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Hindi Action Cinema (Industries, Narratives, Bodies)
Hindi Action Cinema (Industries, Narratives, Bodies)
Description
From the Jacket

Irrespective of class, culture, and religion, cinema is one of the driving passions in the Indian Subcontinent. Hindi Action Cinema is the first book to cover the history of action films made in Bombay.

The book opens with the silent period, tracing the emergence of the genre in the mid-1920s, when women also began to feature in action roles. Then it examines the socio-economic factors responsible for the films and popularity of figures like Master Vithal, Ermeline, Fearless Nadia, Dara Singh, Amitabh Bachchan as well as other, more contemporary figures of Hindi action cinema.

Considering the social ground that shaped these films' mode of action and their distinctive mise en scene, Hindi Action Cinema examines the changing economies of film production, distribution, and exhibition in Bombay over eight decades. In the process, the book raises new questions about the nature of this film genre and challenges established conceptualizations of the relationship between a film and its socio-economic context.

The book will appeal to students and scholars of film and cultural studies as well as to the general reader interested in Indian cinema.

About the Author

Valentina Vitali teaches film history and theory at the University of East London.

Introduction

Rajkumar Santoshi's Ghatak/Lethal (1996) tells the Story of Kashi Nath (Sunny Deol), the son of a nationalist hero who sets out to free the residents of a small town from the terrorizing regime of arch-villain Katya (Danny Denzongpa), Ghatak features several fights and nearly all of them are witnessed by a (diegetic) crowd. The final confrontation between Kashi and Katya inscribes the spectator in the viewing position of the crowd, standing by and cheering as the hero kills the other man. This type of mise en scene is very common in action cinema and there is nothing particular about this film that one cannot find in many other action movies. Except, that is, the time that knew Ghatak as a film. I first saw it as a newly released film in 1996. I was then living in Allahabad, in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, at a time when the popularity and influence of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was fast rising in the Hindi belt. Watching the film's closing scene from my balcony seat, I remember thinking then that I was seeing a film that was part of a swelling cultural-ideological wave which would be flooding large parts of the county for a long time to come. In many ways, this book emerges from, and is an elaboration of, that impression of seeing a film, not simply as a story or as a cultural object that may or may not be a work of art, but as an integral moment of an unfolding historical process.

Conventionally speaking, one might say that this book is about the relationship between history and cinema. The problem with such a formulation is that it risks suggesting that cinema is one thing and history another, the relationship between the two being a matter for historians and film theorists to discuss in an interdisciplinary exchange. Historians have many useful observations to make about films and about cinema as a cultural form, while film scholars have written insightful things about the history of their object of study, but juxtaposing cinema and history as distinct, though related, fields of enquiry obscures the fact tat cultural forms emerge from within history. The question is thus less about how a film's relation to history should be understood, than the reading and understanding of films as technologically and industrially bundled discursive constellations animated by the very substances and rhythms that we refer to as history. Films are primary sources every bit as much as statesmen's diaries, minutes of governmental meetings, or the objects and detritus that can be found on the sites of ruined cities. Just as historians have to pay serious attention to the specificities of the media in which source material is encountered, so the specificities of cinematic discourses considered by film theorists are not separate from, but are an integral part of historiography.

When films have been examined as primary sources, attention has tended to focus on two particular aspects of the indexical dimension of films. The most widely practiced approach has been to examine what the films' stories have to say about events or periods already defined and labeled by historians. Plots, dialogues, and their settings are scrutinized to identify historically pertinent information in what film scholars call the pro-filmic event, that is to say, in the 'reality' recorded by the camera and the microphone. Although documentaries and newsreels are the types of cinema privileged by this approach, it is generally conceded that documentary aspects may also be discerned in fiction films. For instance, in the 1950s some French critics regarded feature films as quasi-documentaries about actors: a film starring Ava Gardner was seen as, among other things, a film about the actress Ava Gardner. There are merits to this proto-modernist way of reading films as being also about the materials with which they are made, but, in practice, because of the reductive understanding of a film's 'materials', this remains a rather limited approach to cinema as history.

