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The Fundamentals of Advaita Vedanta
The Fundamentals of Advaita Vedanta
Description

From the Jacket:

This book is a reliable compendium covering the whole gamut of philosophical problems and metaphysical issues concerning the system of Sri Samkaracarya's Advaita Vedanta. Besides referring to the philosophical conceptions and arguments as available in Samkara's works, it also attempts the exposition of the arguments and ideas of the eminent Post Samkarite philosophers to give a logically satisfactory exposition to Samkara's system of Advaita Vedanta. This work is through exposition, based on original Samkrta sources, of the fundamentals of Advaita Vedanta, as a whole, distributing the book in Chapters related to different philosophical topics. The author also refers to some of the modern criticism against Advaita Vedanta by the protagonists of Dvaita Vedanta and Buddhism.

About the Author:

K. Narain, born and brought up at Faizabad in Uttar Pradesh, obtained degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Allahabad University in 1959. he has contributed several articles in national and international journals of Philosophy and Indology. His An Outline of Madhva Philosophy, A Critique of Madhva Refutation of the Samkara School of Vedanta, Madhva Darsan (Hindi) and The Philosophy of the Vallabha School of Vedanta are also pioneering works.

 

CONTENTS

 

I. INTRODUCTION 1
  1 Samkara School and its Literature 4
  2 Resume of Advaita Vedanta Philosophy

 

9
II. CRITERION OF TRUTH

 

13
III. NATURE AND ORDERS OF REALITY 20
  1 Nature of Reality 20
    1.1 Buddhist Anti-Substantialism 22
    1.2 The Substantialist Reaction 24
    1.3 Samkara's Refutation of Buddhism 26
    1.4 Samkara's Refutation of Jaina Relativism 34
    1.5 Re-assertion of Absolutism 37
  2 Orders of Reality

 

38
IV. THE NATURE OF FALSEHOOD 46
  1 First Definition 47
  2 Second Definition 52
  3 Third Definition 57
  4 Fourth Definition 60
  5 Fifth Definition

 

61
V. EPISTEMOLOGY 65
  1 The Idea of Knowledge 65
    1.1 The Doctrine of Self 65
    1.2 Nature of Knowledge 68
      1.2.1 Nature of Consciousness 68
      1.2.2 Knowledge-object-relation 82
      1.2.3 Knowledge-self-relation 85
    1.3 The Nature of Ego 88
    1.4 Self-luminosity of Atman and Knowledge 90
  2 States and Forms of Knowledge 94
    2.1 States of Consciousness 95
      2.1.1 The Waking State 95
      2.1.2 The Dream State 96
      2.1.3 The Deep-sleep-state 98
    2.2 Forms of Knowledge 101
    2.3 Transcendental Formless Consciousness 102
    2.4 Other Supra-rational Forms of Knowledge 103
  3 Means of Knowledge 104
    3.1 Meaning and Statues of Pramana 104
    3.2 Number of Pramanas in Advaita Vedanta 106
    3.3 Theory of Emergence of Antahkarana in Perception 107
    3.4 Perception (Pratyaksa) 111
      3.4.1 Internal Perception 112
      3.4.2 External Perception 113
      3.4.3 Indeterminate and Determinate Perception 115
    3.5 Inference (Anumana) 118
      3.5.1 Definition of Inference 118
      3.5.2 The Meaning and Origin of Vyapti 119
      3.5.3 Types of Inference 120
      3.5.4 The Advaita Syllogism 121
    3.6 Comparison (Upamana) 123
    3.7 Presumption (Arthapatti) 124
      3.7.1 Types of Arthapatti 126
    3.8 Non-apprehension (Anupalabdhi) 127
      3.8.1 Testimony (Sabda) 129
        3.8.1.1 Nature of Aptatva 130
          3.8.1.1.1 Pauruseya 130
          3.8.1.1.2 Apauruseya 131
          3.8.1.1.3 Validity of Smrti 133
        3.8.1.2 Vedanta Semantics 134
          3.8.1.2.1 Conditions of Valid Knowledge 135
          3.8.1.2.2 Primary and Implied Meaning 137
  4 Relation between Experience, Reason and Authority 140
    4.1 Experience Vis-à-vis Reasoning and Authority 140
    4.2 Reasoning Vis-à-vis Scriptural Testimony 142
  5 Validity of Knowledge 145
    5.1 Paratah-pramanya Theory of Nyaya 145
    5.2 Advaita Vedanta Conception of Self-validity 147
  6 False Knowledge (Avidya) 149
    6.1 Introductory 149
    6.2 The Doctrine of Illusion 150
      6.2.1 Mimamsa Theories of Prabhakara and Kumarila 151
      6.2.2 Nyaya Anyathakhyativada 154
      6.2.3 Sadasadkhyati of Samkhya 156
      6.2.4 Sat-khyati of Ramanuja 156
      6.2.5 Asatkhyati of Madhyamika Buddhists 157
      6.2.6 Atmakhyati of Yogacara Buddhism 158
      6.2.7 Anirvacaniya-khyati of Advaita Vedanta 159
    6.3 The Process of Illusion 161
    6.4 Avidya, the material-cause of Adhyasa 163
      6.4.1 Nature of Avidya 164
      6.4.2 Definition of Avidya 164
      6.4.3 Logical Proofs of Nescience

