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Early Medieval Andhra Pradesh AD 624-1000 (Comprehensive History and Culture of Andhra Pradesh, Volume III)
Early Medieval Andhra Pradesh AD 624-1000 (Comprehensive History and Culture of Andhra Pradesh, Volume III)
Description
From the Jacket

This third volume in the comprehensive history and culture of Andhra Pradesh series spans the Early Medieval Period, from AD 624 to 1000. This period was one of distributive economics and regional cultures, and marked a transition in the political, economic, social and cultural spheres. Identity and status were provided to Telugu, the language of the land, and also to various communities in the varna structure. The role of landed intermediaries and of religious sects- Pasupata, Kalamukha, Kapalika, Siddha, Jaina was significant.

The year AD 624 saw the establishment of the Vatapi/Badami Chalukyas over Andhra Desa and an independent collateral poer in Vengi that rose to prominence in the geopolitics of southern India. The patrimonial states of the Banas, Renadu Cholas and Nolambas, and Gangas of Kalinga held their respective regions, acknowledging Chalukyan overlordship. With the fall of the Chalukyas of Badami, the Chalukyan lineages of Vemulawada and Mudigonda in Telangana and Elamanchili in Vengi Desa became prominent.

In matters of religion, Sriparvata (Srisailam) was a renowned holy centre. By the tenth century the concept of Pancharama Kshetras emerged- the nucleus being Draksharama. Srikalahasti was a prominent Saiva shrine, and Tirumala and Ahobilam were well known among the Vaishnava holy centers. Temple-building activity witnessed an intrusive north Indian style which later eclipsed, giving way to the indigenous upper Dravida Desa style. Alampur evolved into a prominent school of art and architectural styles in the Andhra- Karnataka region, while Hemavathi nurtured by the Nolambas influenced southern Karnataka and Andhra Desa, and Mukhalingam flourished as the dominant school of Kalinga.

The economy was primarily agrarian in nature, and in the Telangana region agriculture was expanded through tank irrigation. Thus a process of economic integration began and the temple as the centre of the economy grew to its heights in the period after AD 1000.

General Editor V. Ramakrishna, formerly Professor of History at the University of Hyderabad, studied at Andhra University and Jawaharlal Nehru University. He specialized in the socio-cultural history of modern Indian with special reference to Andhra Pradesh. He is the author of Social Reform in Andhra (1848-1919). A founder member of the Andhra Pradesh History Congress, he served as its General Secretary. He was also Secretary of the Indian History Congress.

Working Editor K.S. Kameswara Rao has an M.A. and Ph. D. in history from Andhra University. Actively associated with the Andhra Pradesh History Congress since its inception, he was also its General Secretary. He retired as reader in history from ideal college, Kakinada.

Coordinating Executive Editor A. Satyanarayana, Professor of history, Osmania University, Hyderabad, specialized in modern Indian history with special reference to social movements, identity politics and diaspora studies. His latest publications include Dalits and Upper Caste: Essays in social history and economy and society and polity: Studies in Agrarian History. He has presided over the modern India section of the Indian History Congress.

Editor B. Rajendra Prasad was formerly Professor, Department of ancient Indian history, culture and archaeology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati. He is the author of Temple Sculpture of Andhra Pradesh, Art of South India: Andhra Pradesh and Chalukyan Temples of Andhra Desa. He has published several articles on the socio-economic and cultural history of Andhra Pradesh. A founder member of the Andhra Pradesh History Congress, he served as its General Secretary and was on the Executive committee of the Indian History Congress and Indian Art History Congress.

 

Preface

The early medieval period in the history of Andhra Pradesh, from seventh century AD, was a period of distributive economics and regional cultures. It marked a transition in the political, economic, social and cultural spheres. Identity and status were provided to Telugu, the language of the land, and also to various communities in the varna structure. The role of landed intermediaries, and of the religious sects- Pasupata, Kalamukha, Kapalika, Siddha, Jaina- was significant. The bilingual nature of the land, and the dominance of the neighbouring Kannada and Tamil powers over Andhra Desa witnessed the issue of official records in Kannada, Tamil and Sanskrit. The integrative forces that witnessed the processes of peasantization of tribes, pastoralist extensions into society, growth in the Samantha hierarchy, the agrahara, the ghatika and the temple, as well as the growth of Pasupata/Kalamukha mathas contributed to the growth of Telugu and provided it premier status as the language of the region by the tenth-eleventh centuries AD.

