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Encyclopedic Dictionary of Ayurveda
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Encyclopedic Dictionary of Ayurveda
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From the Jacket

The Encyclopedia contains the comprehensive meaning of most of the terminologies in alphabetical sequence in a single volume. This book addresses the nuts and bolts and analytical side of difficult terminologies of Ayurveda. Its intent is to clear the haze surrounding the various concepts of Ayurveda by providing an elemental meaning of Ayurvedic terminologies. The material in this book is both broad and deep in relation to its contents.

It is a crucially important dictionary because of its unique approach towards understanding of Ayurvedic terminologies. It is very much essential to know the meaning of each and every technical term to acquire comprehensive knowledge on the subject. The primary focus is to acquaint scholars and students of Ayurveda as well as common people with Ayurvedic terminologies. The material has been meticulously organized in such a way that the student can easily approach, understand and internalize fundamentals of Ayurveda.

Kanjiv Lochan has completed Ph.D on history of Ayurveda and related medicines from the prestigious Centre of Historical Studies, JNU, New Delhi. He was invited as Visiting Scholar by Department of History of Medicine, Cambridge University, UK. He has authored and edited a number of scholarly books on Ayurveda. At present, he is engaged in teaching history in BS College, Lohardaga under Ranchi University, Ranchi, India. He could be reached at kanjivlochan@yahoo.in

Dr. Parameswarappa S. Byadgi is teaching Vikrti Vijnana and Roga Vijnana since 1997. He is renowned Ayurvedic diagnostician. He completed his graduation from Karnataka University, post graduation from Calcutta University and doctorate degree from Banaras Hindu University. The author has published 3 books, many articles and presented a number of papers to various national and international conferences. Presently he is working as Assistant Professor in the department of Vikriti Vigyan, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi E-mail: psbyadgi@rediffmail.com

 

Back of the Book

About the Book

The present work has been evolved with certain deliberate purposes: 1) placing Ayurveda in a proper format to the international community which increasingly support and utilize alternative and pre-modern medical systems, 2) presenting various themes and factors of Ayurveda under a single cover so that students could acquire needful and meaningful insights into its diverse disciplines and 3) presenting the classical Ayurveda to the lay readers who are interested in this ancient craft of medicine. Well planned and well written, the present dictionary, it is hoped would soon become favorite among students and scholars of Ayurveda and at the same time would meet all academic requirements for the next several college generations. The present manual would lessen the burden of students moving here and there to consult a number of textbooks to acquire deep insights into various disciplines of Ayurveda.

The encyclopedia encompasses all the branches of Ayurveda. It orbits History of Ayurveda, its physiology, diagnostics, toxicology, pathology, mineralogy, cosmology, etc. apart from its vast pharmacology and pharmaceutics. The narratives of the countless entries of this encyclopedia have been hemmed with several illustrations. Thus utilizing faculty of the pen and pencil, the author-duo has produced a really great work on the subject. In present and in a foreseeable future, no other work would be probably able to surpass the utility and reach of this single volume in providing a comprehensive knowledge of Ayurveda.

 

Preface

It is only a truism that we are proceeding toward an interdependence of the world. This interdependence is most plainly manifest in the field of medicine. Not fully satisfied with modern medicines, patients as well as physicians all over world are trying alternate systems and indigenous medicines. Small wonder, there is an increased curiosity to learn Ayurveda as well as other non-allopathic systems across the world. Diverse medicine systems today tend more and more towards affiliation and continuous accumulation of scientific knowledge across the globe. Thus, there seems at present roomier atmosphere so far possibility of global oneness of medicine relates. In course of time, I feel there would evolve a common system of medicine as today there is a common system of physics, chemistry and mathematics. Therefore, we need to showcase Ayurveda in a world-class format and to reduce the enormously vast amount of Ayurvedic literature into a handy volume containing all the nuances of this great art of healing. The present work has been prepared in the backdrop of this felt- need.

