Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
Your interests (Optional)
This will help us make recommendations and send discounts and sale information at times.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
.
Share
Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address info@exoticindia.com.

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
|6
Your Cart (0)
Books > Philosophy > Founders of Philosophy: Kapila, Patanjali, Kanada, Gautama, Jaimini & Badarayana
Displaying 1069 of 2721         Previous  |  NextSubscribe to our newsletter and discounts
Founders of Philosophy: Kapila, Patanjali, Kanada, Gautama, Jaimini & Badarayana
Pages from the book
Founders of Philosophy: Kapila, Patanjali, Kanada, Gautama, Jaimini & Badarayana
Look Inside the Book
Description

 

About the Book:

 

Indian philosophy represents the world's oldest philosophical tradition. It has not only the longest and most continuous development, but also a rich and varies growth.

The ancient Indian mind revelled in philosophical speculations from which emerged six schools of philosophy, popularly known as darsanas. Each school or system is associated with a sage as its first promulgator - Samkhya with Kapila, Yoga with Patanjali, Vaisesika with Kanada, Nyaya with Gautama, Mimamsa with Jaimini and Vedanta with Badarayana.

The system evolved in India as a result of the great thought ferment that characterized the post-Vedic age of thinkers.

This volume provides a glimpse into the personality and the contribution of these great philosophers. It also mentions their contribution to the building up and enrichment of Indian culture.

The series of booklets entitled "Cultural Leaders of India" is intended to create better and greater awareness of Indian culture among the general reading public.

PREFACE
In the series, there are about 125 names of outstanding figures in Indian literature and thought who have moulded the mind, life and thought of the people - poets and dramatists, founders of philosophical systems and religious movements, social philosophers, writers on science, aestheticians, hymnists, mystics and composers.

These booklets will provide the essential historical and biographical details of these figures as far as they have been either set forth in authoritative books by scholars and specialists or as accepted in tradition, without entering too much into academic discussions or controversies over dates, identities, etc. The works accepted as theirs are also dealt with, drawing special attention to the highlights, meaning, beauty, significance and influence of the works, without entering, into detailed textual criticism and other academic problems.

The accounts bear an accent on the personality of the poet, philosopher or mystic dealt with, the appeal of his work or works, and the nature and extent of the influence of the author and his work on subsequent writers and the people at large. It is expected that the evocatory and evaluatory presentation in these accounts will produce an adequate appreciation of the contribution of these personalities to the building up and enrichment of Indian culture.

This booklet deals with the founders of the six philosophical systems. Of the different branches of knowledge which the ancient Indian mind developed, the high water-mark is represented by the schools of philosophy. Indian tradition itself considers philosophy as the higher, greater knowledge. Para vidya, the Upanisad says, is that by which the Imperishable truth is attained: 'Yaya tad aksaram adhigamyate ' All the rest is lower, apara. In the words of the Gita, philosophy is the Vidya of Vidyas, knowledge par excellence (adhyatma-vidya vidyanam). Indian philosophy represents also the world's oldest philosophical tradition, one that had not only the longest and most continuous development, but also a rich and varied growth, reaching up to the modern times.

The Indian schools of philosophy grew out of the Vedas; two schools are wholly Vedic, the Mimamsa and the Vedanta, and the four others-Samkhya and Yoga, and Vaisesika and Nyaya- have their seeds in the Vedas. On this ground, the six schools are classed as Vedic or Astika, and from them are distinguished the two schools-Buddhism and Jainism- which are called Nastika as they do not .accept Vedic authority. But all these eight schools "are products of the great thought ferment that characterised the post-Vedic age of thinkers.

Each school of philosophy is called a Darsana, meaning a view or a vision of the Truth. Each is also called a Sastra, as it is a systematised pattern of thought. Indian philosophy is not a mere exercise in thought or ratiocination but an intuition and formulation of Truth which is to lead to a way of life with the ultimate end of obtaining Release (Moksa) from mundane life bound by time and space, by a world of relationships, by the chain of cause and effect and by recurring cycles of births and deaths.

