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Dravyaguna Vijnana

Dravyaguna Vijnana

Specifications

Item Code: NAC031

by K. NishteswarK. Hemadri

Paperback (Edition: 2010)

Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, Delhi

Language: English
Size: 9.6 Inch X 7.4 Inch
Pages: 620 (276 Color Illustrations)
Weight of the Book: 1.75 Kg
Price: $40.00   Shipping Free
Viewed times since 20th Apr, 2014

Description

Back of the Book

Dravyaguna is the science which deals with the Guna (principle) and Karma (action) of a drug. Dravyaguna can be considered both as a basic and an applied science and is interpreted as clinical pharmacology. It forms the backbone of rational therapeutics. The importance of Dravyaguna is well reflected in its being given a place among Ashtangas of Ayurveda by the author of Rajanighantu.

CCIM has distributed the subject of Dravyaguna under two papers for U.G. course and four papers for PG. course and the syllabus is being revised periodically. In the new syllabus of U.G. course CCIM has suggested 228 drugs in the place of 365 herbs quoted in the previous syllabus. In the present book in addition to the description of 228 drugs the information about the remaining 137 drugs is given under ‘Additional Drugs’ which includes the drugs mentioned in PG. curriculum.

The most relevant information from Ayurvedic classics and Nighantus with regard to each herb is mentioned along with precise botanical description. This work should be considered as the first book in the subject of Dravyaguna written by an Ayurvedic personnel and a modern botanist. The precise botanical descriptions of medicinal plants enumerated of this book will help to improve the identification skills of the students during the field study. The excellent color photographs of the medicinal plants incorporated in this work will further strengthen the knowledge of Namarupa-vijnan.

AUTHORS

K. Nishteswar, currently working as Professor & HOD, Dravyaguna at I.P.G.T & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University; Jamnagar He has obtained B.A.M.S. a Degree (1976) from Andhra University; M.D. (1980) from Gujarat Ayurved University and Ph.D. (1997) from University of Pune. He also completed Sanskrit Bhashakovida (1975) from Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan and Diploma in AIDS (2004) from IGNOU. He received State Best Teacher Award from Govt. of Andhra Pradesh during 2001. He was awarded several Gold and Silver medals in recognition of his merit and theses on various topics like Diabetes, Hypertension and Cardiovascular disorders. He delivered Keynote lectures and Guest lectures in several National aid International Seminars. So far he has written 42 books in Telugu, English and also in Hindi on various subjects of Ayurveda and published approximately 80 papers in various standard journals. He is a recognized Ph.D. guide for Dr. N.T.R. University of Health Sciences, Vijayawada.

Koppula Hemadri, Founder Chairman of Dr. Koppula Hemadri’s House of Tribal Medicine has born on 19” September 1938 at Gollprolu, E.G. District, Andhra Pradesh. He completed his B.Sc. (Chemistry), B.Sc. (Botany) Hons, and Ph.D. courses from Andhra and Bombay Universities. He has put in 35 years of experience in “Floristic Surveys” including Medicinal Plants of various parts of India. He served the Botanical Survey of India (8 ½ years) and Central Council or Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (27 years) and discovered 24 plant species & one genus new to the world Flora. He also discovered Gomutra Shilajit - a Natural exudates of Ayurvedic importance, from Rocky Mountains of Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka States (India). He has written 15 books in Telugu & English and published 62 research papers in various standard journals. In recognition of his contributions to the field of ethno botany, Academy of Ayurveda has awarded the most prestigious Millennium Gold Medal during the year 2000.

 

Preface

Dravyaguna is the science which deals with the Guna (principle) and Karma (action) of a drug. Dravyaguna can be considered both as a basic and an applied science and is interpreted as clinical pharmacology. It forms the backbone of rational therapeutics. Correct and skillful application of drugs is impossible without a proper understanding of their basic pharmacology Practice of medicine is transforming from experience (impression) based to evidence based.

One enigmatic question that teases our mind is “How our ancient seers identified and documented the various potentials of herbs?” As acknowledged by Charaka and Sushruta the forest dwellers were the true source for identifying the medicinal plants with their therapeutic potentials. The information gathered through field observations, was subjected to clinical evaluation generating data on the therapeutic profiles of various herbs. The information recorded in Ayurvedic classics may be categorized as evidence based data. Recent researches on herbs scientifically evaluated and confirmed classical claims.

The subject matter of Dravyaguna is divided into four branches viz., Nama- rupa-vijnanam (Pharmacognocy), Gunakartna-vijnanan (Pharmacology), Amayikaprayoga-vijnanam (Therapeutics) and Kalpana-vijnanam (Pharmacy).