Secondly, for general students, there was need of a work that could define as well as elaborate various themes of Ayurveda under a single cover. It may be recalled that in Ayurveda, several terms denote connotations that are strikingly different to the meanings they are known for in general Sanskrit usage. For example one should not get surprised to see that the dvija in Ayurveda does not refer to the twice-born Brahmans but teeth. The term sanyas in not for renunciation of the worldly affairs in Ayurveda, but is something serious as the state of coma. Similarly, the term bhavana is not something akin to sentiments such as it is meant in common Sanskrit, but a pharmaceutical process to be adhered to without getting sentimental about. The list may be a long one indeed. Besides such complications, there are numerous terms of Ayurveda that require clarification as well as some definitional notes. As a student of Ayurveda and its history, I needed a manual or dictionary as such, and badly so. Therefore, I tried to locate one. However, my rummaging through the National Library, Kolkata and all the major libraries at Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai, Paine and Varanasi as well as through the World Book Fair, Delhi could not serve the purpose. Therefore, I decided to summon whatever scant knowledge and idea about Ayurveda I possessed to prepare such a dictionary myself.

The present work is a result of joint authorship. While finalizing the work, it was felt that the work must be scrutinized by a bonafide scholar of Ayurveda who is also engaged in class room teaching of the subject Thus, to enhance the authenticity and utilities of the work, services of Dr. Parameswarappa S. Byadgi, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Ayurveda, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi were obtained. Dr Parameswarappa has given the entire manuscript the benefit of his vigilant attention. He has clarified, polished and recast many passages of this volume. He has spared no pains to enhance its usefulness and attractiveness, and to ensure the incorporation of the best Ayurvedic knowledge and interpretation. Every aspect of this dictionary has been reconsidered by him, and at length so.

 

Preamble

This book addresses the meaning and description of terminologies used in Ayurveda. Though many books have been written on terminologies related to Ayurveda, but most of these are either incomplete or provide little information. Present work is an attempt to produce a comprehensive reference work allowing immediate access to a wide variety of Ayurveda-related topics and terminologies. The Encyclopedia contains the comprehensive meaning of the most of terminologies in alphabetical sequence in a single volume. The need for such a work is obvious to any practitioner or researcher or academicians of Ayurveda. The majority of source materials on the subject are in Sanskrit and this fad has proved an insurmountable barrier to most of the westerners interested in the understanding of Ayurveda. The numerous errors contained in the previous dictionaries have been blindly repeated in later editions and new ones have been introduced. The result is that most materials written in the west attempting to cover Ayurvedic history and development are factually unreliable and reveal an inevitable superficiality due to lack of direct access to sources on the part of their writers. My personal involvement with Ayurveda started 20 years ago, having always been interested in the science of life; I began publishing books on Ayurveda from 2007 onwards. Much of the important information has been collated, classified and presented in book form in the encyclopedic dictionary of Ayurveda for easy reference and in an effort to reach the wider group of readers. Responsibility for accuracy of the information contained in this book rests entirely with authors. We have tried to limit our self to areas concerning which we have direct knowledge and reliable documentation. Readers are invited to provide feedback regarding any errors or omissions they may discover and their observations may be reflected in future editions. This book addresses the nuts and bolts and analytical side of difficult terminologies of Ayurveda. Its intent is to dear the haze surrounding the concepts of Ayurveda by providing the fundamental meaning to Ayurvedic terminologies. The material in this book is both broad and deep in relation to its contents. The text is presented in a way that should make it accessible to anyone. Finally, it is impossible mission for any single book to attempt to write a comprehensive text on encyclopedic dictionary of Ayurveda.

The Importance of the Subject

It is a crucially important dictionary because of its unique approach towards understanding ayurvedic terminologies. It is very much essential to know the meaning of each and every technical terms to acquire comprehensive knowledge on the subject.

Uniqueness of this Publication

The primary focus is to generate interest among scholars and students of Ayurveda as well as common people to acquaint with Ayurvedic terminologies. The material has been meticulously organized in such a way that the student can easily understand, retain and reproduce it.

