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Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Volume: X Jain Philosophy Part I

Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Volume: X Jain Philosophy Part I


Item Code: IHE062

by Dalsukh Malvania and Jayendra Soni

Hardcover (Edition: 2007)

Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN 8120831691

Size: 9.8” X 6.8”
Pages: 838
Weight of the Book: 1.478 gms
Price: $50.00
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From the Jacket

The philosophy of Jainism is the subject of a large body of literature, but a great deal of it consists of standard summary reviews that are not sufficiently accurate to bring out the uniqueness of Jain thought. The core thesis of Jain philosophy is that of anekantavada, often rendered as “many-sidedness” for example. Such a rendering by itself fails to get to the unique contribution of the Jain positions, which is just that every serious account of the world contains elements of truth, but that any single linguistic expression must fail to comprehend all those partially true perspectives or viewpoints, not because those viewpoints are false, but because the complete truth is not consistently expressible in any natural language, since any such expression must necessarily involve contradictions. The Jain position leads to evident problems inn assessing any of the philosophical thesis broached by a Jain-are we to take them as truth-claims, or as merely some among an indefinite incompatible ways of looking at the world? If the latter, how can the Jain saint have or gain knowledge-can he grasp collectively all the indefinite number of true theories? And if the former, what happens to the truths presumed to be contained in each of the incompatible alternative viewpoints?

The works summarized in this Volume explore these questions and their possible answers.

Kari. H. Potter is professor of Philosophy and South Asian Studies at the University of Washington in Seattle, and is General Editor of the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies.


I wish to begin by offering my profound thanks to Dalsukh Malvania, who over thirty years ago agreed to take on the onerous task of editing this first Volume of the Encyclopedia to be concerned with Jain philosophy. Unfortunately he was unable to complete the task, and Jay Soni has agreed to assist by writing the Introduction and providing expert advice. Shortcomings of this Volume should not, however, be ascribed to either Malvania or Soni; they are entirely my own.

Since it has recently been questioned, perhaps a word of explanation about the intended scope of coverage in Volumes of the Encyclopedia, which may go some way towards answering questions that may arise about the works chosen for summation in the present Volume. According to a policy that was announced in the very first edition of Volume One, the Bibliography is “intended to provide an account of works of Indian philosophical literature which are (1) of philosophical interest throughout; (2) theoretical rather than purely practical I their intended function, and (3) polemical or at least expository in a context where defence of one view among alternatives is appropriate.” Readers of previous Volumes will appreciate that out of respect for those whose personal preference is for a given philosophical system I have refrained from using these strictures to preclude the appearance of favorite works which may not hew precisely to these three requirements. Some beloved works, for example, consist essentially of advice to the aspirant for liberation. To use the three requirement listed above to exclude such favored texts would have unduly offended those readers and made the Volume somewhat less useful to them. It seems thus wisest to exercise the policy stated above in a relaxed manner, enabling inclusion of borderline cases favored by the system’s followers.

One or two words recapitulating my policies on a couple of matters. Standardization of translations of technical terms, which we have followed in this and previous Volumes, may cause the style of exposition to appear cramped and otherwise difficult to read; even possibly misleading renditions may occur in a few cases. The problem comes about as a result of the tension between two aims I have tried to follow, one to provide an accurate (although not always standard) rendition of the term where it occurs, and the other to use the same translation of the Sanskrit term throughout if this is at all possible. I apologize for any problems that may have been caused by my intentions in this matter.

In order to make the summaries less prolix I have followed a fairly strict policy in the present volume (I have been working toward it in previous Volumes). The chosen English rendition of a technical Sanskrit term is given (in Sanskrit, not in Prakrit) at the first occurrence of that term. The Sanskrit term, and its chosen translation (or, in a limited number of cases, alternative translations) appear in the Glossary-Index, which should be used to remind the reader of the Sanskrit term, or range of terms, that is being rendered through the English word provided.