During the British rule several botanists have made attempts to study Ayurvedic herbs and Indian medicinal plants. Hortus Malabaricus (Heinrich van Rheede), Flora of British India (Hooker), Flora Indica (Roxburgh & Wallich), Pharmacographia Indica (Dymock, Warden & Hooper), Dictionary of Economic Products (Watt), Indian Materia Medica (Nadkarni), and Indian Medicinal Plants (Kirtikar & Basu) are some of the important works with notable contributions on Indian Medicinal Plants.

Towards the end of British rule, separate institutions of Ayurvedic education have been started. Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) was started during 1970 with a view to streamline education and to evolve uniform standards for Indian systems of medicine. Ashtanga Ayurveda (Ayurveda with eight specialties) has been subdivided into 14 subjects and curriculum was evolved. The subject of Dravyaguna is included among 14 departments. CCIM has distributed the subject of Dravyaguna under two papers (U.G. Course) and accordingly the syllabus is being periodically edited. In the new syllabus CCIM has suggested 228 drugs in the place of 365 herbs quoted in the previous syllabus. Out of 228 drugs, only 110 drugs are given under derailed study, and 128 drugs under non-derailed category. Information of the remaining 137 drugs is, however, given in the present work under ‘Additional Drugs’.

The most relevant information from Ayurvedic classics and Nighantus with regard to each herb is mentioned along with precise botanical description. This work should be considered as the first book on the subject of Dravyaguna written by Ayurvedic personnel and a modern botanist.

The color photographs for the majority of the medicinal plants are given at the end of the book. In the Annexture - 1, a list of PG. syllabus drugs is given. In the Annexure - 2, brief information of details of the herbs prescribed in the new CCIM syllabus is presented.

We believe that this book will serve the purpose of UG as well as PG students in the subject of Dravyaguna. We extend our heartfelt thanks to Dr. R. Vidyanath, Professor and Dr. K.J. Lavanya Lakshmi, Lecturer, Dr. N.R.S. Government Ayurvedic College, Vijayawada for their assistance in the proof reading. We profusely acknowledge the whole ream of Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishtan, Delhi for publishing this book.

 

Introduction

The importance of Dravyaguna is well reflected in its being given a place among Ashtangas of Ayurveda by the author of Rajanighantu. Salient features of Dravyaguna are as follows:

1) Acharyas of Ayurveda discussed content and scope of Life Science under three principles (Trisutra) viz., Aetiology (Heturjnana), Symptomatology (Lingajnana) and Therapeutics (Oushadhajnana) for promotion of health and curing of diseases.

2) Charaka opines that the characteristic of best medicine lies in its curative potentialities. Best medicine should possess requisite curative properties. Accomplishment of main objects of Ayurveda i.e., prevention and cure of disease implies proper application of medicine.

3) Health depends on the equilibrium of Doshas. Any deviation from Dosha-samyata (equilibrium of Doshas viz., Vata, Pines and Kapha) engenders disease. Basing on this principle the drugs are classified into three categories viz., Drugs which pacify the aggravated or vitiated Doshas, Drugs which vitiate Dhatus, and Drugs which are useful for the maintenance of positive health (Rasayana & Vajeekarana).

4) A physician who possesses the knowledge of proper application of medicine (Yogajnana) Long with knowledge of identification (Namarupajnana) is regarded as the best physician. The adage that “a good physician is a good pharmacologist too” reflects the concept of Zharaka’s Names, Rupa and Yogajnana. Emphasizing the need of the knowledge of proper application of the drug, Charaka quotes that un know drag kills the patient instantaneously like poison, weapon, fire and thunderbolt and, well administered drug acts as nectar. Even an acute poison becomes an excellent drug if it is properly administered.

5) MI the drugs and diets are composed of all the five Mahabhutas viz., Prithvi, Jabs, Tejas, Vayu and Akasa. According their predominance (Vyapadeshastu bhuyashah) the drugs are designated as Parthiva, Jaliya etc.

6) Charaka concludes that there is nothing in the world which doesn’t have therapeutic values. Even straw and dust are useful for therapeutic purposes like fomentation etc.

7) Some drugs act by virtue of their own nature (Dravya-prabhava) and some other drugs act by virtue of their qualities (Guna-prabhava).

8) In a Dravya the attributes like Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka and Prabhava participate in the process of initiating action.