 

167
VI. REFUTATION OF DIFFERENCE 170
  1 Nature and Meaning of Difference 170
  2 Advaita Refutation of Difference and Formulation of Identity 172
    2.1 Criticism of Svarupavada 172
    2.2 Criticism of Attributive Theory 175
    2.3 Refutation of Bhedabheda

 

179
VII. THEORY OF CAUSALITY 182
  1 Gaudapada's Doctrine of Non-origination 182
  2 Parinamavada and Vivarttavada 190
  3 Brahman as the world-cause

 

195
VIII. THE CONCEPTION OF MAYA

 

203
IX. THE CONCEPT OF GOD (ISVARA)

 

212
X. PHILOSOPHY OF INDIVIDUAL SOUL 223
  1 Nature of Individual Soul (Jivatman) 223
    1.1 The Limitation Theory 224
    1.2 The Reflaction Theory 226
      1.2.1 The Vivarana View 228
      1.2.2 The Samksepasariraka View 229
      1.2.3 The Prakatartha View 231
      1.2.4 Vidyaranya's Exposition 231
    1.3 The Condition Theory 232
  2 Numbers of Souls 233
    2.1 Doctrine of One-Soul (Ekajivavada) 233
    2.2 Doctrine of Plurality of Souls (Anekajivavada) 234
  3 Dimensions of Soul 239
  4 Denial of Agency of Atman 243
  5 Relation between Jiva and Brahman

 

243
XI. PHILOSOPHY OF WORLD 246
  1 Nature of World 246
  2 Inference proving Falsity of World 250
    2.1 Perceptibility as Reason 250
    2.2 Jadatva as Reason 253
    2.3 Finitude as Reason 253
    2.4 Amsatva as Reason 254
  3 The Doctrine of Creation 255
    3.1 The Process of Creation 256
    3.2 Pancikarana Process 257
    3.3 Creation of Subtle Bodies 258
    3.4 The Process of Dissolution

 

259
XII. THE SUMMUM BONUM AND THE MEANS 260
  1 Introductory 260
  2 The Nature of Moksa 261
  3 Pathways to Attainment of Liberation 267
    3.1 Path of the Realization of Nirguna-Brahman 268
    3.2 Path of Realization through meditation on Qualified Brahman 272
  4 Doctrine of Jivanmukti 273
  5 Knowledge as means to Liberation 278
  6 Utility of Karma as means to Knowledge 280
  7 Bhakti as means to Knowledge 282
  8 Eschatology

 

284
XIII. CONCLUDING REMARKS

 