Intended Readers

Many devotees of Ayurveda may enjoy this book for the novelty of its fresh ideas. The intended are the large and heterogeneous group of Students, Teachers, Researchers, Medical practitioners and Clinicians of Ayurvedic field and scientists.

How to use the Book

The book is divided alphabetically from A to Z, which are almost independent and can be utilized very easily.

Acknowledgments

First, I thank Dr. Kanjiv Lochan for giving me an opportunity to utilise my expertise while finalising this task, because of his hard work this work got a complete shape. I thank all my family members for their continuous support while writing this book. My parents, Shivappa. N. Byadgi, and Puttavva. S. Byadgi and Uncle Andaneppa N.B. and aunt Sunandavva. A.B, for educating me to learn about art of life along with unconditional support and encouragement to pursue my interests in my career. I am also thankful to all my sisters, brothers, brother in-law’s, sister in-laws and grand mother’s, father in-laws, mother in-laws, for their encouragement throughout my career. I convey my heartfelt thanks to my wife Sujatha, Son Yateesh and Daugher Yoshita for their unconditional love, support, encouragement and patience, without their help it would not have been possible for me to finish the task smoothly. I am glad to thank all my teachers for their valuable guidance since my childhood.

I am also greatly indebted to Prof. P. V. Sharma, Prof. Srikantha Murthy, Prof. Bhagawan Dash, Prof. R.K. Sharma, Prof. R.H. Singh, Vaidya Veni Madhav Shastri Joshi and Vaidya Narayan Hari Joshi the great scholars of Ayurveda whose works have been immense help while preparing the present work. I express my sincere thanks of to all my colleagues for their vital encouragement and support. Good will, love, affection and overwhelming enthusiasm has shown to me by my students for which I shall remain thankful to them.

I am extremely thankful to Shri Rajendra Gupta, Ritesh, and Jitesh of Chaukhambha Publications, Delhi for publishing this work. I am thankful to Jitendra and Jauhari process for their kind co operation while composing my book.

 

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Encyclopedic Dictionary of Ayurveda

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From the Jacket

The Encyclopedia contains the comprehensive meaning of most of the terminologies in alphabetical sequence in a single volume. This book addresses the nuts and bolts and analytical side of difficult terminologies of Ayurveda. Its intent is to clear the haze surrounding the various concepts of Ayurveda by providing an elemental meaning of Ayurvedic terminologies. The material in this book is both broad and deep in relation to its contents.

It is a crucially important dictionary because of its unique approach towards understanding of Ayurvedic terminologies. It is very much essential to know the meaning of each and every technical term to acquire comprehensive knowledge on the subject. The primary focus is to acquaint scholars and students of Ayurveda as well as common people with Ayurvedic terminologies. The material has been meticulously organized in such a way that the student can easily approach, understand and internalize fundamentals of Ayurveda.

Kanjiv Lochan has completed Ph.D on history of Ayurveda and related medicines from the prestigious Centre of Historical Studies, JNU, New Delhi. He was invited as Visiting Scholar by Department of History of Medicine, Cambridge University, UK. He has authored and edited a number of scholarly books on Ayurveda. At present, he is engaged in teaching history in BS College, Lohardaga under Ranchi University, Ranchi, India. He could be reached at kanjivlochan@yahoo.in

Dr. Parameswarappa S. Byadgi is teaching Vikrti Vijnana and Roga Vijnana since 1997. He is renowned Ayurvedic diagnostician. He completed his graduation from Karnataka University, post graduation from Calcutta University and doctorate degree from Banaras Hindu University. The author has published 3 books, many articles and presented a number of papers to various national and international conferences. Presently he is working as Assistant Professor in the department of Vikriti Vigyan, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi E-mail: psbyadgi@rediffmail.com

 

Back of the Book

About the Book

The present work has been evolved with certain deliberate purposes: 1) placing Ayurveda in a proper format to the international community which increasingly support and utilize alternative and pre-modern medical systems, 2) presenting various themes and factors of Ayurveda under a single cover so that students could acquire needful and meaningful insights into its diverse disciplines and 3) presenting the classical Ayurveda to the lay readers who are interested in this ancient craft of medicine. Well planned and well written, the present dictionary, it is hoped would soon become favorite among students and scholars of Ayurveda and at the same time would meet all academic requirements for the next several college generations. The present manual would lessen the burden of students moving here and there to consult a number of textbooks to acquire deep insights into various disciplines of Ayurveda.

