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Books > Hindu > The Gleams of Science in The Upanisads and Srimad Bhagwat Gita
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The Gleams of Science in The Upanisads and Srimad Bhagwat Gita
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The Gleams of Science in The Upanisads and Srimad Bhagwat Gita
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About the Book

This book explains ancient Indian science with the help of modern science.

Many places exhibit that the ancient Indian science was far advanced than modern science.

Aitarey's opinion that intrauterine foetus thinks, because it has knowledge, is proved by ultramodern science, in September 2009.

Ancient Indian literature states the order of development of organs in a foetus and it is roved that modern science with it.

Modern science accepted in 1972 AD, the statements of Aitareya and the Bhagawata that heart began, in second month of intrauterine life.

Aitareya state that ears recognize directions; it is proved by science in 1935.

Upanisads state that every sensory organ has two functions. This book shows its correctness according to modern science.

What is death? When does it begin working? How to avoid death? All these questions have no answer in modern science, but the Aitareya Upanisad gives answers.

This book shows that life induces mind: Mind exists separately and can work without brain or nervous tissue.

This book proves, scientifically, the existence of the seven Lokas namely, Bhu, Bhuva, Swa Maha, Jana, Tapa, Satyam. It explains the five Kosas and their capacities to roam in these Lokas. This book shows was the seven tongues of Agni are the seven energy bands of modern science Manojawa means Tachyons, which are subatomic particles faster than light and are discovered in 1967.

This book shows that at death Prana Goes away leaving life behind. Life is food of other animals Life means the Jeeva and Prana governs the Jeeva.

 

About the Author

Education: first class with distinction throughout school and college. Stood first in London Chamber of Commerce examination (1946) as well as in the Intermediate Drawing examination (1946). Body Beautiful Champion in school days. Passed M.B.B.S. in the first attempt with distinction in Preventive Medicine, in 1956. Studied for Master of Surgery. Worked as lecturer in Surgery at Lokamanya Tilak Ayurveda College, Pune and Hon. Assistant Surgeon at Seth Tarachanda Ramnath Hospital, Pune from 1956 to 1969.

Began private practice in 1956. Set up Vishnuprasad Nursing Home fully equipped with X-ray, E.C.G., Pathology Laboratory, etc at 521 Shaniwar Peth, Pune.

Began studies of Yoga and Adhyatma Shastras [Spiritual sciences] since 1956 and practised it as a science. Got extraordinary experiences since 1959.

First experiment of Astral Travel in Samadhi to the planet Mars was done on IO" August 1975. The report with 21 points was kept published, out of which 20 points got full corroboration by the spaceship 'Viking l' after 21st July 1976, while the 21't point about ancient water and moss on the Mars was tallied by the Pathfinder in 1987. The second Astral Travel to the Mars was done on 12th August 1976 to see the docking of Viking 1 and Viking 2. The report was kept published which got full corroboration after one month by N.A.S.A. Third Astral Travel was done to the planet Jupiter on 27th August 1977. 18 points were published out of which 10 were corroborated, two years later by Voyager in 1979. In Samadhi saw a man on a planet in a nearby solar system in 1980 and is kept published, awaiting corroboration by science in future. The planet Saturn was visited via Samadhi, during 1996 onwards; because America was going to launch a spaceship towards Saturn to study it and which was to reach the Saturn during 2004. Saw that the Saturn is a ball of heavy gases of three types, having purple, yellowish and blakish shades. These gases are revolving. The famous ring of Saturn is made up of some material like slurry or mud, and on this slurry few rocks are floating and rotating. There is no land on the Saturn, so land marks can not be described. This description is kept published in the third edition (dated July 2003) of autobiography 'Brahmarshichi Smaranayatra'. So far only the presence of rocks in the rings is found by the spaceship, nothing else is reported by the space research scientists.

 

Preface

I am a Physician and Surgeon by profession, since 1956. I am dragged to the spiritual field by Brahma. Being scientific minded I always think scientifically. It is said that the Upanishads and the Vedas contain ultimate truth. If it were so that truth must tally with the truth discovered by modem science. However it is not seen, if we go by the traditional translations done by previous authors. Hence I began thinking. It is my practice to think originally, without looking to what others say. Therefore I began study of the Upanishads myself. During 1976, I had purchased the Upanishads at Haridwara without any reason. It was Brahma's direction. On studying, I found that the translations done by the experts were wrong. Hence I 'began talking on the Upanishads with independent thinking. I follow the truth and stick to the truth. Hence I could find out the truth from the Upanishads. I detected many mistakes done by the forefathers during last thousand years. For example, 'Brahmacharya'. Our ancestors wrongly thought about Brahmacharya, Celibacy does not mean Brahmacharya. Brahmacharya means to behave (Charya) according to Brahma. Brahma has procreated male and female to come together to produce children. Why go against the will of Brahma? The great authors of the Upanishads were married and had produced children. They advised their students to maintain progeny. If we go against Brahma's wish, how can we reach or find Brahma? Therefore behave according to Brahma, which is the nature.

