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Drug Addiction in Male Adolescents in Psychological Perspectives
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Drug Addiction in Male Adolescents in Psychological Perspectives
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Foreword

Alcohol and drug abuse have emerged as a major mental health haxard throughout the World. India is no more an exception. The problem has increased rapidly in this country in all forms of society. The adolescent’s appear to be prime victims. Durg abuse in not only a social evil; it is clearly a from of mental illness. Although social and environmental factors play a great role in afflicting the people taking in the grip of drug abuse and dependence; but it has become more and evidenced that the tendency of drug abuse has also a genetic background. It has been observed that the people of a particular temperament and personality are more prone to this ailment.

Use of alcohol and hallucinogenic drugs begins initially in the innocent people as a tool of defensive coping against anxiety and tension. The temporary feeling of wellbeing produced by the substance use props an individual to repeat the consumption, initially off and on, but later more regularly. Soon, the pasycho-emotional attraction is converted into physiological dependence when many body functions including certain vital ones get adapted to the substance used. In such cases withdrawal of the used substance leads to major physiological upset and at many occasions such underfed withdrawal of a substance may prove fatal.

Thus drug abuse and dependence is a major morbidity in the present day society. Moreover the individuals afflicted with these sick situations become prone to many other associated hazards such as sexually transmitted diseases, infections traveling though medications particularly potential use viz, HIV-Aids and HBV etc. Organ failures due to specific tissue damage because of the chemo toxicity of substance used such as hepatic failure in alcoholics are very common. Thus drug abuse is a multifaceted medical disorder.

Higher incidence in adolescents particularly of intellectual class has a socio economic impact. The metellectual class has a notable socio economic impact. The mental physical health and the future career of these young individuals are doomed. Many of these individuals are involved in many kinds of crimes. They do not work and their productivity is lost and as such it is a significant economic handicap. Thus the whole issue is of major national importance and warrants to be tackled with top priority. The strategy should be:

1. to present drug abuse though social awareness and emotional care of the prone individuals and by strategic stop-page of the availability of abused druges in such hands;
2. to manage the problems of those who are already fallen victim.
The former strategy needs social and administrative activism while the latter is a specialized Medicare which involves expert medical care in active de-addiction and rehabilitation programmers. The role of a psychologist is impotent in both these aspects.

It is not true that alcohol and drug about were unknown in ancient time. As least Ayurvedic texts give a vivid account of alcoholism and its management besides the abuse of certain other narcotics. Ayourved propounds its own approach in this context. Many contemporary centers of traditional care deliberate. Many contemporary centers of traditional care deliberate to employ strategies of social and environmental correction on the principle of Swastha vritta, Sadvritta and Acura besides practice of Yoga mediation and relaxation for prevention and rehabilitation. They advocate internal bio-purification by Panchakarma and Ayurvedic Massage therapy. Some time the Sat karmas of Hatha Yoga tradition are used for bio-purification of the miliru interior. Ramayana Therapy especially Madhya Ramayana’s drugs are used for inducing psycho-emotional stability. However, there is a need of standardizing these procedures to develop a comprehensive traditional traditional strategy of indigenous origin for prevention and management of drug abuse.

I have gone though the book “Drug Addiction in Male Adolescents: In Psychological Perspectives” authorized by Dr. Shubhra Banerjee and Dr. Anjana mukhopadhyay. Both are noted scholars of clinical psychology, logical counseling and personality studies. They are fully equipped to handle any problem to this field. This book presents a critical review on the problem of drug about abuse particularly in adolescent besides its own research components. It contains significant scientific data of permanent value besides the comprehensive methodology developed by the authors for applying to the present study.

This book may prove a very uself reading for postgraduate students and reaches in this field, It may also become a scientific manual for all workers involved in the field of prevention and care of drug abuse. I congratulate the authors for producing a good piece of research on an important topic of great relevance to the present day society. The publication also deserves acknowledgement for this important scientific addition to the literature in this field.

 

Preface

Drug addiction is an increasing psychological problem though out the world. All addictive drugs have powerful action on the central nervous system and their harmful, adverse and detrimental effects are reacted to different personality characteristics The nature of the effects of drug and dependence may be temperamental or physical both: All addictive and dependence producing drugs create emotional dependence, that is a say that the drug has to be taken as a means of coping with life’s stresses and to produce various effects desired by the person on his emotions. Drive, perceptual powers, conflicts and problems. It is a highly complex, subject which encompasses the biomedical and psychopharmacological effects on body function and behavioral response of the user. It has been assumed to be an international phenomenon, where in, the drug or a toxic agent, the person who takes if and society with is value system interact with each other. Thus it has been a problem almost for all the countries in the world. The most destructive of this social problem is that it is continuously on the increase in spite of all the possible restriction, comprehension and course deterrent punishment for those in this nefarious trade. Its another most terrible aspect is that it is causing impair able loss of manpower by reviving the physical and mental health of million of people particularly of the young generation. The health problems due to drug addicting need to be assessed from psychological perspective. An overall knowledge of the health problem in relation to drug addiction is very necessary, After all, health , a bio- phenomenon is a broad issue and must not be dealt exclusive, by medically qualified professionals only. The young adolescents, the budding generation is very much victimized of this menace.