The aims and aspirations of life are not only the pursuit of material gains (Artha) and pleasure (Kama) but also virtue and morality which chasten life (Dharma) and spiritual enlightment and freedom (Moksa). The greatest of these four aims is the last and it is to that Moksa that these schools of philosophy are addressed. The approach of Indian philosophy is an integrated one, and ethics and religion are not divorced from it. The final state is a realisation of the Truth and its direct experience (Anubhava).

The basic texts of these schools are in brief aphorisms, Sutras. While being a help to easy memorisation, these Sutras, which are like catch-words, have to be understood with the help of teachers and tradition, both of which play an important part in Indian philosophy. Because of their pithiness, they gave room for alternate explanations and within the same school, developed also sub-schools, for example, prominently in Vedanta, which are dealt with in the volume on the Ahcaryas.

Each school is associated with a sage (risi) as its first promulgator, Samkhya with Kapila, Yoga with Patanjali,• Vaisesika with Kanada, Nyaya with Gautama, Mimamsa with Jaimini and Vedanta with Badarayana-Vyasa. Because of their mutual relationship, these six schools fall into three groups of allied systems, Samana-tantras. Samkhya and Yoga go together; the philosophical framework of Samkhya is accepted by Yoga, with the addition of God as the omniscient first Teacher. The speciality of Yoga is the practical aspect of the methods of mental control by which the philosophical ideal of the Samk-hya, namely, the isolation (Kaivalya) of the Spirit from Matter is achieved. But Yoga as a Sadhana or preparatory discipline and means, irrespective of any philosophical doctrine, came to be accepted by all schools, including Buddhism and Jainisrn. Today, it has, with the help of science, grown in strength and gained a world-wide vogue.

The Vaisesika doctrines form the basis of Nyaya, both being schools of realism and pluralism. The speciality of Nyaya lies in its further treatment of logic and the. science of debate. The two, in fact, became later one eclectic school and put forth a fresh and rich development of formal and semantic logic. The Mimamsa and Vedanta go together because of their common Vedic basis but otherwise they differ fundamentally. The former is concerned with Karma and Dharma, the performance of ordained duty, but the latter to the opposite of Karma, namely, renunciation from activity; according to Vedanta, Knowledge (Jnana) is the means of Release (Moksa). Mimamsa is thus related to the Karma-kanda (Samhita and the Brahmana portion of the Vedas), Vedanta to the Upanisads. The Mimamsa also made a valuable contribution to the science of interpreting texts; it came to be known therefore as Vakya Sastra (the science of sentence). Likewise, the Nyaya which taught the science of precise thinking, came to be known as Pramana Sastra and the two constituted the basic disciplines of all scholarship. While all the rest, as philosophies in the main, receded to the background and survived only in their other ancillary contributions, Vedanta grew as Indian philosophy par excellence.

In the pages that follow, introductions to these six schools of Indian philosophy are provided by scholars who have made a special study of these schools of thought.

 

CONTENTS

 

1. Kapila A.G. Krishna Warrier 1
2. Patanjali M.P. Pandit 14
3. Kanada Anantalal Thakur 22
4. Gautama Anantalal Thakur 32
5. Jaimini G.V. Devasthali 46
6. Badarayana T.M.P. Mahadevan 57

 

Sample Page

Founders of Philosophy: Kapila, Patanjali, Kanada, Gautama, Jaimini & Badarayana

Item Code:
IDE398
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2001
Publisher:
Publications Division, Government of India
ISBN:
81-230-0943-7
Language:
English
Size:
8.5" X 5.5"
Pages:
71
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 122 gms
Price:
$7.50   Shipping Free
Look Inside the Book
Add to Wishlist
Send as e-card
Send as free online greeting card
Founders of Philosophy: Kapila, Patanjali, Kanada, Gautama, Jaimini & Badarayana

Verify the characters on the left

From:
Edit     
You will be informed as and when your card is viewed. Please note that your card will be active in the system for 30 days.