The encyclopedia encompasses all the branches of Ayurveda. It orbits History of Ayurveda, its physiology, diagnostics, toxicology, pathology, mineralogy, cosmology, etc. apart from its vast pharmacology and pharmaceutics. The narratives of the countless entries of this encyclopedia have been hemmed with several illustrations. Thus utilizing faculty of the pen and pencil, the author-duo has produced a really great work on the subject. In present and in a foreseeable future, no other work would be probably able to surpass the utility and reach of this single volume in providing a comprehensive knowledge of Ayurveda.

 

Preface

It is only a truism that we are proceeding toward an interdependence of the world. This interdependence is most plainly manifest in the field of medicine. Not fully satisfied with modern medicines, patients as well as physicians all over world are trying alternate systems and indigenous medicines. Small wonder, there is an increased curiosity to learn Ayurveda as well as other non-allopathic systems across the world. Diverse medicine systems today tend more and more towards affiliation and continuous accumulation of scientific knowledge across the globe. Thus, there seems at present roomier atmosphere so far possibility of global oneness of medicine relates. In course of time, I feel there would evolve a common system of medicine as today there is a common system of physics, chemistry and mathematics. Therefore, we need to showcase Ayurveda in a world-class format and to reduce the enormously vast amount of Ayurvedic literature into a handy volume containing all the nuances of this great art of healing. The present work has been prepared in the backdrop of this felt- need.

Secondly, for general students, there was need of a work that could define as well as elaborate various themes of Ayurveda under a single cover. It may be recalled that in Ayurveda, several terms denote connotations that are strikingly different to the meanings they are known for in general Sanskrit usage. For example one should not get surprised to see that the dvija in Ayurveda does not refer to the twice-born Brahmans but teeth. The term sanyas in not for renunciation of the worldly affairs in Ayurveda, but is something serious as the state of coma. Similarly, the term bhavana is not something akin to sentiments such as it is meant in common Sanskrit, but a pharmaceutical process to be adhered to without getting sentimental about. The list may be a long one indeed. Besides such complications, there are numerous terms of Ayurveda that require clarification as well as some definitional notes. As a student of Ayurveda and its history, I needed a manual or dictionary as such, and badly so. Therefore, I tried to locate one. However, my rummaging through the National Library, Kolkata and all the major libraries at Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai, Paine and Varanasi as well as through the World Book Fair, Delhi could not serve the purpose. Therefore, I decided to summon whatever scant knowledge and idea about Ayurveda I possessed to prepare such a dictionary myself.

The present work is a result of joint authorship. While finalizing the work, it was felt that the work must be scrutinized by a bonafide scholar of Ayurveda who is also engaged in class room teaching of the subject Thus, to enhance the authenticity and utilities of the work, services of Dr. Parameswarappa S. Byadgi, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Ayurveda, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi were obtained. Dr Parameswarappa has given the entire manuscript the benefit of his vigilant attention. He has clarified, polished and recast many passages of this volume. He has spared no pains to enhance its usefulness and attractiveness, and to ensure the incorporation of the best Ayurvedic knowledge and interpretation. Every aspect of this dictionary has been reconsidered by him, and at length so.