There are many books on psychology and psychiatry dealing with this burning psychological problem Drug Addiction written by well known experts of western countries. Experience suggested that the knowledge derive from work done in western countries could not be directly derived from work done in western countries could not be directly applied to the Indian situation since most of our higher research works are based on western studies, there is always a gap between the theoretical knowledge and practical realities writhen which we have to operate .In clinical practice the knowledge and techniques needed to be modified and adapted in Indian context. To study drug addiction in Indian perspective we need literature on detail psychological study exploring the main causes of drug addiction and remedial technique in Indian experience and orientation. The present study is an example to show that how much psychological factors are reacted with this menace and to apply some intervention program for temperamentally susceptible subjects. It is a comprehensive account of personality characteristics of male adolescent drug addicts, fully based on a major research project sponsored by Eric, Ncert, where the first author was the Principal Investigator and the second author was co-investigator. It is designed to be a reference book for students at the Post graduate as well as Doctoral level of psychology, psychiatry and social work.

The book is divided into six chapters. The first chapter deals with the concept of drug addiction, different typeset of drugs and their harmful effects. The second chapter with the review of literature and the third one with methodology the Spine of a scientific research. This sampling technology and psychological tools used in the study has been dealt in the chapter of methodology. The fourth chapter explored the results. Result has been shown in detail by tables, charts, figures and graph. The fifth chapter given the full analysis interpretation and discussion. Result of the relevant statistical measures and psychological tools used are given in Appendix.

It is a matter of most delight for me to acknowledge my indebtedness to the Member Secretary Eric, Ncert for giving me an opportunity to work on such a burning Psycho-Social problem i.e. Drug Addiction

I deem it my pleasant duty to acknowledge my gratefulness to Prof. M.C. Joshi formerly vice Chancellor kumauuune University, Neonatal for his valuable suggestions rendered to me in presentation of data and its interpretation. It would be no exaggeration to say that without his support, work of a multidisciplinary nature such as this, could not have been accomplished.

I am extremely grateful to pro. R. H. Singh, Vice Chancellor, Rajasthan Ayurveda University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan for his invaluable help in the design and execution of this work. His keen interest in the completion of this academic venture, especially writing the foreword for this book, was a source of great more support for me.

I express my sincere thanks to pro. Satvir Singh, Head of the Department of Educational Survey & Data Processing NCERT, New Delhi, proof. Neerja Sheila, Head, Department of Education of groups with special needs, NCERT. New Delhi. Prof. S. K. Bhattacharya formerly Head, department of Pharmacology, Bananas Hindu University, Varanasi Prof. Indra Sharma, Head Department of Psychiatry, B.H.U., Varanasi and Dr. Sunil K. Das, formerly director Narcotics Control Bureau, Government of India, Varanasi for their valuable suggestions which have been incorporated in this book.

In the process of data collection Mr. Kiran Sharma, Director Nave Chetna, Drug Dedication Center, Varanasi, Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Reader, Department of Psychiatry, B.H.U., Varanasi and principal, Central Hindu Boys School, Varanasi, have helped me to a great extent for which I am highly thankful to them.

My thanks are also due to Prof. C.B. Dwivedi, Department of Psychology, B.H.U., and Varanasi, for his interest, co-operation and encouragement in my present endeavor.

My special thanks are also due to M/S Chaukhamba Subpart Prakashan, Varanasi who undertook the publication of this book at a very short notice. I am very thankful to my son Mr. Ashutosh banerjee who always agreed to sit at odd house for correction in the typed manuscripts and proof reading.

In the last, but by no means the least, I am thankful to all of the hospitalized addicts and students (non drug taking subject) on whom the study was made. All those who were helpful for the completion of this work. I thank them collectively.