Rasa (taste) - Madhura, Amla, Lavana, Tikta, Katu, Kashaya
Guna (attribute) - Guru, Snigdha etc., 20 in number
Virya (potency) - 2 types (Sheeta, Ushna) or 8 types (Sheeta, Ushna, Guru, Laghu, Snigdha, Ruksha, Mridu, Tikshna)
Vipaka (biotransformation) – 2 types (Guru and laghu) or 3 types (Madhura, Amla and Katu paka)
Prabhava (empirical)- Innumerable

9) Determination of pharmaco-dynamic principles can be made either by direct perception or by inference. Rasa or taste of drugs can be ascertained after their contact with the tongue; Vipaka by final action; Virya either by its association with the body or after contact with body or tongue potency (Virya) may either be natural (natural heaviness of Masha) or artificial (Laja — parched rice).

10) Certain drugs manifest their action by virtue of their Rasa, and some by virtue of their Virya or Vipaka or Prabhava. It Rasa, Vipaka, Virya and Prabhava are of equal strength by nature, Rasa is superceded by Vipaka, both of them in turn are superceded by Virya and finally Prabhava overcomes all of them.

11) Rasa or taste helps to anticipate other Gunas like Virya or Vipaka of a specific drug, when these Gunas are in conformity with Rasa. This general rule has got its own exception in case of Vichitra pratyayarabdha.

General rule is:
Rasas- Should have
Madhura- Sheeta virya and Madhura vipaka
Amla- Ushna virya and Amla vipaka
Lavana- Ushna virya and Madhura vipaka
Tikta- Sheeta virya and Katu vipaka
Kashaya- Sheeta virya and Katu vipaka
Katu- Ushna virya and Katu vipaka

Certain drugs like Arka, Aguru, Guduchi though possess Tikta ram, their Virya is considered as Ushna instead of Sheeta. So the activity of Vichitra pratyayarabdha drugs can not be explained only by Rasa.

12) The drugs become capable of producing maximum therapeutic effects when their Virya (potency) is augmented by Deshasampat (collecting the plants from appropriate habitat), Kalasampat (collecting the herbs in the appropriate season), Gunasampat (collecting herbs when they are enriched with excellent attributes) and Bhajanasampat (properly stored in appropriate containers).

13) Period of collection of a drug can modify the therapeutic response. Acharyas of Ayurveda specifically indicated the period of collection (in various seasons) for different parts of the plant. Ayurvedic classics clearly indicated seasons to be preferred while collecting different parts viz., root in Sishira or Grishma etc. Seasons influence the quantity of active principles present in different parts of the plants.

14) To potentiate the activity, the drugs are to be impregnated with the juices or decoctions of similar drugs and the dosage of the drug can be minimized.

15) The total response of the drugs depends on:
- Potency of the drug
- Addition of Anupana (vehicle)
- Routes of administration

In the contemporary scientific world Herbal research is carried by isolating certain active principles to prove the pharmacological actions through animal experimentations. For example Curcumin - isolated from Haridra and which appears to be yellow in color and bitter in taste should be considered as a Dravya which may possess certain Gunas like Tikta rasa, Ushna virya and is expected to undergo bio-transformation (V4taka). Thus, Modus operandi of every active principle can be explained with Ayurvedic principles of drug action i.e., Rasadi panchaka. In the following pages herbs are described both from Ayurvedic and Botanical perspectives.

 

Contents

 