286
  BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

291
  INDEX 299

Sample Pages

















The Fundamentals of Advaita Vedanta

Item Code:
IDE487
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2003
ISBN:
8188260002
Language:
English
Size:
8.8" X 5.8"
Pages:
320
Price:
$31.50   Shipping Free
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From the Jacket:

This book is a reliable compendium covering the whole gamut of philosophical problems and metaphysical issues concerning the system of Sri Samkaracarya's Advaita Vedanta. Besides referring to the philosophical conceptions and arguments as available in Samkara's works, it also attempts the exposition of the arguments and ideas of the eminent Post Samkarite philosophers to give a logically satisfactory exposition to Samkara's system of Advaita Vedanta. This work is through exposition, based on original Samkrta sources, of the fundamentals of Advaita Vedanta, as a whole, distributing the book in Chapters related to different philosophical topics. The author also refers to some of the modern criticism against Advaita Vedanta by the protagonists of Dvaita Vedanta and Buddhism.

About the Author:

K. Narain, born and brought up at Faizabad in Uttar Pradesh, obtained degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Allahabad University in 1959. he has contributed several articles in national and international journals of Philosophy and Indology. His An Outline of Madhva Philosophy, A Critique of Madhva Refutation of the Samkara School of Vedanta, Madhva Darsan (Hindi) and The Philosophy of the Vallabha School of Vedanta are also pioneering works.

 

CONTENTS

 

I. INTRODUCTION 1
  1 Samkara School and its Literature 4
  2 Resume of Advaita Vedanta Philosophy

 

9
II. CRITERION OF TRUTH

 

13
III. NATURE AND ORDERS OF REALITY 20
  1 Nature of Reality 20
    1.1 Buddhist Anti-Substantialism 22
    1.2 The Substantialist Reaction 24
    1.3 Samkara's Refutation of Buddhism 26
    1.4 Samkara's Refutation of Jaina Relativism 34
    1.5 Re-assertion of Absolutism 37
  2 Orders of Reality

 

38
IV. THE NATURE OF FALSEHOOD 46
  1 First Definition 47
  2 Second Definition 52
  3 Third Definition 57
  4 Fourth Definition 60
  5 Fifth Definition

 

61
V. EPISTEMOLOGY 65
  1 The Idea of Knowledge 65
    1.1 The Doctrine of Self 65
    1.2 Nature of Knowledge 68
      1.2.1 Nature of Consciousness 68
      1.2.2 Knowledge-object-relation 82
      1.2.3 Knowledge-self-relation 85
    1.3 The Nature of Ego 88
    1.4 Self-luminosity of Atman and Knowledge 90
  2 States and Forms of Knowledge 94
    2.1 States of Consciousness 95
      2.1.1 The Waking State 95
      2.1.2 The Dream State 96
      2.1.3 The Deep-sleep-state 98
    2.2 Forms of Knowledge 101
    2.3 Transcendental Formless Consciousness 102
    2.4 Other Supra-rational Forms of Knowledge 103
  3 Means of Knowledge 104
    3.1 Meaning and Statues of Pramana 104
    3.2 Number of Pramanas in Advaita Vedanta 106
    3.3 Theory of Emergence of Antahkarana in Perception 107
    3.4 Perception (Pratyaksa) 111
      3.4.1 Internal Perception 112
      3.4.2 External Perception 113
      3.4.3 Indeterminate and Determinate Perception 115
    3.5 Inference (Anumana) 118
      3.5.1 Definition of Inference 118
      3.5.2 The Meaning and Origin of Vyapti 119
      3.5.3 Types of Inference 120
      3.5.4 The Advaita Syllogism 121
    3.6 Comparison (Upamana) 123
    3.7 Presumption (Arthapatti) 124
      3.7.1 Types of Arthapatti 126
    3.8 Non-apprehension (Anupalabdhi) 127
      3.8.1 Testimony (Sabda) 129
        3.8.1.1 Nature of Aptatva 130
          3.8.1.1.1 Pauruseya 130
          3.8.1.1.2 Apauruseya 131
          3.8.1.1.3 Validity of Smrti 133
        3.8.1.2 Vedanta Semantics 134
          3.8.1.2.1 Conditions of Valid Knowledge 135
          3.8.1.2.2 Primary and Implied Meaning 137
  4 Relation between Experience, Reason and Authority 140
    4.1 Experience Vis-à-vis Reasoning and Authority 140
    4.2 Reasoning Vis-à-vis Scriptural Testimony 142
  5 Validity of Knowledge 145
    5.1 Paratah-pramanya Theory of Nyaya 145
    5.2 Advaita Vedanta Conception of Self-validity 147
  6 False Knowledge (Avidya) 149
    6.1 Introductory 149
    6.2 The Doctrine of Illusion 150
      6.2.1 Mimamsa Theories of Prabhakara and Kumarila 151
      6.2.2 Nyaya Anyathakhyativada 154
      6.2.3 Sadasadkhyati of Samkhya 156
      6.2.4 Sat-khyati of Ramanuja 156
      6.2.5 Asatkhyati of Madhyamika Buddhists 157
      6.2.6 Atmakhyati of Yogacara Buddhism 158
      6.2.7 Anirvacaniya-khyati of Advaita Vedanta 159
    6.3 The Process of Illusion 161
    6.4 Avidya, the material-cause of Adhyasa 163
      6.4.1 Nature of Avidya 164
      6.4.2 Definition of Avidya 164
      6.4.3 Logical Proofs of Nescience