The sages were not against wealth. The sages understood the value of wealth as a power. However in the later period, somehow, the track of thinking was changed and people began to neglect the wealth. People, particularly the Hindus, began renouncing the world and therefore began downfall. It was wrong. You can enjoy the world and still find Brahma. That is taught by the Upanishads.

The Upanishads contain lot of science. Almost up to date science is seen in the Upanishads. Please read this book without prejudice and you will admit that the sages were really great scientists.

People think that science and spirituality are rivals. It is wrong. Spirituality may be away from science; but Adhyatma is science itself. Science of spirit is spirituality. 'Spirit' is a vague term, but it represents Pranamaya Kosha of the Taittiriya Upanishad. Inside it there are three Koshas and then Atman is situated. Adhyatma means knowing Atman. Spirituality is studying spirits. For understanding Atman we must study scientifically. During such study the seers discovered many scientific truths.

I have put those scientific truths before you. Please read and think over.

The main seven Upanishads are composed before the Mahabharata war, which happened on 16th October 5561 years Before Christ. The Ishavasya is written after the Mahabharata, but it has high scientific value.

In this book I have stated, on page 112, that mind is not a function of brain, mind can exist without brain, and there is one Universal mind, too. I got support to my opinion in one episode recently shown on TV in Discovery channel, during February-March 2010. It is shown that in Guyana there is a special tree, about 10-15 feet tall. In its trunk reside a species of ants. Those ants take shelter of the trunk of that tree. Those ants feed on the secretions of the tree, and in return maintain the tree clean. If the tree gets spoiled by excreta of birds, the ants remove the excreta and clean the tree. Thus they help each other. On investigations it is seen that if somebody cuts a leaf of the tree, immediately the ants gather near the injured leaf, just to protect the supporting tree. How and why do the ants come to the injured part, in short time? How do the ants know that a leaf is injured? How do they understand which leaf is injured? The tree must be informing the ants directly or the tree's thoughts might be going to the Universal mind and relayed down to the ants. Trees have no brain, but have mind and its mind works to connect to the mind of ants. Both exhibit mind and gratefulness. It proves my theory that mind exists without brain and one Universal mind too exists. It is mind of Ishwara, the Universal controller.

 

Introduction

Upanisad means to sit near. In the ancient era disciples used to sit near their teacher to learn, receive and attain knowledge. Teachers used to give secret knowledge to the disciples by making them sit near. Hence the high philosophy is named as the Upanisad. The Upanisads contain such a secret knowledge about the Supreme Energy working behind this Universe that the person learning, receiving, attaining this knowledge will definitely go close to that Supreme Energy. Hence in that sense also the word Upanisad is quite fit or appropriate.

If the Upanisads have given the full knowledge about the Prime Energy controlling the Universe and if that knowledge really is capable to take us near that supreme self, it must be containing some scientific knowledge. Here we have to unveil the scientific knowledge enclosed in the Upanisads.

To begin with let us see how vast is the literature termed as Upanisad. To find out the basic principles behind this Universe was the main aim of the Vedas particularly the Rgveda, Yajurveda and Atharva Veda. The process of thinking went on generation after generation in the ancient Vedic period and the ultimate theory or philosophy was compiled in the Upanisads, Therefore the Upanisads are also named as Vedanta. Vedanta has two meanings. The usual first meaning is that the Upanisads are the end of the Vedic age or Vedic thought process. Chronologically it is the end. But according to the second meaning it is the highest point of the Vedic philosophy. As nobody can go beyond it, it is called as the end of the knowledge or Vedanta. The Hindu religion is based on this great knowledge, which is not limited to only the Hindus; but it is for the whole mankind. Therefore in the passage of thousands of years that philosophy has not perished. Other cultures of the world are lost; but the Vedic culture is still living magnificently. Why? What is the difference between the Vedic culture and other cultures, which are lost? The other cultures were restricted to a self or a human race, but the Vedic knowledge is compiled for the whole mankind. Hence as far as the human being lives on this Earth the Vedic knowledge will exist. The Upanisads tell the basic principles for any man how to live with others loving each other. Upanisads do not say a word which may create harted about anything living or non-living. That is the greatness of the Upanisads.