What is Jainism? Jainism is a word derived from “Jaina” or “Jain”, which in turn is derived from the Sanskrit word jina, literally meaning “conqueror”. In the Jaina tradition a jina is a unique human being who through severe ascetic discipline, has conquered, overcome or broken the bonds of the passions which bind one to worldly life and values, and who teaches the basic doctrine of nonviolence. A jaina or Jain is one who follows this and other teachings of a jina, and for the ascetics, being a Jain means one who strives to lead a lifestyle on the model of a jina. Since the life and teachings of a jina serve as a bridge or ford (tirtha) to cross over beyond the stream of worldly existences, a jina is also called a maker of such a ford, a tirthankara. The Prakrit term niggantha (nirgrantha in Sanskrit), literally “free from bonds,” was originally used to designate such a person and the ascetics of the tradition.

Jainism as it has survived to this day is traced back to the life and teachings of the jina Mahavira (literally, the “Great Hero”), whose given name was Vardhamana. However, in the Jain tradition Mahavira is not the only jina and his position and significance has to be seen in the light of the Jain conception of time. Time is seen as a wheel which beginninglessly and endlessly rotates of its own accord. The wheel of time has twelve spokes which represent the different eras of time on a cosmological scale, each era being made up of thousands of years. The twelve eras are divided into two equal half-periods of the downward motion (utsarpini) of the wheel of time, with six eras in each. According to the tradition twenty-four jinas are born as human beings in each half period of cosmological time, in the third and forth eras of each. In the present downward motion of the time-wheel Vrsabha was the first and Mahavira, who was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha, the last jina. Scholars ascribe undoubted historicity to Mahavira and his predecessor Parsva, the twenty-third jina, who lived about 250 years earlier. It is in this sense that Mahavira is not the founder of Jainism, but rather a reformer who based his life and teachings on those of his predecessor (e.g., adding one more “great vow” to Parsava’s four for the ascetics). Unlike the Buddhist view that the Buddha set in motion the law of beings and things with his first sermon as recorded in the famous Dharmacakrapravartanasutra, the Jains believe that the law of being and things is eternal and has always been so, with Mahavira resuscitating the basic doctrines of the tradition.

A moot question is: In what sense can persons like Mahavira (or the Buddha or the Upanisadic thinkers) be regarded as philosophers? Nothing of what Mahavira taught (as with the Buddha too) is available in his original words, his several centuries after his death. Even Mahavira’s dates are a matter of debate, although there is clear evidence that Mahavira was the Buddha’s contemporary, some time between the sixth and forth centuries B.C.E. Mahavira can be regarded as a philosopher in the sense that his life, teachings, ideas and concepts moulded the philosophical activity of the thinkers in the tradition since then. Mahavira serves as a model not only for achieving the goal of enlightenment which he himself realized, the goal of nirvana or moksa which is common to Buddhism and Hinduism as well, but also as a model for insightful thinking about human nature, life and the world.

Everything that comes under the rubric of Jainism encompasses a vast area, because through the influence of Mahavira and his teachings the Jains have made major contributions in all fields of learning ranging from philosophy to literature, from rules governing religious thought and practice to temple architecture. Jainism is an indigenous, inalienable and well-represented part of Indian thought, of Indian art and literature, in short of Indian culture. This point is significant to note because, especially as far as the contribution of Jain philosophy is concerned, independent studies of specific themes are relatively few compared to what has been done in Hinduism and Buddhism. Whereas it is impossible to deal with Jain philosophy in a vacuum and to fully comprehend its significance without recourse to corresponding developments in Buddhism and Hinduism, the reverse is no less true. Several intricate philosophical problems remain obscure without an adequate understanding of Jain philosophy, e.g., the innumerable references to anekantavada, the famous doctrine of manifoldness, which is a small, albeit basic, part of Jain thought. One is led to ignore the fact that Jain philosophy has made other contributions apart from the syad - and naya-vada aspects of anekantavada, e.g., insightful deliberations concerning dravya, guna and paryaya (substance, quality and mode). This volume on Jainism will make it evident that throughout its history Jain thinkers have kept pace with equal developments in Buddhism and Hinduism.