The year AD 624 signifies the establishment of Vatapi/Badami Chalukyas over Andhra Desa and an independent collateral power in Vengi that rose to prominence in the geopolitics of south India. The patrimonial states of Banas, Renadu Cholas and Nolambas, Gangas of Kalinga held their respective regions acknowledging Chalukyan overlordship. With the fall of the Chalukyas of Badami, the Chalukyan lineages of Vemulawada and Mudigonda Chalukyas in Telangana and Elamanchili Chalukyas in Vengi Desa became prominent. In southern Andhra Desa, the Renadu Chola lineages at Pottapi, Pedekal, and the Vaidumbas and others were notable. The year AD 973 marks not only the end of Rashtrakuta rule over Andhra but that of the Vengi Chalukyas as well.

In matters of religion, Sriparvata (Srisailam) was the well-known holy centre. It was renowned as the Jyotirlinga Kshetra. By the tenth century AD the concept of Pancharama Kshetras emerged- the nucleus being Draksharama and the rest located at Kshirarama, Kumararama, Amararama and Bhimarama. Down south, Srikalahasti became prominent as a holy centre in the circuit of Saiva shrines during the Pallava times. Tirumala and Ahobilam were well known among the holy centers of Vaishnavas. The temple-building activity witnessed an intrusive north Indian style which later eclipsed, giving way to the indigenous upper Dravida Desa style.

Alampur, Bikkavolu, Mukhalingam, Hemavathi and Vemulawada figured as notable temple centres. In particular, Alampur evolved into a prominent school in the Andhra- Karnataka region, which considerably influenced the art centres in Karnataka and Andhra Desa, and Mukhlingam flourished as the dominant school of Kalinga. The art and architecture of Vengi Desa is best represented by the temples at Bikkavolu. The singular contribution of Vengi Desa in the field of architectures is exemplified by the Pancharama shrines following the model of the Madakara Shrine at Kailasa at Ellora. The emergence of sudra castes and forest tribes as powerful sections of society and their upward mobility as a class of warriors and landholders resulted in the emergence of Samantas, by which the integration of different localities became feasible for smooth governance.

Vengi Desa was a ‘nuclear zone’ as the major rivers Krishna and Godavari and their tributaries drain this area. The state, through land grants and irrigational facilities, made possible an increase in agricultural production. Trade and commerce did not flourish as the economy was primarily agrarian in nature.

In this period of transition, a full-fledged agrarian economy prevailed in the nuclear zones, while a pastoral economy was in vogue in the upland dry zones. In the Telangana region agriculture was expanded through elaborate tank irrigation. Thus a process of economic integration began and the temple as the centre of economy grew to its heights in the period after AD 1000.

 

Contents

 

Preface   xv
Acknowledgement   xvii
Contributors   xix
Chapter One Transition- B. Rajendra Prasad 1
  Towards the Control of Vengi  
Chapter Two The Chalukyas of Vatapi/Badami- S.S. Ramachandra Murthy 13
Chapter Three The Chalukyas of Vengi- J.Durga Prasad 32
Chapter Four The Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta/Malkhed- S.S. Ramachandra Murthy 47
Chapter Five The Early Gangas of Kalinga- C. Somasundara Rao 60
Chapter Six The Chalukyan Lineages of Telangana, Vemulavada and Mudigonda- K. Suryanarayana 69
Chapter Seven The Renadu Cholas- P.Bhaskara Reddy 89
Chapter Eight The Banas and Vaidumbas- N. Krishna Reddy, D.Kiran Kranth Choudary 95
Chapter Nine The Nolambas- M.S. Krishna Murthy 107
Chapter Ten Patterns of community settlements and political formation- I.Lakshmi, Santi Sri Banerjea 120
Chapter Eleven Polity of Vengidesa and other secondary states- C.A. Padmanabha Sastry 130
Chapter Twelve Historical geography and administrative divisions- S.S. Ramachandra Murthy, N. Krishna Reddy, V.Sakuntala 140
  Society and Economy  
Chapter Thirteen Vengidesa and Telangana- P. Aruna 177
Chapter Fourteen Kalinga- C. Somasundara Rao 201
Chapter Fifteen Rayalasima- N. Krishna Reddy 208
  Religion  
Chapter Sixteen Buddhism- M.V. Ramkumar Ratnam 227
Chapter Seventeen Jainism- G. Jawaharlal 243
Chapter Eighteen Saivism- D. Kiran Kranth Choudary 149
Chapter Nineteen Vaishnavism- O. Sambaiah 253
Chapter Twenty Sakta and Tantric Cults- Haripriya Rangarajan 264
  Art and Architecture  
Chapter Twenty-One Art- D. Kiran Kranth Choudary 275
Chapter Twenty-Two Architecture- B. Rajendra Prasad, A. Gurumurthi 292
Abbreviations   333
Glossary   335
Index   351

Early Medieval Andhra Pradesh AD 624-1000 (Comprehensive History and Culture of Andhra Pradesh, Volume III)