Let us now see the expanse of the Upanisads. The main important Upanisads are only eight viz. Isavasya, Kena, katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya and Aitareya. Out of these eight Aitareya belongs to the Rgveda, Katha and Taittiriya belong to the Black Yajurveda. Isavasya belongs to the Sukla Yajurveda, Kena belongs to the Sama Veda while Prasna, Mundaka and Mandukya belong to Atharva Veda. These eight are the most ancient and prime Upanidsads. All the commentators including the great Sankaracharya have written their views on these eight Upanisads.

Adi Sankaracharya has covered two more Upanisads namely chhabdogya of Sama Veda and Brhadaranyaka from Sukla Yajurveda.

Some ancient commentators have included some more as the ancient ones and important ones. These are Svetasvatara of Black Yajurveda, Kausitaki of Rgveda and Maitrayani of Sama Veda.

There is one Muktika Upanisad, which informs us about 108 Upanisads. Muktika gives summary of these 108 Upanisads. It shows that these were really existent.

Let us enlist all these 108 Upanisads classified according to the Veda to which they belong.

I Rgveda:-
1) Aitareya. 2) Kausitaki. 3) Nadabindu. 4) Atmaprabodha. 5) Nirvana. 6) Mudgala. 7) Aksamalika. 8) Tripura. 9) Soubhagya. 10) Bahvrcha.

II Black Yajurveda:-
1) Kathavalli. 2) Taittiriya. 3) Brahma. 4) Kaivalya. 5) Svetasvatara. 6) Garbha. 7) Narayana. 8) Amrtabindu. 9) Amrtanada. 10) Kalagni Rudra. 11) Ksurika. 12) Sarva Sara. 13) Suka Rahasya. 14) Tejobindu. 15) Dhyanabindu. 16) Brhma Vidya. 17) Yoga tatva. 18) Daksinamurti. 19) Skanda. 20) Saririka. 21) Yoga sikha. 22) Ekaksara. 23) Aksi. 24) Avadhoota. 25)Katha. 26) Rudra hrdaya. 27)Yogakundlini. 28) Pancha Brahma. 29) Pranagni Hotra. 30) Varaha. 31) Kali Santarana. 32) Sarasvati Rahasya.

III Sukla Yajurveda:-
1) Isavasya. 2) Brhadaranyaka. 3) Jabala. 4) Hamsa. 5)Parama Hansa. 6) Subala. 7) Mantrika. 8) Niralamba. 9) Trisikhi Brahmana. 10) Mandala Brahmana. 11) Advaya Taraka. 12) Paingal. 13) Bhiksu. 14) Turiyateeta. 15) Adhyatma. 16)Tarasara. 17) Yajnavalkya. 18) Satyayani. 19) Muktika.

IV Sama Veda:-
1) Kena. 2) Chhandogya. 3) Aruni. 4) Maitrayani. 5) Maitreyi. 6) Vajrasoochika. 7) Yoga Chudamani. 8) Vasudeva. 9) Mahat. 10) Sanyasa. 11) Avyakta. 12) Khandika. 13) Savitri. 14) Rudraksa Jabala. 15) Darsana. 16) Jabali.

V Atharva Veda
1) Prasna. 2) Mundaka. 3) Mandukya. 4) Atharva Siras. 5) Atharva Sikha. 6) Brhat Jabala. 7) Nrsinha Tapini. 8) Narada Parivrajaka. 9) Seeta. 10) Sarabha. 11) Maha Narayana. 12) Rama Rahasya. 13) Rama Tapini. 14) Sandiliya. 15) Paramhansa Vrajaka. 16) Annapoorna. 17) Surya. 18) Atma. 19) Pasupata. 20) ParaBrahma. 21) Tripura Tapani. 22) Devi. 23) Bhavana. 24) Brahma. 25) Ganapati. 26) Mahavakya. 27) Gopala Tapini. 28) Krsna. 29) Hayagriva. 30) Dattatreya. 31) Garuda.

The eighth of the Atharva Veda Upanisad, namely narada Parivrajaka, mentions about one Purusa Sookta Upanisad. It is related to the famous Purusa Sookta presented by all the Vedas. In the Rgveda it is at 10/90.