 

Contents

 

  Foreword III
  Preface VI
  List of tables X
  List of figures XII
1 Introduction 1
2 Review of Literature 23
3 Methodology 34
4 Result 50
5 Interpretation 86
6 Summary 103
  References  
Appendix a Personal Data Schedule 123
Appendix b Family Environment Scale 125
Appendix c Sis, 1 Scoring Sheet 130
Appendix d Eight State Questionnaire 135
Appendix e Emotional Maturity Scale 147
Appendix f Calculation- Anova 152
  Calculation-Dennett’s Test  
  Calculation-Multiple R Table  

Sample Pages













Drug Addiction in Male Adolescents in Psychological Perspectives

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Edition:
2004
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Weight of the Book: 435 gms
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Foreword

Alcohol and drug abuse have emerged as a major mental health haxard throughout the World. India is no more an exception. The problem has increased rapidly in this country in all forms of society. The adolescent’s appear to be prime victims. Durg abuse in not only a social evil; it is clearly a from of mental illness. Although social and environmental factors play a great role in afflicting the people taking in the grip of drug abuse and dependence; but it has become more and evidenced that the tendency of drug abuse has also a genetic background. It has been observed that the people of a particular temperament and personality are more prone to this ailment.

Use of alcohol and hallucinogenic drugs begins initially in the innocent people as a tool of defensive coping against anxiety and tension. The temporary feeling of wellbeing produced by the substance use props an individual to repeat the consumption, initially off and on, but later more regularly. Soon, the pasycho-emotional attraction is converted into physiological dependence when many body functions including certain vital ones get adapted to the substance used. In such cases withdrawal of the used substance leads to major physiological upset and at many occasions such underfed withdrawal of a substance may prove fatal.

Thus drug abuse and dependence is a major morbidity in the present day society. Moreover the individuals afflicted with these sick situations become prone to many other associated hazards such as sexually transmitted diseases, infections traveling though medications particularly potential use viz, HIV-Aids and HBV etc. Organ failures due to specific tissue damage because of the chemo toxicity of substance used such as hepatic failure in alcoholics are very common. Thus drug abuse is a multifaceted medical disorder.

Higher incidence in adolescents particularly of intellectual class has a socio economic impact. The metellectual class has a notable socio economic impact. The mental physical health and the future career of these young individuals are doomed. Many of these individuals are involved in many kinds of crimes. They do not work and their productivity is lost and as such it is a significant economic handicap. Thus the whole issue is of major national importance and warrants to be tackled with top priority. The strategy should be:

1. to present drug abuse though social awareness and emotional care of the prone individuals and by strategic stop-page of the availability of abused druges in such hands;
2. to manage the problems of those who are already fallen victim.
The former strategy needs social and administrative activism while the latter is a specialized Medicare which involves expert medical care in active de-addiction and rehabilitation programmers. The role of a psychologist is impotent in both these aspects.

It is not true that alcohol and drug about were unknown in ancient time. As least Ayurvedic texts give a vivid account of alcoholism and its management besides the abuse of certain other narcotics. Ayourved propounds its own approach in this context. Many contemporary centers of traditional care deliberate. Many contemporary centers of traditional care deliberate to employ strategies of social and environmental correction on the principle of Swastha vritta, Sadvritta and Acura besides practice of Yoga mediation and relaxation for prevention and rehabilitation. They advocate internal bio-purification by Panchakarma and Ayurvedic Massage therapy. Some time the Sat karmas of Hatha Yoga tradition are used for bio-purification of the miliru interior. Ramayana Therapy especially Madhya Ramayana’s drugs are used for inducing psycho-emotional stability. However, there is a need of standardizing these procedures to develop a comprehensive traditional traditional strategy of indigenous origin for prevention and management of drug abuse.

I have gone though the book “Drug Addiction in Male Adolescents: In Psychological Perspectives” authorized by Dr. Shubhra Banerjee and Dr. Anjana mukhopadhyay. Both are noted scholars of clinical psychology, logical counseling and personality studies. They are fully equipped to handle any problem to this field. This book presents a critical review on the problem of drug about abuse particularly in adolescent besides its own research components. It contains significant scientific data of permanent value besides the comprehensive methodology developed by the authors for applying to the present study.

This book may prove a very uself reading for postgraduate students and reaches in this field, It may also become a scientific manual for all workers involved in the field of prevention and care of drug abuse. I congratulate the authors for producing a good piece of research on an important topic of great relevance to the present day society. The publication also deserves acknowledgement for this important scientific addition to the literature in this field.

 

Preface

Drug addiction is an increasing psychological problem though out the world. All addictive drugs have powerful action on the central nervous system and their harmful, adverse and detrimental effects are reacted to different personality characteristics The nature of the effects of drug and dependence may be temperamental or physical both: All addictive and dependence producing drugs create emotional dependence, that is a say that the drug has to be taken as a means of coping with life’s stresses and to produce various effects desired by the person on his emotions. Drive, perceptual powers, conflicts and problems. It is a highly complex, subject which encompasses the biomedical and psychopharmacological effects on body function and behavioral response of the user. It has been assumed to be an international phenomenon, where in, the drug or a toxic agent, the person who takes if and society with is value system interact with each other. Thus it has been a problem almost for all the countries in the world. The most destructive of this social problem is that it is continuously on the increase in spite of all the possible restriction, comprehension and course deterrent punishment for those in this nefarious trade. Its another most terrible aspect is that it is causing impair able loss of manpower by reviving the physical and mental health of million of people particularly of the young generation. The health problems due to drug addicting need to be assessed from psychological perspective. An overall knowledge of the health problem in relation to drug addiction is very necessary, After all, health , a bio- phenomenon is a broad issue and must not be dealt exclusive, by medically qualified professionals only. The young adolescents, the budding generation is very much victimized of this menace.