Viewed 8439 times since 1st Sep, 2015

 

About the Book:

 

Indian philosophy represents the world's oldest philosophical tradition. It has not only the longest and most continuous development, but also a rich and varies growth.

The ancient Indian mind revelled in philosophical speculations from which emerged six schools of philosophy, popularly known as darsanas. Each school or system is associated with a sage as its first promulgator - Samkhya with Kapila, Yoga with Patanjali, Vaisesika with Kanada, Nyaya with Gautama, Mimamsa with Jaimini and Vedanta with Badarayana.

The system evolved in India as a result of the great thought ferment that characterized the post-Vedic age of thinkers.

This volume provides a glimpse into the personality and the contribution of these great philosophers. It also mentions their contribution to the building up and enrichment of Indian culture.

The series of booklets entitled "Cultural Leaders of India" is intended to create better and greater awareness of Indian culture among the general reading public.

PREFACE
In the series, there are about 125 names of outstanding figures in Indian literature and thought who have moulded the mind, life and thought of the people - poets and dramatists, founders of philosophical systems and religious movements, social philosophers, writers on science, aestheticians, hymnists, mystics and composers.

These booklets will provide the essential historical and biographical details of these figures as far as they have been either set forth in authoritative books by scholars and specialists or as accepted in tradition, without entering too much into academic discussions or controversies over dates, identities, etc. The works accepted as theirs are also dealt with, drawing special attention to the highlights, meaning, beauty, significance and influence of the works, without entering, into detailed textual criticism and other academic problems.

The accounts bear an accent on the personality of the poet, philosopher or mystic dealt with, the appeal of his work or works, and the nature and extent of the influence of the author and his work on subsequent writers and the people at large. It is expected that the evocatory and evaluatory presentation in these accounts will produce an adequate appreciation of the contribution of these personalities to the building up and enrichment of Indian culture.

This booklet deals with the founders of the six philosophical systems. Of the different branches of knowledge which the ancient Indian mind developed, the high water-mark is represented by the schools of philosophy. Indian tradition itself considers philosophy as the higher, greater knowledge. Para vidya, the Upanisad says, is that by which the Imperishable truth is attained: 'Yaya tad aksaram adhigamyate ' All the rest is lower, apara. In the words of the Gita, philosophy is the Vidya of Vidyas, knowledge par excellence (adhyatma-vidya vidyanam). Indian philosophy represents also the world's oldest philosophical tradition, one that had not only the longest and most continuous development, but also a rich and varied growth, reaching up to the modern times.

The Indian schools of philosophy grew out of the Vedas; two schools are wholly Vedic, the Mimamsa and the Vedanta, and the four others-Samkhya and Yoga, and Vaisesika and Nyaya- have their seeds in the Vedas. On this ground, the six schools are classed as Vedic or Astika, and from them are distinguished the two schools-Buddhism and Jainism- which are called Nastika as they do not .accept Vedic authority. But all these eight schools "are products of the great thought ferment that characterised the post-Vedic age of thinkers.

Each school of philosophy is called a Darsana, meaning a view or a vision of the Truth. Each is also called a Sastra, as it is a systematised pattern of thought. Indian philosophy is not a mere exercise in thought or ratiocination but an intuition and formulation of Truth which is to lead to a way of life with the ultimate end of obtaining Release (Moksa) from mundane life bound by time and space, by a world of relationships, by the chain of cause and effect and by recurring cycles of births and deaths.

The aims and aspirations of life are not only the pursuit of material gains (Artha) and pleasure (Kama) but also virtue and morality which chasten life (Dharma) and spiritual enlightment and freedom (Moksa). The greatest of these four aims is the last and it is to that Moksa that these schools of philosophy are addressed. The approach of Indian philosophy is an integrated one, and ethics and religion are not divorced from it. The final state is a realisation of the Truth and its direct experience (Anubhava).