  Detailed Study of the Drugs  
1. Vatsanabha 1
2. Ativisha 3
3. Guduchi 5
4. Daruharidra 8
5. Ahiphena 10
6. Varuna 11
7. Nagakesara 13
8. Bala-dwaya 15
9. Shalmali 18
10. Gokshura 20
11. Bilwa 23
12. Guggulu 25
13. Nimba 27
14. Jyotishmati 29
15. Karkatashringi 31
16. Bhallataka 32
17. Shigru 35
18. Palasha 37
19. Yashtimadhu 39
20. Shalaparni 42
21. Kapikachchu 43
22. Bakuchi 46
23. Kanchanara 47
24. Ashoka 50
25. Shirisha 52
26. Aragwadha 54
27. Khadira 56
28. Haritaki 57
29. Bibhitaka 61
30. Amalaki 62
31. Lavanga 64
32. Jambu 66
33. Dadima 67
34. Dhataki 69
35. Kushmanda 71
36. Patola, Patoli 72
37. Hingu 74
38. Shatapushpa 76
39. Dhanyaka 77
40. Yavani 79
41 Jiraka 81
42. Krishna Jiraka 82
43. Manjishtha 84
44. Madanaphala 85
45. Jatamansi 87
46. Bhringaraja 89
47. Chitraka 91
48. Vidanga 94
49. Lodhra 96
50. Saptaparna 98
51. Kutaja 99
52. Sarpagandha 103
53. Arka-dwaya 104
54. Sariva-dwaya 107
55. Kupilu 110
56. Kiratatikta 111
57. Shankhapushpi 113
58. Trivrit 115
59. Kantakari 117
60. Brihati 119
61. Ashwagandha 121
62. Katuki 123
63. Brahmi 125
64. Shyonaka 127
65. Patala 128
66. Vaasa 130
67. Nirgundi 132
68. Agnimantha 134
69. Bharngi 136
70. Gambhari 138
71. Tulasi 140
72. Punarnava 142
73. Apamarga 145
74. Maricha 146
75. Pippali/ 148
  Pippalimoola 149
76. Jatiphala 151
77. Twak 153
78. Karpoora 154
79. Aguru 156
80. Chandana 157
81. Eranda 159
82. Danti 160
83. Arjuna 162
84. Devadaru 165
85. Talisapatra 167
86. Haridra 168
87. Ardraka 171
88. Ela-dwaya 173
89. Rasona (Lasuna) 175
90. Ghritakumari 177
91. Shatavari 178
92. Vacha 180
93. Musta 182
94. Usheera 185
95. Palandu 186
96. Shallaki (Kunduru) 187
97. Draksha 189
98. Beejaka 190
99. Vidarikanda 191
100. Markandika 193
101. Pashanabheda 194
102 Rasna 195
103. Tila 196
104. Saireyaka 197
105. Kalamegha/Bhunimba 199
106. Ashwagol 200
107. Kampilla(ka) 201
108. Kumkuma 202
109. Musali 203
110. Durva-dwaya 205
111. Vata 206
  Brief Study of the Drugs  
1. Upakunchika 209
2. Chavya 210
3. Champaka 211
4. Patalagarudi 212
5. Kamala 213
6. Kumuda 214
7. Parpataka 215
8. Sarshapa 217
9. Rajika 218
10. Chandrashura 219
11. Mulaka 220
12. Himsra 222
13. Kareera 222
14. Sarjaka 224
15. Vrikshamla 225
16. Latakasturi 226
17. Parisha 227
18. Karpasa 228
19. Parushaka 229
20. Beejapura 230
21. Ingudi 231
22. Bola 232
23. Badara 233
24. Asthishrinkhala 234
25. Amra 235
26. Priyala 236
27. Ankota 238
28. Gunja 239
29. Agastya 240
30. Neel: 242
31. Mudgaparni 243
32. Mashaparni 244
33. Shimshapa 245
34. Patranga 246
35. Chakramarda 247
36. Methika 249
37. Irimeda (Arimeda) 250
38. Avartaki 251
39. Babbula 252
40. Lajjalu 254
41. Taruni 255
42. Padmaka 255
43. Parnabeeja 256
44. Tilaparni 257
45. Madayantika 258
46. Shringataka 259
47. Saptachakra 260
48. Koshataki 261
49. Bimbi 262
50. Karavellaka 264
51. Grinjana (Garjara) 265
52. Kadamba (Neepa) 266
53. Tagara 267
54. Akarakarabha 268
55. Kasani 269
56. Bakula 271
57. Parijata 272
58. Jati 273
59. Peelu 274
60. Jivanti 275
61. Meshashringi 277
62. Kataka 278
63. Gojihwa 279
64. Vriddhadaruka 281
65. Kakamachi 282
66. Hritpatri 283
67. Rohitaka 284
68. Kokilaksha 285
69. Priyangu 287
70. Putiha 288
71. Parnayavani 289
72. Gorakshamajja 290
73. Ishwari 291
74. Keetamari 292
75. Kankola 293
76. Snuhi 294
77. Putranjiva 296
78. Bhumyamalaki 297
79. Swarnaksheeri 298
80. Jayapala 299
81. Ashwattha 300
82. Plaksha 302
83. Chirabilwa 303
84. Katphala 304
85. Mayaphala 305
86. Sarala 306
87. Shati 307
88. Tavaksheeri 308
89. Amragandhiharidra 309