One scholar Mr G.S.Sadhale has published in 1941 one encyclopaedia of the Upanidasa, namely "Upanisad-Vakya-Mahakosa". It is in two volumes and has taken references from 239 Upanisads. It proves that 239 Upanisads were present at his time. This book mentions categories of Upanisads like Tapini, Atharva Veda etc. But it does include the following – (1) Garbhastravini (Rg 5-78-7 to 9). (2) Praswapini (Rg 7-55-2 to 8). (3) Rogaghna (Rg 1-50-11 to 13). (4) Visanirharani (Rgg 1-191-1 to 16). (5) Sapatni nasana (Rg 10-145-1 to 6). These Abhicharaka Upanisads are mentioned in Sarvanukramani composed by Katyayana. As these are present in the main Rgveda it may not be termed as Upanmisad, it is a part of Samhita.

Rudradhyaya of Krsna Yajurveda is in fact not an Upanisad, but related to that there is one ancient Upanisad available, which is named as Rudropanisad.

Vaidika Samsodhana Madal has published five newly found Upanisads, namely Baskala, Chhagaleya, Arseya, Sounaka and Jaiminiya.

From Adyar seventyone new Upanisads are published after a long research. These are classified under the following heads (1) Yoga. (2) Sanyasa. (3) Upanisana. (4) Philosophy (Tattvajnana). (5) Sakta. (6) Saiva. (7) Ordinary.

There are so many Upanisads because after Gautam Buddha many religions propped up and their preachers wrote an Upanisad to do the propaganda of their religion. They copied the style and the language of the basic 13 Upanisads. All these appear to have been written in medieval age, and are of low quality, without any good Philosophy or Science. There are Christ-Upanisad, Akabar Upanisad and Alla-Upanisad too. These are not to be considered in this essay because we are dealing with the Scientific knowledge and it is concentrated in the original eight to thirteen Upanisads.

Upanisads are the Philosophical literature teaching the real religion for the whole of the mankind. The sages appear to have concentrated their thoughts and observations to investigate the prime Energy, Isvara, filling the whole Universe and also the energy residing in the living being namely Atman. Finally they concluded that the same energy, which occupies animal bodies, is present everywhere in the Universe. That energy is unique and alone. There are no different energies in the world though they appear different. They are different manifestations of the one and the same energy. Getting this knowledge one sage concluded "You are that" [Tat Twam Asi, Chhandogya 6-8-7,9-4, 1 0-3, 11-3,12-3,l3-3,14-3,15-3, 16-3]. 'That' means anything from the world, living or non-living, and it is nothing else but you yourself (Twam).

Second sage concluded (Brhadaranyaka 1-4-10), "I am the all pervading energy". T means the energy due to which I say T. That energy, practically called as Atrnan, is the part and parcel of the all-pervading energy called as Brahman.

Third sage said, "All this (world) is occupied by Isa i.e. the all pervading controller of the Universe"

The fourth sage declared (Aitereya 3/3), "Prajnanam Brahma, which means extensive unfathomable knowledge is the all pervading Brahman".

He said so because he found out that everywhere in this Universe there is some knowledge. All the universal knowledge is termed 'Prajnana'. Every movement and every action in this Universe is full of knowledge.

Fifth sage said "Ayam Atma Brahma" in Mandukya (2), which means this Atman or Self is nothing else but Brahman.

Sixth sage tells in Mundaka 2-1-10 that "Purusa Eva Idam Visvam" or 'Brahma Eva Idam Visvam' (2-2-12).

"Ayam Atma Brahma" is stated by the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad at 2/5/19

 

Contents

 

  Extensive Bio data of Dr. Padmakar Vishnu Vartak vii
  preface xvii
  Introduction xix
  The Gleams of Science in the Upanisads  
1 Mundaka Upanisad 1
2 Mandukya Upanisad 41
3 Taittiriya Upanisad 51
4 Aitareya Upanisad 133
5 Isavasya Upanisad 183
6 Kena Upanisad 201
7 Katha Upanisad 223
8 Prasna Upanisad 269
9 Svetasvatara Upanisad 293
10 Brhadaranyaka Upanisad 297
11 Chhandogya Upanisad 305
12 Garbhopanisad 309
13 Gleams of Science from Srimad Bhagawat Geeta 321

 

Sample Pages
















The Gleams of Science in The Upanisads and Srimad Bhagwat Gita

Item Code:
NAM456
Cover:
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Edition:
2010
Publisher:
ISBN:
9789380574172
Language:
English
Size:
9.5 inch X 6.5 inch
Pages:
385
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Weight of the Book: 865 gms
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About the Book

This book explains ancient Indian science with the help of modern science.