A second, more sophisticated, way of dealing with cinema as history has been to examine a film as a historical account marked by emphases and omissions that are due to state- or self-censorship, lack of money, or psychic repression. This approach, pioneered by Marc Ferro 1988 [1977] and Pierre Sorlin (1980), involves measuring the film retrospectively against other historiographic accounts that, although not necessarily taken to be 'truthful', are nevertheless understood to be offering a fuller and more objective picture than the one presented by the analysed film. The film's emphases, omissions, or simply 'distortions' are examined by resorting to certain techniques of psychoanalysis-and especially to Freud's account of the four processes of distortion at work in dreams.

The information disclosed by such an approach can provide useful clues to the way a film functions as a text-in-history, bearing the marks of the geo-temporal location, of the conditions of its production and/or circulation, and of the institutions that regulated both. But this approach has also tended to put more emphasis on what is not in the film, rather than on assessing what is. For instance, in his analysis of Lev Kuleshov's Po zakonu/Dura Lex/By the Law (1926), Ferro maintained that 'the historical and social reading' of this and other films enabled historians 'to rach invisible zones in the past of societies-to reveal self-censorship or lapses (which remain in the unconscious of participants and witnesses) at work within a society (1977: 20). Along the same lines, Sorlin argued that cinema.

Psychoanalysis can have a significant role to play if we are to understand how thoughts and intuitions are transformed as they are made to migrate from one level of consciousness to another, or from one medium into another. But, as Freud once said, there are times when a cigar is not just a cigar, that is to say when it stands in as a symbol of some other preoccupation. However, it is equally important to be able to tell when a cigar is just that, what brand it is, what economic circuits must be operating for that cigar to get to that smoker in that film at that place and time, and why someone such as that smoker may want to purchase and smoke it. By attaching importance exclusively to a film's distortions, that is to the relations between the visible and the invisible (or repressed), the approach pioneered by Ferro and Sorlin overlooks many of the complexities that the visible (and the audible) itself involves: its direct and immediate (or unmediated) implications, rather than its more or les hidden associations.

Questions about the relationship between films and history and the reading of films as historical documents imply that a film is inserted into a social context and that its functioning as a text, its capacity to produce meaning, is informed and limited by that context. The story of the study of cinema has been marked by many attempts at grappling with the question of how material socio-economic arrangements shape cultural production and, through culture, modes of thinking. Conceptualizations national cinema, that is to say of a cinema's connectedness with the historical constellation that generates it and which, by addressing that constellation cinematically, cinema in turn helps to shape. As Siegfried Kracauer argued in 1946: 'Through an analysis of the German films, deep psychological dispositions predominant in Germany from 1918 to 1933 can be exposed-dispositions which influenced the course of events during that time and which will have to be reckoned with in the post-Hitler era' (1974:v).

Contents

Photographsvii
Note on the Transliteration of Film Titles and Names ix
Acknowledgementsxi
Introductionxiii
1. The 1920s
1
The 1920s3
The Action Ingredient11
Sharda Film Company and Master Vithal20
Conclusion49
2. Women In Action Films In The 1920s and 1930s
56
The 1930s72
From Artistic Pictures Corporation to Wadia Movietone80
Fearless Nadia's Stunt Films100
3. Interlude: The 1950s
119
The Bombay Film Industry during Nehru's Administration119
Post-Independence Euphoria and the Marginalization of Action127
4. The 1960s
134
The Bombay Film Industry in the 1960s134
The Economy in 1960s India140
Dara Singh and the Hindi Small-budget Film144
Dara Singh's Wrestling Films154
5. The 1970s
184
The Literature on the 'Angry Young Man'184
Prelude190
Indira Gandhi's U-Turn193
The Bombay Film Industry in the 1970s196
The Action Films of Amitabh Bachchan206
6. Contemporary Action Cinema
230
Bibliography245
Index260