 

Preamble

This book addresses the meaning and description of terminologies used in Ayurveda. Though many books have been written on terminologies related to Ayurveda, but most of these are either incomplete or provide little information. Present work is an attempt to produce a comprehensive reference work allowing immediate access to a wide variety of Ayurveda-related topics and terminologies. The Encyclopedia contains the comprehensive meaning of the most of terminologies in alphabetical sequence in a single volume. The need for such a work is obvious to any practitioner or researcher or academicians of Ayurveda. The majority of source materials on the subject are in Sanskrit and this fad has proved an insurmountable barrier to most of the westerners interested in the understanding of Ayurveda. The numerous errors contained in the previous dictionaries have been blindly repeated in later editions and new ones have been introduced. The result is that most materials written in the west attempting to cover Ayurvedic history and development are factually unreliable and reveal an inevitable superficiality due to lack of direct access to sources on the part of their writers. My personal involvement with Ayurveda started 20 years ago, having always been interested in the science of life; I began publishing books on Ayurveda from 2007 onwards. Much of the important information has been collated, classified and presented in book form in the encyclopedic dictionary of Ayurveda for easy reference and in an effort to reach the wider group of readers. Responsibility for accuracy of the information contained in this book rests entirely with authors. We have tried to limit our self to areas concerning which we have direct knowledge and reliable documentation. Readers are invited to provide feedback regarding any errors or omissions they may discover and their observations may be reflected in future editions. This book addresses the nuts and bolts and analytical side of difficult terminologies of Ayurveda. Its intent is to dear the haze surrounding the concepts of Ayurveda by providing the fundamental meaning to Ayurvedic terminologies. The material in this book is both broad and deep in relation to its contents. The text is presented in a way that should make it accessible to anyone. Finally, it is impossible mission for any single book to attempt to write a comprehensive text on encyclopedic dictionary of Ayurveda.

The Importance of the Subject

It is a crucially important dictionary because of its unique approach towards understanding ayurvedic terminologies. It is very much essential to know the meaning of each and every technical terms to acquire comprehensive knowledge on the subject.

Uniqueness of this Publication

The primary focus is to generate interest among scholars and students of Ayurveda as well as common people to acquaint with Ayurvedic terminologies. The material has been meticulously organized in such a way that the student can easily understand, retain and reproduce it.

Intended Readers

Many devotees of Ayurveda may enjoy this book for the novelty of its fresh ideas. The intended are the large and heterogeneous group of Students, Teachers, Researchers, Medical practitioners and Clinicians of Ayurvedic field and scientists.

How to use the Book

The book is divided alphabetically from A to Z, which are almost independent and can be utilized very easily.

Acknowledgments

First, I thank Dr. Kanjiv Lochan for giving me an opportunity to utilise my expertise while finalising this task, because of his hard work this work got a complete shape. I thank all my family members for their continuous support while writing this book. My parents, Shivappa. N. Byadgi, and Puttavva. S. Byadgi and Uncle Andaneppa N.B. and aunt Sunandavva. A.B, for educating me to learn about art of life along with unconditional support and encouragement to pursue my interests in my career. I am also thankful to all my sisters, brothers, brother in-law’s, sister in-laws and grand mother’s, father in-laws, mother in-laws, for their encouragement throughout my career. I convey my heartfelt thanks to my wife Sujatha, Son Yateesh and Daugher Yoshita for their unconditional love, support, encouragement and patience, without their help it would not have been possible for me to finish the task smoothly. I am glad to thank all my teachers for their valuable guidance since my childhood.

I am also greatly indebted to Prof. P. V. Sharma, Prof. Srikantha Murthy, Prof. Bhagawan Dash, Prof. R.K. Sharma, Prof. R.H. Singh, Vaidya Veni Madhav Shastri Joshi and Vaidya Narayan Hari Joshi the great scholars of Ayurveda whose works have been immense help while preparing the present work. I express my sincere thanks of to all my colleagues for their vital encouragement and support. Good will, love, affection and overwhelming enthusiasm has shown to me by my students for which I shall remain thankful to them.

I am extremely thankful to Shri Rajendra Gupta, Ritesh, and Jitesh of Chaukhambha Publications, Delhi for publishing this work. I am thankful to Jitendra and Jauhari process for their kind co operation while composing my book.

 

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