Many places exhibit that the ancient Indian science was far advanced than modern science.

Aitarey's opinion that intrauterine foetus thinks, because it has knowledge, is proved by ultramodern science, in September 2009.

Ancient Indian literature states the order of development of organs in a foetus and it is roved that modern science with it.

Modern science accepted in 1972 AD, the statements of Aitareya and the Bhagawata that heart began, in second month of intrauterine life.

Aitareya state that ears recognize directions; it is proved by science in 1935.

Upanisads state that every sensory organ has two functions. This book shows its correctness according to modern science.

What is death? When does it begin working? How to avoid death? All these questions have no answer in modern science, but the Aitareya Upanisad gives answers.

This book shows that life induces mind: Mind exists separately and can work without brain or nervous tissue.

This book proves, scientifically, the existence of the seven Lokas namely, Bhu, Bhuva, Swa Maha, Jana, Tapa, Satyam. It explains the five Kosas and their capacities to roam in these Lokas. This book shows was the seven tongues of Agni are the seven energy bands of modern science Manojawa means Tachyons, which are subatomic particles faster than light and are discovered in 1967.

This book shows that at death Prana Goes away leaving life behind. Life is food of other animals Life means the Jeeva and Prana governs the Jeeva.

 

About the Author

Education: first class with distinction throughout school and college. Stood first in London Chamber of Commerce examination (1946) as well as in the Intermediate Drawing examination (1946). Body Beautiful Champion in school days. Passed M.B.B.S. in the first attempt with distinction in Preventive Medicine, in 1956. Studied for Master of Surgery. Worked as lecturer in Surgery at Lokamanya Tilak Ayurveda College, Pune and Hon. Assistant Surgeon at Seth Tarachanda Ramnath Hospital, Pune from 1956 to 1969.

Began private practice in 1956. Set up Vishnuprasad Nursing Home fully equipped with X-ray, E.C.G., Pathology Laboratory, etc at 521 Shaniwar Peth, Pune.

Began studies of Yoga and Adhyatma Shastras [Spiritual sciences] since 1956 and practised it as a science. Got extraordinary experiences since 1959.

First experiment of Astral Travel in Samadhi to the planet Mars was done on IO" August 1975. The report with 21 points was kept published, out of which 20 points got full corroboration by the spaceship 'Viking l' after 21st July 1976, while the 21't point about ancient water and moss on the Mars was tallied by the Pathfinder in 1987. The second Astral Travel to the Mars was done on 12th August 1976 to see the docking of Viking 1 and Viking 2. The report was kept published which got full corroboration after one month by N.A.S.A. Third Astral Travel was done to the planet Jupiter on 27th August 1977. 18 points were published out of which 10 were corroborated, two years later by Voyager in 1979. In Samadhi saw a man on a planet in a nearby solar system in 1980 and is kept published, awaiting corroboration by science in future. The planet Saturn was visited via Samadhi, during 1996 onwards; because America was going to launch a spaceship towards Saturn to study it and which was to reach the Saturn during 2004. Saw that the Saturn is a ball of heavy gases of three types, having purple, yellowish and blakish shades. These gases are revolving. The famous ring of Saturn is made up of some material like slurry or mud, and on this slurry few rocks are floating and rotating. There is no land on the Saturn, so land marks can not be described. This description is kept published in the third edition (dated July 2003) of autobiography 'Brahmarshichi Smaranayatra'. So far only the presence of rocks in the rings is found by the spaceship, nothing else is reported by the space research scientists.