90. Kadali 310
91. Talamuli 312
92. Varahikanda 313
93. Dwipantaravaha 314
94. Langali 315
95. Narikela 316
96. Puga 318
97. Kharjura 319
98. Surana 320
99. Vamsha 321
100. Kusha & Darbha 323
101. Kasha 324
102. Nala 325
103. Patha 326
104. Tuvaraka 328
105. Shala 330
106. Nagabala 331
107. Changeri 333
108. Aparajita 335
109. Prishniparni 336
110 Karanja 337
111. Latakaranja 339
112. Sharapunkha 340
113. Indravaruni 342
114. Mandukaparni 344
115. Ajamoda 346
116. Gandhaprasarini 347
117. Pushkarmoola 349
118. Karaveera 351
119. Dhattura 354
120. Parasikayavani 357
121. Dronapushpi 359
122. Udumbara 360
123. Satapa/Suddava 362
124. Yavasa/Dhanvayasa 363
125 Japa 364
126. Kaidarya 366
127. Mahanimba 367
  Additional Drugs  
1. Mamira 369
2. Nirvisha 370
3. Kaandira 371
4. Sitaphala 372
5. Kashtadaru 372
6. Giriparpata 373
7. Satyanashi 374
8. Makhanna 375
9. Khoobakalan 375
10. Todari 376
11. Tilaparni 377
12. Vyaghranakhi 378
13. Vanapsa 379
14. Vikankata 379
15. Punnaga 380
16. Surpunnaga 381
17. Tamala 382
18. Ashwakarna 383
19. Khatmi 384
20. Muhukunda 384
21. Pishachakarpasa 385
22. Avartani 386
23. Gangeruki 387
24. Gudasharkara 388
25. Dhanwana 389
26. Atasi 390
27. Chanchu 391
28. Karmaranga 392
29. Harmala 392
30. Amlavetasa 393
31. Aralu 394
32. Mamsarohini 395
33. Unnava (Rajabadara) 396
34. Arishtaka 397
35. Koshamra 398
36. Tindika (Tintidika) 400
37. Rumimastagi 400
38. Jayanti 401
39. Shanapusphi 402
40. Ashmantaka 403
41. Goraksha 404
42. Paribhadra 405
43. Virataru 406
44. Amlika 407
45. Shami 408
46. Kasamarda 409
47. Raktachandana 411
48. Chakshushya 412
49. Kulattha 413
50. Tinisha 414
51. Vatada 415
52. Silhaka 416
53. Dhava 416
54. Hijjala 417
55. Erandakarkati 418
56. Trapusha 419
57. Katutumbi (Ikshvaku) 420
58. Jeemuta 421
59. Dhamargava 423
60. Choraka 423
61. Nadihingu 424
62. Haridru 424
63. Damanaka 426
64. Chauhara 427
65. Sahadevi 427
66. Mundi 428
67. Aranyajeeraka 430
68. Kukundara 431
69. Jhandu 431
70. Ayapana 432
71. Dugdhapheni 433
72. Chikkika 434
73. Madhuka 435
74. Yuthika 436
75. Tinduka 437
76. Karamarda 438
77. Murva 439
78. Trayamana 441
79. Sheleshmataka 442
80. Adhahpushpi 443
81. Krishnabeeja 444
82. Akhuparni 445
83. Amaravalli 446
84. Katuveera 448
85. Tamraparna 449
86. Suchi 449
87. Utangana 450
88. Bhandira 451
89. Jupha 451
90. Chatraka 452
91. Chukrika (Chukra) 453
92. Peetamula 453
93. Sugandhavastuka 454
94. Tejapatra 455
95. Medasaka 456
96. Bandaka 457
97. Kamkushtha 457
98. Nagadanti 458
99. Tuta 459
100. Kakodumbara 460
101. Panasa 461
102. Akshota 462
103. Bhurjapatra 463
104. Soma 464
105. Hapusha 465
106. Kachura 466
107. Nagadamani 467
108. Mahabharivacha 468
109. Kebuka 469
110. Ananasa 470
111. Sudarshana 471
112. Vanapalandu 472
113. Ushava 473
114. Suranjana 474
115. Tala 474
116. Raktaniryasa 475
117. Ketaki 476
118. Manaka 477
119. Kumbhika 478
120. Kaseru 479
121. Sara 480
122. Rohisha 481
123. Hamsaraja 482
124. Mayurashikha 483
125. Shaileya 484
126. Shaivala 485
127. Nimbuka 486
128. Tejohwa 487
129. Mishreya 488
130. Kushtha 490
131. Bhanga 491
132. Harit-manjari 493
Annexure-1: A list of drugs prescribed for P.G. Syllabus 495
Annexure-2: Cultivation and conservation of Medicinal Plants 496
Annexure-3: Brief Information of drugs: Part I 501
  Brief Information of drugs: Part II 518
Index-1 Sanskrit Names 537
Index-2 Botanical Names 540
  Colour Photographs of Medicinal Plants- Onward pages  
Sample Pages





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