Hindi Action Cinema (Industries, Narratives, Bodies)

Item Code:
IDK306
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2008
ISBN:
0195692446
Language:
hindi
Size:
8.8" X 5.8"
Pages:
266 (23 B/W Illustrations)
Price:
$45.00   Shipping Free
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From the Jacket

Irrespective of class, culture, and religion, cinema is one of the driving passions in the Indian Subcontinent. Hindi Action Cinema is the first book to cover the history of action films made in Bombay.

The book opens with the silent period, tracing the emergence of the genre in the mid-1920s, when women also began to feature in action roles. Then it examines the socio-economic factors responsible for the films and popularity of figures like Master Vithal, Ermeline, Fearless Nadia, Dara Singh, Amitabh Bachchan as well as other, more contemporary figures of Hindi action cinema.

Considering the social ground that shaped these films' mode of action and their distinctive mise en scene, Hindi Action Cinema examines the changing economies of film production, distribution, and exhibition in Bombay over eight decades. In the process, the book raises new questions about the nature of this film genre and challenges established conceptualizations of the relationship between a film and its socio-economic context.

The book will appeal to students and scholars of film and cultural studies as well as to the general reader interested in Indian cinema.

About the Author

Valentina Vitali teaches film history and theory at the University of East London.

Introduction

Rajkumar Santoshi's Ghatak/Lethal (1996) tells the Story of Kashi Nath (Sunny Deol), the son of a nationalist hero who sets out to free the residents of a small town from the terrorizing regime of arch-villain Katya (Danny Denzongpa), Ghatak features several fights and nearly all of them are witnessed by a (diegetic) crowd. The final confrontation between Kashi and Katya inscribes the spectator in the viewing position of the crowd, standing by and cheering as the hero kills the other man. This type of mise en scene is very common in action cinema and there is nothing particular about this film that one cannot find in many other action movies. Except, that is, the time that knew Ghatak as a film. I first saw it as a newly released film in 1996. I was then living in Allahabad, in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, at a time when the popularity and influence of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was fast rising in the Hindi belt. Watching the film's closing scene from my balcony seat, I remember thinking then that I was seeing a film that was part of a swelling cultural-ideological wave which would be flooding large parts of the county for a long time to come. In many ways, this book emerges from, and is an elaboration of, that impression of seeing a film, not simply as a story or as a cultural object that may or may not be a work of art, but as an integral moment of an unfolding historical process.

Conventionally speaking, one might say that this book is about the relationship between history and cinema. The problem with such a formulation is that it risks suggesting that cinema is one thing and history another, the relationship between the two being a matter for historians and film theorists to discuss in an interdisciplinary exchange. Historians have many useful observations to make about films and about cinema as a cultural form, while film scholars have written insightful things about the history of their object of study, but juxtaposing cinema and history as distinct, though related, fields of enquiry obscures the fact tat cultural forms emerge from within history. The question is thus less about how a film's relation to history should be understood, than the reading and understanding of films as technologically and industrially bundled discursive constellations animated by the very substances and rhythms that we refer to as history. Films are primary sources every bit as much as statesmen's diaries, minutes of governmental meetings, or the objects and detritus that can be found on the sites of ruined cities. Just as historians have to pay serious attention to the specificities of the media in which source material is encountered, so the specificities of cinematic discourses considered by film theorists are not separate from, but are an integral part of historiography.