 

Preface

I am a Physician and Surgeon by profession, since 1956. I am dragged to the spiritual field by Brahma. Being scientific minded I always think scientifically. It is said that the Upanishads and the Vedas contain ultimate truth. If it were so that truth must tally with the truth discovered by modem science. However it is not seen, if we go by the traditional translations done by previous authors. Hence I began thinking. It is my practice to think originally, without looking to what others say. Therefore I began study of the Upanishads myself. During 1976, I had purchased the Upanishads at Haridwara without any reason. It was Brahma's direction. On studying, I found that the translations done by the experts were wrong. Hence I 'began talking on the Upanishads with independent thinking. I follow the truth and stick to the truth. Hence I could find out the truth from the Upanishads. I detected many mistakes done by the forefathers during last thousand years. For example, 'Brahmacharya'. Our ancestors wrongly thought about Brahmacharya, Celibacy does not mean Brahmacharya. Brahmacharya means to behave (Charya) according to Brahma. Brahma has procreated male and female to come together to produce children. Why go against the will of Brahma? The great authors of the Upanishads were married and had produced children. They advised their students to maintain progeny. If we go against Brahma's wish, how can we reach or find Brahma? Therefore behave according to Brahma, which is the nature.

The sages were not against wealth. The sages understood the value of wealth as a power. However in the later period, somehow, the track of thinking was changed and people began to neglect the wealth. People, particularly the Hindus, began renouncing the world and therefore began downfall. It was wrong. You can enjoy the world and still find Brahma. That is taught by the Upanishads.

The Upanishads contain lot of science. Almost up to date science is seen in the Upanishads. Please read this book without prejudice and you will admit that the sages were really great scientists.

People think that science and spirituality are rivals. It is wrong. Spirituality may be away from science; but Adhyatma is science itself. Science of spirit is spirituality. 'Spirit' is a vague term, but it represents Pranamaya Kosha of the Taittiriya Upanishad. Inside it there are three Koshas and then Atman is situated. Adhyatma means knowing Atman. Spirituality is studying spirits. For understanding Atman we must study scientifically. During such study the seers discovered many scientific truths.

I have put those scientific truths before you. Please read and think over.

The main seven Upanishads are composed before the Mahabharata war, which happened on 16th October 5561 years Before Christ. The Ishavasya is written after the Mahabharata, but it has high scientific value.

In this book I have stated, on page 112, that mind is not a function of brain, mind can exist without brain, and there is one Universal mind, too. I got support to my opinion in one episode recently shown on TV in Discovery channel, during February-March 2010. It is shown that in Guyana there is a special tree, about 10-15 feet tall. In its trunk reside a species of ants. Those ants take shelter of the trunk of that tree. Those ants feed on the secretions of the tree, and in return maintain the tree clean. If the tree gets spoiled by excreta of birds, the ants remove the excreta and clean the tree. Thus they help each other. On investigations it is seen that if somebody cuts a leaf of the tree, immediately the ants gather near the injured leaf, just to protect the supporting tree. How and why do the ants come to the injured part, in short time? How do the ants know that a leaf is injured? How do they understand which leaf is injured? The tree must be informing the ants directly or the tree's thoughts might be going to the Universal mind and relayed down to the ants. Trees have no brain, but have mind and its mind works to connect to the mind of ants. Both exhibit mind and gratefulness. It proves my theory that mind exists without brain and one Universal mind too exists. It is mind of Ishwara, the Universal controller.

 

Introduction

Upanisad means to sit near. In the ancient era disciples used to sit near their teacher to learn, receive and attain knowledge. Teachers used to give secret knowledge to the disciples by making them sit near. Hence the high philosophy is named as the Upanisad. The Upanisads contain such a secret knowledge about the Supreme Energy working behind this Universe that the person learning, receiving, attaining this knowledge will definitely go close to that Supreme Energy. Hence in that sense also the word Upanisad is quite fit or appropriate.

If the Upanisads have given the full knowledge about the Prime Energy controlling the Universe and if that knowledge really is capable to take us near that supreme self, it must be containing some scientific knowledge. Here we have to unveil the scientific knowledge enclosed in the Upanisads.

To begin with let us see how vast is the literature termed as Upanisad. To find out the basic principles behind this Universe was the main aim of the Vedas particularly the Rgveda, Yajurveda and Atharva Veda. The process of thinking went on generation after generation in the ancient Vedic period and the ultimate theory or philosophy was compiled in the Upanisads, Therefore the Upanisads are also named as Vedanta. Vedanta has two meanings. The usual first meaning is that the Upanisads are the end of the Vedic age or Vedic thought process. Chronologically it is the end. But according to the second meaning it is the highest point of the Vedic philosophy. As nobody can go beyond it, it is called as the end of the knowledge or Vedanta. The Hindu religion is based on this great knowledge, which is not limited to only the Hindus; but it is for the whole mankind. Therefore in the passage of thousands of years that philosophy has not perished. Other cultures of the world are lost; but the Vedic culture is still living magnificently. Why? What is the difference between the Vedic culture and other cultures, which are lost? The other cultures were restricted to a self or a human race, but the Vedic knowledge is compiled for the whole mankind. Hence as far as the human being lives on this Earth the Vedic knowledge will exist. The Upanisads tell the basic principles for any man how to live with others loving each other. Upanisads do not say a word which may create harted about anything living or non-living. That is the greatness of the Upanisads.