Item Code:
IHJ062
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2009
Publisher:
Andhra Pradesh History Congres with Tulika Books
ISBN:
9788189487546
Size:
9.8 inch X 6.5 inch
Pages:
359 (Illustrated Throughout In B/W )
Other Details:
a6_extension_books
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$40.00
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From the Jacket

This third volume in the comprehensive history and culture of Andhra Pradesh series spans the Early Medieval Period, from AD 624 to 1000. This period was one of distributive economics and regional cultures, and marked a transition in the political, economic, social and cultural spheres. Identity and status were provided to Telugu, the language of the land, and also to various communities in the varna structure. The role of landed intermediaries and of religious sects- Pasupata, Kalamukha, Kapalika, Siddha, Jaina was significant.

The year AD 624 saw the establishment of the Vatapi/Badami Chalukyas over Andhra Desa and an independent collateral poer in Vengi that rose to prominence in the geopolitics of southern India. The patrimonial states of the Banas, Renadu Cholas and Nolambas, and Gangas of Kalinga held their respective regions, acknowledging Chalukyan overlordship. With the fall of the Chalukyas of Badami, the Chalukyan lineages of Vemulawada and Mudigonda in Telangana and Elamanchili in Vengi Desa became prominent.

In matters of religion, Sriparvata (Srisailam) was a renowned holy centre. By the tenth century the concept of Pancharama Kshetras emerged- the nucleus being Draksharama. Srikalahasti was a prominent Saiva shrine, and Tirumala and Ahobilam were well known among the Vaishnava holy centers. Temple-building activity witnessed an intrusive north Indian style which later eclipsed, giving way to the indigenous upper Dravida Desa style. Alampur evolved into a prominent school of art and architectural styles in the Andhra- Karnataka region, while Hemavathi nurtured by the Nolambas influenced southern Karnataka and Andhra Desa, and Mukhalingam flourished as the dominant school of Kalinga.

The economy was primarily agrarian in nature, and in the Telangana region agriculture was expanded through tank irrigation. Thus a process of economic integration began and the temple as the centre of the economy grew to its heights in the period after AD 1000.

General Editor V. Ramakrishna, formerly Professor of History at the University of Hyderabad, studied at Andhra University and Jawaharlal Nehru University. He specialized in the socio-cultural history of modern Indian with special reference to Andhra Pradesh. He is the author of Social Reform in Andhra (1848-1919). A founder member of the Andhra Pradesh History Congress, he served as its General Secretary. He was also Secretary of the Indian History Congress.

Working Editor K.S. Kameswara Rao has an M.A. and Ph. D. in history from Andhra University. Actively associated with the Andhra Pradesh History Congress since its inception, he was also its General Secretary. He retired as reader in history from ideal college, Kakinada.

Coordinating Executive Editor A. Satyanarayana, Professor of history, Osmania University, Hyderabad, specialized in modern Indian history with special reference to social movements, identity politics and diaspora studies. His latest publications include Dalits and Upper Caste: Essays in social history and economy and society and polity: Studies in Agrarian History. He has presided over the modern India section of the Indian History Congress.

Editor B. Rajendra Prasad was formerly Professor, Department of ancient Indian history, culture and archaeology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati. He is the author of Temple Sculpture of Andhra Pradesh, Art of South India: Andhra Pradesh and Chalukyan Temples of Andhra Desa. He has published several articles on the socio-economic and cultural history of Andhra Pradesh. A founder member of the Andhra Pradesh History Congress, he served as its General Secretary and was on the Executive committee of the Indian History Congress and Indian Art History Congress.

 

Preface

The early medieval period in the history of Andhra Pradesh, from seventh century AD, was a period of distributive economics and regional cultures. It marked a transition in the political, economic, social and cultural spheres. Identity and status were provided to Telugu, the language of the land, and also to various communities in the varna structure. The role of landed intermediaries, and of the religious sects- Pasupata, Kalamukha, Kapalika, Siddha, Jaina- was significant. The bilingual nature of the land, and the dominance of the neighbouring Kannada and Tamil powers over Andhra Desa witnessed the issue of official records in Kannada, Tamil and Sanskrit. The integrative forces that witnessed the processes of peasantization of tribes, pastoralist extensions into society, growth in the Samantha hierarchy, the agrahara, the ghatika and the temple, as well as the growth of Pasupata/Kalamukha mathas contributed to the growth of Telugu and provided it premier status as the language of the region by the tenth-eleventh centuries AD.