INTRODUCTION (Jayendra Soni)
THE JAINA CANON (Karl H. Potter) 35
SUMMARIES OF WORKS (Arranged Chronologically)
1 Umasvati (400?), Tattvarthasutra (K.K.Dixit)45
2 Umasvati, Prasamatiratiprakarana (Y.S. Shastri)66
3 Umasvati, Umasvati, Tattvarthasutrabhasya (K.K.Dixit)70
4 Kundakunda (400?), Pancastikayasara (A.N. Upadhye)95
5 Kundakunda, Pravacanasara (Upadhye; Potter) 97
6 Kundakunda, Samayasara (Upadhye; Potter) 110
7 Kundakunda, Niyamasara (Potter) 120
8 Kundakunda, Astaprabhrta (Ratna Lahiri)126
9 Kundakunda, Dvadasanupreksa (Upadhye) 138
10 Samantabhadra (600?), Aptamimamsa (Potter) 140
11 Samantabhadra, Yuktyanusasana (Lahiri) 154
12 Pujyapada (480), Tattvarthasutra-Sarvarthasiddhi (Potter) 159
13 Pujyapada, Istopadesa/Commentary 174
14 Pujyapada, Samadhitantra (Potter) 174
15 Siddhasena Divakara (550), Dvatrimsika (P.N. Dave) 177
16 Siddhasena Divakara, Sanmatitarka (Potter) 191
17 Mallavadin Ksamasramana (550), Nayacakra 201
(Frauwallner, Jambuvijaya, de Jong)
18 Jinabhadra Gani (600), Dhyanasataka (Dulaharaj) 210
19 Jinabhadra Gani, Avasyakanirukti-Visesavasyaka-bhasya (Dalsukh Malvania) 224
20 Simhasuragani (600), Nayacakra-Nyayagamanusarini 233
21 Kotyacarya (725), Visesavasyakabhasya 233
22 Siddhasena Mahamati (700?) Nyayavatara (Potter) 234
23 Yogindudeva (725), Paramatmaprakasa (Upadhye) 238
24 Yogindudeva, Adhyatmasandoha 260
25 Yogindudeva, Yogasara (R. S. Betai) 260
26 Vadibha Simha, Navapadarthaniscaya 264
27 Vadibha Simha, Syadvadasiddhi (Bhagchandra Jain) 264
28 Dharmadasa Gani (750), Upadesamala/Balavabodha264
29 Bhatta Akalanka (770), Aptamimamsa-Astasati (Satischandra Ghoshal) 266
30 Bhatta Akalanka, Laghiyastraya (Nagin J. Shah’ Lahiri) 270
31 Bhatta Akala nka, Nyayaviniscaya (Shah; Mahendra Kumar) 284
32 Bhatta Akalanka, Pramanasamgraha 298
33 Bhatta Akalanka, Siddhiviniscaya (Kumar; Lahiri) 299
34 Bhatta Akalanka, Tattvarthasutra-Rajavarttika (Kumar; Lahiri) 306
35 Haribhadra Suri (770), Anekantajayapataka-Uddyotadipika 422
36 Haribhadra Suri, Anekantapraghatta 424
37 Haribhadra Suri, Anekantavadapravesa 424
38 Haribhadra Suri, Anekantasiddhi 425
39 Haribhadra Suri, Anuyogadvarasutra-Laghuvrtti 425
40 Haribhadra Suri, Avasyakasutra-Sisyahita 425
41 Haribhadra Suri, Avasyakasutra-Brhadvrtti 425
42 Haribhadra Suri, Dharmabindu 425
43 Haribhadra Suri, Jivabhigamasutra-Laghuvrtti 426
44 Haribhadra Suri, Lokatattvanirnaya 426
45 Haribhadra Suri, Nandisutra-Vivarana 427
46 Haribhadra Suri, Pancasutraka-Vyakhya (Jambuvijaya) 427
47 Haribhadra Suri, Saddarsanasamuccaya (Potter) 435
48 Haribhadra Suri, Sarvajnasiddhi 436
49 Haribhadra Suri, Sastravarttasamuccaya 436
50 Haribhadra Suri, Sodasakaprakarana 437
51 Haribhadra Suri, Tattvarthasutra-Laghuvrtti 438