Let us now see the expanse of the Upanisads. The main important Upanisads are only eight viz. Isavasya, Kena, katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya and Aitareya. Out of these eight Aitareya belongs to the Rgveda, Katha and Taittiriya belong to the Black Yajurveda. Isavasya belongs to the Sukla Yajurveda, Kena belongs to the Sama Veda while Prasna, Mundaka and Mandukya belong to Atharva Veda. These eight are the most ancient and prime Upanidsads. All the commentators including the great Sankaracharya have written their views on these eight Upanisads.

Adi Sankaracharya has covered two more Upanisads namely chhabdogya of Sama Veda and Brhadaranyaka from Sukla Yajurveda.

Some ancient commentators have included some more as the ancient ones and important ones. These are Svetasvatara of Black Yajurveda, Kausitaki of Rgveda and Maitrayani of Sama Veda.

There is one Muktika Upanisad, which informs us about 108 Upanisads. Muktika gives summary of these 108 Upanisads. It shows that these were really existent.

Let us enlist all these 108 Upanisads classified according to the Veda to which they belong.

I Rgveda:-
1) Aitareya. 2) Kausitaki. 3) Nadabindu. 4) Atmaprabodha. 5) Nirvana. 6) Mudgala. 7) Aksamalika. 8) Tripura. 9) Soubhagya. 10) Bahvrcha.

II Black Yajurveda:-
1) Kathavalli. 2) Taittiriya. 3) Brahma. 4) Kaivalya. 5) Svetasvatara. 6) Garbha. 7) Narayana. 8) Amrtabindu. 9) Amrtanada. 10) Kalagni Rudra. 11) Ksurika. 12) Sarva Sara. 13) Suka Rahasya. 14) Tejobindu. 15) Dhyanabindu. 16) Brhma Vidya. 17) Yoga tatva. 18) Daksinamurti. 19) Skanda. 20) Saririka. 21) Yoga sikha. 22) Ekaksara. 23) Aksi. 24) Avadhoota. 25)Katha. 26) Rudra hrdaya. 27)Yogakundlini. 28) Pancha Brahma. 29) Pranagni Hotra. 30) Varaha. 31) Kali Santarana. 32) Sarasvati Rahasya.

III Sukla Yajurveda:-
1) Isavasya. 2) Brhadaranyaka. 3) Jabala. 4) Hamsa. 5)Parama Hansa. 6) Subala. 7) Mantrika. 8) Niralamba. 9) Trisikhi Brahmana. 10) Mandala Brahmana. 11) Advaya Taraka. 12) Paingal. 13) Bhiksu. 14) Turiyateeta. 15) Adhyatma. 16)Tarasara. 17) Yajnavalkya. 18) Satyayani. 19) Muktika.

IV Sama Veda:-
1) Kena. 2) Chhandogya. 3) Aruni. 4) Maitrayani. 5) Maitreyi. 6) Vajrasoochika. 7) Yoga Chudamani. 8) Vasudeva. 9) Mahat. 10) Sanyasa. 11) Avyakta. 12) Khandika. 13) Savitri. 14) Rudraksa Jabala. 15) Darsana. 16) Jabali.

V Atharva Veda
1) Prasna. 2) Mundaka. 3) Mandukya. 4) Atharva Siras. 5) Atharva Sikha. 6) Brhat Jabala. 7) Nrsinha Tapini. 8) Narada Parivrajaka. 9) Seeta. 10) Sarabha. 11) Maha Narayana. 12) Rama Rahasya. 13) Rama Tapini. 14) Sandiliya. 15) Paramhansa Vrajaka. 16) Annapoorna. 17) Surya. 18) Atma. 19) Pasupata. 20) ParaBrahma. 21) Tripura Tapani. 22) Devi. 23) Bhavana. 24) Brahma. 25) Ganapati. 26) Mahavakya. 27) Gopala Tapini. 28) Krsna. 29) Hayagriva. 30) Dattatreya. 31) Garuda.