The basic texts of these schools are in brief aphorisms, Sutras. While being a help to easy memorisation, these Sutras, which are like catch-words, have to be understood with the help of teachers and tradition, both of which play an important part in Indian philosophy. Because of their pithiness, they gave room for alternate explanations and within the same school, developed also sub-schools, for example, prominently in Vedanta, which are dealt with in the volume on the Ahcaryas.

Each school is associated with a sage (risi) as its first promulgator, Samkhya with Kapila, Yoga with Patanjali,• Vaisesika with Kanada, Nyaya with Gautama, Mimamsa with Jaimini and Vedanta with Badarayana-Vyasa. Because of their mutual relationship, these six schools fall into three groups of allied systems, Samana-tantras. Samkhya and Yoga go together; the philosophical framework of Samkhya is accepted by Yoga, with the addition of God as the omniscient first Teacher. The speciality of Yoga is the practical aspect of the methods of mental control by which the philosophical ideal of the Samk-hya, namely, the isolation (Kaivalya) of the Spirit from Matter is achieved. But Yoga as a Sadhana or preparatory discipline and means, irrespective of any philosophical doctrine, came to be accepted by all schools, including Buddhism and Jainisrn. Today, it has, with the help of science, grown in strength and gained a world-wide vogue.

The Vaisesika doctrines form the basis of Nyaya, both being schools of realism and pluralism. The speciality of Nyaya lies in its further treatment of logic and the. science of debate. The two, in fact, became later one eclectic school and put forth a fresh and rich development of formal and semantic logic. The Mimamsa and Vedanta go together because of their common Vedic basis but otherwise they differ fundamentally. The former is concerned with Karma and Dharma, the performance of ordained duty, but the latter to the opposite of Karma, namely, renunciation from activity; according to Vedanta, Knowledge (Jnana) is the means of Release (Moksa). Mimamsa is thus related to the Karma-kanda (Samhita and the Brahmana portion of the Vedas), Vedanta to the Upanisads. The Mimamsa also made a valuable contribution to the science of interpreting texts; it came to be known therefore as Vakya Sastra (the science of sentence). Likewise, the Nyaya which taught the science of precise thinking, came to be known as Pramana Sastra and the two constituted the basic disciplines of all scholarship. While all the rest, as philosophies in the main, receded to the background and survived only in their other ancillary contributions, Vedanta grew as Indian philosophy par excellence.

In the pages that follow, introductions to these six schools of Indian philosophy are provided by scholars who have made a special study of these schools of thought.

 

CONTENTS

 

1. Kapila A.G. Krishna Warrier 1
2. Patanjali M.P. Pandit 14
3. Kanada Anantalal Thakur 22
4. Gautama Anantalal Thakur 32
5. Jaimini G.V. Devasthali 46
6. Badarayana T.M.P. Mahadevan 57

 

Sample Page

Post a Comment
 
Post Review
Post a Query
For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy

Related Items

Some Philosophical Issues in Logic and Language
by Sadhan Chakraborti
Hardcover (Edition: 2016)
Suryodaya Books
Item Code: NAN035
$30.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
कथालक्षणम्: The Art of Philosophical Debate
by डॉ. एल एस वादिराजाचार्य (Dr. L. S. Vadiraj Acharya )
Paperback (Edition: 2010)
Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation
Item Code: NZD646
$15.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Nagarjunian Disputations: A Philosophical Journey Through an Indian Looking-Glass
by Thomas E. Wood
Hardcover (Edition: 1995)
Sri Satguru Publications
Item Code: NAJ703
$40.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Pramana (Dharmakirti and The Indian Philosophical Debate)
by Lama Doboom Tulku and Maya Joshi
Hardcover (Edition: 2010)
Manohar Publishers and Distributors
Item Code: NAJ298
$20.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
VEDANTA And its Philosophical Development
by A. Ramamurthy
Hardcover (Edition: 2006)
D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: IDF138
$16.50
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Philosophical And Religious Lectures of Swami Vivekananda
by Swami Tapasyananda
Paperback (Edition: 2012)
Advaita Ashrama
Item Code: NAG120
$7.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Philosophical Perspectives of Sikhism
by Lt. Dr.Avtar Singh
Hardcover (Edition: 1998)
Publication Bureau Panjabi University
Item Code: NAH580
$18.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Al-Kindi (The Philosopher of The Arabs)
by George N. Atiyeh
Hardcover (Edition: 2006)
Kitab Bhavan
Item Code: NAG990
$30.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Evolution of Indian Philosophy: Andhra University Philosophical Studies, no. 8
by K. Satchidananda Murtyt
Paperback (Edition: 2007)
D. K. Printworld (P) Ltd.
Item Code: IDI946
$19.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Language and Communication: A Philosophical Study
by Sandhya Basu and Madhucchanda Sen
Hardcover (Edition: 2005)
Rabindra Bharati University
Item Code: NAM114
$25.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Philosophic Foundation of Ayurveda
by Prof. B.G. Gopinath
Hardcover (Edition: 2008)
Chaukhambha Sanskrit Pratishthan
Item Code: IDK372
$23.50
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Utpaladeva (Philosopher of Recognition)
by Raffaele Torella and Bettina Baumer
Hardcover (Edition: 2016)
D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: NAL937
$50.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Philosophical Concepts Revlevant to Sciences in Indian Tradition
by Pranab Kumar Sen
Hardcover (Edition: 2006)
Centre for Studies in Civilizations
Item Code: NAD679
$90.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Facets of Indian Philosophical Thought
by Dr. Shashi Prabha Kumar
Hardcover (Edition: 1999)
Vidyanidhi Prakashan
Item Code: IDI781
$25.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now

Testimonials

I recieved my Mahavir pendant today. It is wonderful. I was recently in Delhi and as it was a spiritual trip visiting Jain temples in Rajasthan, Agra, Rishikesh and Delhi i did not have the opportunity to shop much. The pendant is beautiful and i shall treasure it. I have attached a picture of me in India. Your country and the people will always be in my heart.
Evelyn, Desoto, Texas.
I received my Order this week, It's wonderful. I really thank you very much.
Antonio Freitas, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
I have been ordering from your site for several years and am always pleased with my orders and the time frame is lovely also. Thanks for being such a wonderful company.
Delia, USA
I recviced Book Air Parcel(Nadi-Astrology). I am glad to see this book. Thankx. Muhammad Arshad Nadeem Pakistan.
Muhammad Arshad Nadeem
It is always a great pleasure to return to Exotic India with its exquisit artwork, books and other items. As I said several times before, Exotic India is far more than a highly professional Indian online shop; it is in fact an excellent ambassador to the world for the splendour of Indian wisdom and spirituality. I wish a happy and successful New Year 2017 to Exotic India and its employees! You can be very proud of yourself!
Dr Michael Seeber (psychiatrist and psychotherapist, Essen/Germany)
My last order arrived in a reasonable amount of time, regarding the long way it had to take! I am glad to find this and some other ayurvedic remedy, as well as books and much other things at your online-store and I am looking forward to be your customer again, some time.
Andreas, Germany.
Намаскар! Честно говоря, сомневался. Но сегодня получил свой заказ. Порадовала упаковка, упаковано всё очень тщательно и аккуратно. Большое спасибо, как раз подарок к Новому Году! Namaskar! Frankly, I doubted. But today received my order. We were pleased with the packaging. Everything is packed carefully and accurately. Thank you very much, just a gift for the New Year!
Ruslan, Russia.
Thanks for the great sale!! It really helped me out. I love Exotic India.
Shannon, USA
I have got the 3 parcels with my order today and everything is perfect. Thank you very much for such a good packaging to protect the items and for your service.
Guadalupe, Spain
Great books! I am so glad you make them available to order, thank you!
Yevgen, USA
TRUSTe online privacy certification
Language:
Currency:
All rights reserved. Copyright 2017 © Exotic India