There are many books on psychology and psychiatry dealing with this burning psychological problem Drug Addiction written by well known experts of western countries. Experience suggested that the knowledge derive from work done in western countries could not be directly derived from work done in western countries could not be directly applied to the Indian situation since most of our higher research works are based on western studies, there is always a gap between the theoretical knowledge and practical realities writhen which we have to operate .In clinical practice the knowledge and techniques needed to be modified and adapted in Indian context. To study drug addiction in Indian perspective we need literature on detail psychological study exploring the main causes of drug addiction and remedial technique in Indian experience and orientation. The present study is an example to show that how much psychological factors are reacted with this menace and to apply some intervention program for temperamentally susceptible subjects. It is a comprehensive account of personality characteristics of male adolescent drug addicts, fully based on a major research project sponsored by Eric, Ncert, where the first author was the Principal Investigator and the second author was co-investigator. It is designed to be a reference book for students at the Post graduate as well as Doctoral level of psychology, psychiatry and social work.

The book is divided into six chapters. The first chapter deals with the concept of drug addiction, different typeset of drugs and their harmful effects. The second chapter with the review of literature and the third one with methodology the Spine of a scientific research. This sampling technology and psychological tools used in the study has been dealt in the chapter of methodology. The fourth chapter explored the results. Result has been shown in detail by tables, charts, figures and graph. The fifth chapter given the full analysis interpretation and discussion. Result of the relevant statistical measures and psychological tools used are given in Appendix.

It is a matter of most delight for me to acknowledge my indebtedness to the Member Secretary Eric, Ncert for giving me an opportunity to work on such a burning Psycho-Social problem i.e. Drug Addiction

I deem it my pleasant duty to acknowledge my gratefulness to Prof. M.C. Joshi formerly vice Chancellor kumauuune University, Neonatal for his valuable suggestions rendered to me in presentation of data and its interpretation. It would be no exaggeration to say that without his support, work of a multidisciplinary nature such as this, could not have been accomplished.

I am extremely grateful to pro. R. H. Singh, Vice Chancellor, Rajasthan Ayurveda University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan for his invaluable help in the design and execution of this work. His keen interest in the completion of this academic venture, especially writing the foreword for this book, was a source of great more support for me.

I express my sincere thanks to pro. Satvir Singh, Head of the Department of Educational Survey & Data Processing NCERT, New Delhi, proof. Neerja Sheila, Head, Department of Education of groups with special needs, NCERT. New Delhi. Prof. S. K. Bhattacharya formerly Head, department of Pharmacology, Bananas Hindu University, Varanasi Prof. Indra Sharma, Head Department of Psychiatry, B.H.U., Varanasi and Dr. Sunil K. Das, formerly director Narcotics Control Bureau, Government of India, Varanasi for their valuable suggestions which have been incorporated in this book.

In the process of data collection Mr. Kiran Sharma, Director Nave Chetna, Drug Dedication Center, Varanasi, Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Reader, Department of Psychiatry, B.H.U., Varanasi and principal, Central Hindu Boys School, Varanasi, have helped me to a great extent for which I am highly thankful to them.

My thanks are also due to Prof. C.B. Dwivedi, Department of Psychology, B.H.U., and Varanasi, for his interest, co-operation and encouragement in my present endeavor.

My special thanks are also due to M/S Chaukhamba Subpart Prakashan, Varanasi who undertook the publication of this book at a very short notice. I am very thankful to my son Mr. Ashutosh banerjee who always agreed to sit at odd house for correction in the typed manuscripts and proof reading.

In the last, but by no means the least, I am thankful to all of the hospitalized addicts and students (non drug taking subject) on whom the study was made. All those who were helpful for the completion of this work. I thank them collectively.

 

Contents

 

  Foreword III
  Preface VI
  List of tables X
  List of figures XII
1 Introduction 1
2 Review of Literature 23
3 Methodology 34
4 Result 50
5 Interpretation 86
6 Summary 103
  References  
Appendix a Personal Data Schedule 123
Appendix b Family Environment Scale 125
Appendix c Sis, 1 Scoring Sheet 130
Appendix d Eight State Questionnaire 135
Appendix e Emotional Maturity Scale 147
Appendix f Calculation- Anova 152
  Calculation-Dennett’s Test  
  Calculation-Multiple R Table  

Sample Pages













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