The eighth of the Atharva Veda Upanisad, namely narada Parivrajaka, mentions about one Purusa Sookta Upanisad. It is related to the famous Purusa Sookta presented by all the Vedas. In the Rgveda it is at 10/90.

One scholar Mr G.S.Sadhale has published in 1941 one encyclopaedia of the Upanidasa, namely "Upanisad-Vakya-Mahakosa". It is in two volumes and has taken references from 239 Upanisads. It proves that 239 Upanisads were present at his time. This book mentions categories of Upanisads like Tapini, Atharva Veda etc. But it does include the following – (1) Garbhastravini (Rg 5-78-7 to 9). (2) Praswapini (Rg 7-55-2 to 8). (3) Rogaghna (Rg 1-50-11 to 13). (4) Visanirharani (Rgg 1-191-1 to 16). (5) Sapatni nasana (Rg 10-145-1 to 6). These Abhicharaka Upanisads are mentioned in Sarvanukramani composed by Katyayana. As these are present in the main Rgveda it may not be termed as Upanmisad, it is a part of Samhita.

Rudradhyaya of Krsna Yajurveda is in fact not an Upanisad, but related to that there is one ancient Upanisad available, which is named as Rudropanisad.

Vaidika Samsodhana Madal has published five newly found Upanisads, namely Baskala, Chhagaleya, Arseya, Sounaka and Jaiminiya.

From Adyar seventyone new Upanisads are published after a long research. These are classified under the following heads (1) Yoga. (2) Sanyasa. (3) Upanisana. (4) Philosophy (Tattvajnana). (5) Sakta. (6) Saiva. (7) Ordinary.

There are so many Upanisads because after Gautam Buddha many religions propped up and their preachers wrote an Upanisad to do the propaganda of their religion. They copied the style and the language of the basic 13 Upanisads. All these appear to have been written in medieval age, and are of low quality, without any good Philosophy or Science. There are Christ-Upanisad, Akabar Upanisad and Alla-Upanisad too. These are not to be considered in this essay because we are dealing with the Scientific knowledge and it is concentrated in the original eight to thirteen Upanisads.

Upanisads are the Philosophical literature teaching the real religion for the whole of the mankind. The sages appear to have concentrated their thoughts and observations to investigate the prime Energy, Isvara, filling the whole Universe and also the energy residing in the living being namely Atman. Finally they concluded that the same energy, which occupies animal bodies, is present everywhere in the Universe. That energy is unique and alone. There are no different energies in the world though they appear different. They are different manifestations of the one and the same energy. Getting this knowledge one sage concluded "You are that" [Tat Twam Asi, Chhandogya 6-8-7,9-4, 1 0-3, 11-3,12-3,l3-3,14-3,15-3, 16-3]. 'That' means anything from the world, living or non-living, and it is nothing else but you yourself (Twam).

Second sage concluded (Brhadaranyaka 1-4-10), "I am the all pervading energy". T means the energy due to which I say T. That energy, practically called as Atrnan, is the part and parcel of the all-pervading energy called as Brahman.

Third sage said, "All this (world) is occupied by Isa i.e. the all pervading controller of the Universe"

The fourth sage declared (Aitereya 3/3), "Prajnanam Brahma, which means extensive unfathomable knowledge is the all pervading Brahman".

He said so because he found out that everywhere in this Universe there is some knowledge. All the universal knowledge is termed 'Prajnana'. Every movement and every action in this Universe is full of knowledge.

Fifth sage said "Ayam Atma Brahma" in Mandukya (2), which means this Atman or Self is nothing else but Brahman.

Sixth sage tells in Mundaka 2-1-10 that "Purusa Eva Idam Visvam" or 'Brahma Eva Idam Visvam' (2-2-12).

"Ayam Atma Brahma" is stated by the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad at 2/5/19

 

Contents

 

  Extensive Bio data of Dr. Padmakar Vishnu Vartak vii
  preface xvii
  Introduction xix
  The Gleams of Science in the Upanisads  
1 Mundaka Upanisad 1
2 Mandukya Upanisad 41
3 Taittiriya Upanisad 51
4 Aitareya Upanisad 133
5 Isavasya Upanisad 183
6 Kena Upanisad 201
7 Katha Upanisad 223
8 Prasna Upanisad 269
9 Svetasvatara Upanisad 293
10 Brhadaranyaka Upanisad 297
11 Chhandogya Upanisad 305
12 Garbhopanisad 309
13 Gleams of Science from Srimad Bhagawat Geeta 321

 

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