 

167
VI. REFUTATION OF DIFFERENCE 170
  1 Nature and Meaning of Difference 170
  2 Advaita Refutation of Difference and Formulation of Identity 172
    2.1 Criticism of Svarupavada 172
    2.2 Criticism of Attributive Theory 175
    2.3 Refutation of Bhedabheda

 

179
VII. THEORY OF CAUSALITY 182
  1 Gaudapada's Doctrine of Non-origination 182
  2 Parinamavada and Vivarttavada 190
  3 Brahman as the world-cause

 

195
VIII. THE CONCEPTION OF MAYA

 

203
IX. THE CONCEPT OF GOD (ISVARA)

 

212
X. PHILOSOPHY OF INDIVIDUAL SOUL 223
  1 Nature of Individual Soul (Jivatman) 223
    1.1 The Limitation Theory 224
    1.2 The Reflaction Theory 226
      1.2.1 The Vivarana View 228
      1.2.2 The Samksepasariraka View 229
      1.2.3 The Prakatartha View 231
      1.2.4 Vidyaranya's Exposition 231
    1.3 The Condition Theory 232
  2 Numbers of Souls 233
    2.1 Doctrine of One-Soul (Ekajivavada) 233
    2.2 Doctrine of Plurality of Souls (Anekajivavada) 234
  3 Dimensions of Soul 239
  4 Denial of Agency of Atman 243
  5 Relation between Jiva and Brahman

 

243
XI. PHILOSOPHY OF WORLD 246
  1 Nature of World 246
  2 Inference proving Falsity of World 250
    2.1 Perceptibility as Reason 250
    2.2 Jadatva as Reason 253
    2.3 Finitude as Reason 253
    2.4 Amsatva as Reason 254
  3 The Doctrine of Creation 255
    3.1 The Process of Creation 256
    3.2 Pancikarana Process 257
    3.3 Creation of Subtle Bodies 258
    3.4 The Process of Dissolution

 

259
XII. THE SUMMUM BONUM AND THE MEANS 260
  1 Introductory 260
  2 The Nature of Moksa 261
  3 Pathways to Attainment of Liberation 267
    3.1 Path of the Realization of Nirguna-Brahman 268
    3.2 Path of Realization through meditation on Qualified Brahman 272
  4 Doctrine of Jivanmukti 273
  5 Knowledge as means to Liberation 278
  6 Utility of Karma as means to Knowledge 280
  7 Bhakti as means to Knowledge 282
  8 Eschatology

 

284
XIII. CONCLUDING REMARKS

 

286
  BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

291
  INDEX 299

Sample Pages

















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