52 Haribhadra Suri, Upadesapada 438
53 Haribhadra Suri, Yogabindu (Potter) 438
54 Haribhadra Suri, Yogadrstisamuccaya (Dixit) 448
55 Haribhadra Suri, Yogavimsika (Dixit) 454
56 Haribhadra Suri, Yogasataka (Dixit) 455
57 Haribhadra Suri, Brahmasiddhantasamuccaya 458
58 Haribhadra Suri, Samyaktvasaptati 458
59 Haribhadra Suri, Darsanasaptatika 458
60 Haribhadra Suri, Dharmasamgrahani 458
61 Haribhadra Suri, Vimsavimsika 459
62 Haribhadra Suri, Tattvaprakasika 461
63 Haribhadra Suri, Astakaprakarana 462
64 Gandhahasti Siddhasena, Tattvarthasutrabhasya (N. Tatia) 462
65 Kumaranandi Bhattaraka (750), Vadanyaya 468
66 Virasena and Jinasena (837), Kasayaprabhrta-Jayadhavala 468
67 Jinasena and Gunabhadra (870), Atmanusasana (Upadhye) 468
68 Rajasekhara (900), Saddarsanasamuccaya (B.C. Jain) 472
69 Jinacandra (900?), Siddhantasara 472
70 Siddharsigani (900?), Nyayavatara-Vivrti 472
71 Amrtacandra Suri (925), Tattvarthasara 483
72 Amrtacandra Suri, Purusarthasiddhyupaya (Potter) 484
73 Amrtacandra Suri, Pancastikayasara-Tattvadipika 487
74 Amrtacandra Suri, Pravacanasara-Tattvadipika (Potter) 502
75 Amrtacandra Suri, Samayasara-Atmakhyati 507
76 Amrtacandra Suri, Laghutattvasphota (P.S. Jaini) 507
77 Devasena (934), Nayacakra-Alapapaddhati 521
78 Devasena, Tattvasara (Soni) 527
79 Devasena, Darsanasara (B.C. Jain) 532
80 Manikyanandin (940), Pariksamukha (Potter) 533
81 Vidyananda (940, Astaprabhrta-Aptapariksa/Alamkrti (Soni) 542
82 Vidyananda, Astasahasri 546
83 Vidyananda, Patrapariksa 554
84 Vidyananda, Pramanapariksa 555
85 Vidyananda, Satyasasanapariksa (Tatia) 555
86 Vidyananda, Tattvarthasutra-Slokavarttika 594
87 Vidyananda, Yuktyanusasana-Tika 600
88 Anantakirti (950), Jivasiddhinibandhana 600
89 Anantakirti, Laghiyastraya-Tatparyavrtti 600
90 Anantakirti, Sarvajnasiddhi 600
91 Anantakirti, Svatahpramanyabhanga 600
92 Amitagati I (950), Yogasaraprabhrti (H.L. Jain; Upadhye) 601
93 Kanakanandin (975), Karmaprakrti 602
94 Kanakanandin, Dravyasamgraha 603
95 Anantavirya (980), Pramanasamgraha-Bhasya 603
96 Anantavirya, Siddhiviniscaya-Tika 603
97 Anantavirya, Laghiyastraya-Vivrti 604
98 Anantavirya, Nyayaviniscaya-Vrtti 604
99 Nemicandra Saiddhantika (980), Gomatasara (Potter) 605
100 Nemicandra, Labdhisara (L.C. Jain) 626
101Nemicandra, Ksapanasara 632
102Nemicandra, Trilokasara 633
103Nemicandra, Traivarikacara 633
104Nemicandra, Tribhangisara 634
105Nemicandra, Dravyasamgraha (Potter) 634
106Nemicandra, Upadesasiddhantaratnamala 639
107Nemicandra, Tattvarthasutra-Vrtti 639
108Jayasena (998), Dharmaratnakara (Upadhye) 639
109Amitagati II (1010), Pancasamgraha 641
110Amitagati II, Dvatrimsika or Samayikapatha (Jaini) 641
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