The year AD 624 signifies the establishment of Vatapi/Badami Chalukyas over Andhra Desa and an independent collateral power in Vengi that rose to prominence in the geopolitics of south India. The patrimonial states of Banas, Renadu Cholas and Nolambas, Gangas of Kalinga held their respective regions acknowledging Chalukyan overlordship. With the fall of the Chalukyas of Badami, the Chalukyan lineages of Vemulawada and Mudigonda Chalukyas in Telangana and Elamanchili Chalukyas in Vengi Desa became prominent. In southern Andhra Desa, the Renadu Chola lineages at Pottapi, Pedekal, and the Vaidumbas and others were notable. The year AD 973 marks not only the end of Rashtrakuta rule over Andhra but that of the Vengi Chalukyas as well.

In matters of religion, Sriparvata (Srisailam) was the well-known holy centre. It was renowned as the Jyotirlinga Kshetra. By the tenth century AD the concept of Pancharama Kshetras emerged- the nucleus being Draksharama and the rest located at Kshirarama, Kumararama, Amararama and Bhimarama. Down south, Srikalahasti became prominent as a holy centre in the circuit of Saiva shrines during the Pallava times. Tirumala and Ahobilam were well known among the holy centers of Vaishnavas. The temple-building activity witnessed an intrusive north Indian style which later eclipsed, giving way to the indigenous upper Dravida Desa style.

Alampur, Bikkavolu, Mukhalingam, Hemavathi and Vemulawada figured as notable temple centres. In particular, Alampur evolved into a prominent school in the Andhra- Karnataka region, which considerably influenced the art centres in Karnataka and Andhra Desa, and Mukhlingam flourished as the dominant school of Kalinga. The art and architecture of Vengi Desa is best represented by the temples at Bikkavolu. The singular contribution of Vengi Desa in the field of architectures is exemplified by the Pancharama shrines following the model of the Madakara Shrine at Kailasa at Ellora. The emergence of sudra castes and forest tribes as powerful sections of society and their upward mobility as a class of warriors and landholders resulted in the emergence of Samantas, by which the integration of different localities became feasible for smooth governance.

Vengi Desa was a ‘nuclear zone’ as the major rivers Krishna and Godavari and their tributaries drain this area. The state, through land grants and irrigational facilities, made possible an increase in agricultural production. Trade and commerce did not flourish as the economy was primarily agrarian in nature.

In this period of transition, a full-fledged agrarian economy prevailed in the nuclear zones, while a pastoral economy was in vogue in the upland dry zones. In the Telangana region agriculture was expanded through elaborate tank irrigation. Thus a process of economic integration began and the temple as the centre of economy grew to its heights in the period after AD 1000.

 

Contents

 

Preface   xv
Acknowledgement   xvii
Contributors   xix
Chapter One Transition- B. Rajendra Prasad 1
  Towards the Control of Vengi  
Chapter Two The Chalukyas of Vatapi/Badami- S.S. Ramachandra Murthy 13
Chapter Three The Chalukyas of Vengi- J.Durga Prasad 32
Chapter Four The Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta/Malkhed- S.S. Ramachandra Murthy 47
Chapter Five The Early Gangas of Kalinga- C. Somasundara Rao 60
Chapter Six The Chalukyan Lineages of Telangana, Vemulavada and Mudigonda- K. Suryanarayana 69
Chapter Seven The Renadu Cholas- P.Bhaskara Reddy 89
Chapter Eight The Banas and Vaidumbas- N. Krishna Reddy, D.Kiran Kranth Choudary 95
Chapter Nine The Nolambas- M.S. Krishna Murthy 107
Chapter Ten Patterns of community settlements and political formation- I.Lakshmi, Santi Sri Banerjea 120
Chapter Eleven Polity of Vengidesa and other secondary states- C.A. Padmanabha Sastry 130
Chapter Twelve Historical geography and administrative divisions- S.S. Ramachandra Murthy, N. Krishna Reddy, V.Sakuntala 140
  Society and Economy  
Chapter Thirteen Vengidesa and Telangana- P. Aruna 177
Chapter Fourteen Kalinga- C. Somasundara Rao 201
Chapter Fifteen Rayalasima- N. Krishna Reddy 208
  Religion  
Chapter Sixteen Buddhism- M.V. Ramkumar Ratnam 227
Chapter Seventeen Jainism- G. Jawaharlal 243
Chapter Eighteen Saivism- D. Kiran Kranth Choudary 149
Chapter Nineteen Vaishnavism- O. Sambaiah 253
Chapter Twenty Sakta and Tantric Cults- Haripriya Rangarajan 264
  Art and Architecture  
Chapter Twenty-One Art- D. Kiran Kranth Choudary 275
Chapter Twenty-Two Architecture- B. Rajendra Prasad, A. Gurumurthi 292
Abbreviations   333
Glossary   335
Index   351
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