

314

17

Rajput Painting

337

18

Painting of Malwa

363

19

Mewar Painting in the Seventeenth Century

371

20

The Origin and Development of Pahari Painting

387

21

The Regional Styles of Assam Miniatures

405

22

The Cultural Aspects of Indian Music and Dancing

461

23

Theory of Indian Music

488

24

Music: Aesthetic Versus Spiritual

510

25

The Music of India

522

26

Indian Culture and Music

534

27

Development of Indian Music (South India)

547

28

Indian Musical Instruments

559

29

Indian Classical Dance

573

30

Bharata Natyam

585

31

Kathakali

597

32

Manipuri Dance

608

33

Classical Dance Tradition in Assam

651

34

History and Development of Kathak

674

35

Aesthetic Theory and Kathak Dance of India

691

36

The Old Indian

708

37

Art and Life

725

38

Handicrafts of India

753

39

Dress and Decorations

771

40

Personal Ornaments

794

41

Sports and Recreations

804

42

Wit, Humour and Satire in Ancient Indian Literature

834

43

Food, Drink and Cooking

857

44

Town-Planning in Ancient India

869

 

Index

 

 

Volume VIII (The Making Of Modern India:1765-1947)

Author:Ed.Dr. Sukumar Bhattacharyya and Dr. Uma Das Gupta

ISBN:9789381325018

 

About the Book

The present volume attempts to narrate the events of the Indian Renaissance, the advancement of learning and the-reawakening of our own heritage during the years 1765-1947,ie. From the grant of Diwani to the East India Company till India Independence.

An Attempt has also been made in this volume to relate to the past through Indological studies of the excavations of monuments, as well as epigraphically, paleographical and numismatic material. Historiographical studies have also been included. The influence of Indian culture on foreign countries has also been discussed. Study of Indian Culture abroad, influence of the West on our society and how the Eastern peoples viewed India have also been dealt with. Great men of that time, e.g. Sri Ramakrishna, Sri Aurobindo, Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranatha Tagore, Mahatma Gandi, sister Nivedita and others, showed the right way to proceed-their ideas an impact on Indian society have been treated in detail.

The Purpose of this volume is to make its readers acquainted with the broad features and phases of development that characterize the history of this period. A perusal of the 67 articles by 61 eminent scholars in this volume enables one to know about the epoch-making changes that happened in India in the modern period.

The work for the present volume was begun more than four decades ago. /a sub-comitttee was formed in 1964, consisting of (1) Dr. R. C. Majumdar, (2) Dr. Suniti Kumar Chatterjee, (3) Dr. Nihar Ranjan Ray, (4) Dr. Asim Datta, (5) Dr. Gouri Nath Sastri, (6) Dr. Bhabatosh Datta and (7) Shri Bireswar Mazumdar. The progress of the work under the direction of the eminent historian Dr. R. C. Majumdar was halted with his demise. Over the years that followed other scholars like Dr. Pratima Bowes gave their time and energy but the work could not be finished. In 2000 Dr. Tapan Raychaudhuri was requested to join this project as adviser and an editorial board was formed, consisting of Dr. Nemai Sadhan Bose, Dr. Amitabha Mukherjee and Dr. Uma Das Gupta. After the sad demise of Dr. Amitabh Mukherjee in July, 2002 Dr. Sukumar Bhattacharyya was appointed one of the editions. Unfortunately Dr. Neami Sadhan Bose passed away in July, 2004.

It is important to note that the majority of the articles in the present volume were assigned and written during the initial period. As those contributions to the volume were seminal, the present editorial committee which finalized the eighth volume decided to honors those contributions and includes them in this volume. However, wherever possible, those articles written during the initial period of this volume

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Volume V















 

Volume VI















 

Volume VII

PART I















 

PART II















 

Volume VIII














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