When films have been examined as primary sources, attention has tended to focus on two particular aspects of the indexical dimension of films. The most widely practiced approach has been to examine what the films' stories have to say about events or periods already defined and labeled by historians. Plots, dialogues, and their settings are scrutinized to identify historically pertinent information in what film scholars call the pro-filmic event, that is to say, in the 'reality' recorded by the camera and the microphone. Although documentaries and newsreels are the types of cinema privileged by this approach, it is generally conceded that documentary aspects may also be discerned in fiction films. For instance, in the 1950s some French critics regarded feature films as quasi-documentaries about actors: a film starring Ava Gardner was seen as, among other things, a film about the actress Ava Gardner. There are merits to this proto-modernist way of reading films as being also about the materials with which they are made, but, in practice, because of the reductive understanding of a film's 'materials', this remains a rather limited approach to cinema as history.

A second, more sophisticated, way of dealing with cinema as history has been to examine a film as a historical account marked by emphases and omissions that are due to state- or self-censorship, lack of money, or psychic repression. This approach, pioneered by Marc Ferro 1988 [1977] and Pierre Sorlin (1980), involves measuring the film retrospectively against other historiographic accounts that, although not necessarily taken to be 'truthful', are nevertheless understood to be offering a fuller and more objective picture than the one presented by the analysed film. The film's emphases, omissions, or simply 'distortions' are examined by resorting to certain techniques of psychoanalysis-and especially to Freud's account of the four processes of distortion at work in dreams.

The information disclosed by such an approach can provide useful clues to the way a film functions as a text-in-history, bearing the marks of the geo-temporal location, of the conditions of its production and/or circulation, and of the institutions that regulated both. But this approach has also tended to put more emphasis on what is not in the film, rather than on assessing what is. For instance, in his analysis of Lev Kuleshov's Po zakonu/Dura Lex/By the Law (1926), Ferro maintained that 'the historical and social reading' of this and other films enabled historians 'to rach invisible zones in the past of societies-to reveal self-censorship or lapses (which remain in the unconscious of participants and witnesses) at work within a society (1977: 20). Along the same lines, Sorlin argued that cinema.

Psychoanalysis can have a significant role to play if we are to understand how thoughts and intuitions are transformed as they are made to migrate from one level of consciousness to another, or from one medium into another. But, as Freud once said, there are times when a cigar is not just a cigar, that is to say when it stands in as a symbol of some other preoccupation. However, it is equally important to be able to tell when a cigar is just that, what brand it is, what economic circuits must be operating for that cigar to get to that smoker in that film at that place and time, and why someone such as that smoker may want to purchase and smoke it. By attaching importance exclusively to a film's distortions, that is to the relations between the visible and the invisible (or repressed), the approach pioneered by Ferro and Sorlin overlooks many of the complexities that the visible (and the audible) itself involves: its direct and immediate (or unmediated) implications, rather than its more or les hidden associations.

Questions about the relationship between films and history and the reading of films as historical documents imply that a film is inserted into a social context and that its functioning as a text, its capacity to produce meaning, is informed and limited by that context. The story of the study of cinema has been marked by many attempts at grappling with the question of how material socio-economic arrangements shape cultural production and, through culture, modes of thinking. Conceptualizations national cinema, that is to say of a cinema's connectedness with the historical constellation that generates it and which, by addressing that constellation cinematically, cinema in turn helps to shape. As Siegfried Kracauer argued in 1946: 'Through an analysis of the German films, deep psychological dispositions predominant in Germany from 1918 to 1933 can be exposed-dispositions which influenced the course of events during that time and which will have to be reckoned with in the post-Hitler era' (1974:v).

Contents

Photographsvii
Note on the Transliteration of Film Titles and Names ix
Acknowledgementsxi
Introductionxiii
1. The 1920s
1
The 1920s3
The Action Ingredient11
Sharda Film Company and Master Vithal20
Conclusion49
2. Women In Action Films In The 1920s and 1930s
56
The 1930s72
From Artistic Pictures Corporation to Wadia Movietone80
Fearless Nadia's Stunt Films100
3. Interlude: The 1950s
119
The Bombay Film Industry during Nehru's Administration119
Post-Independence Euphoria and the Marginalization of Action127
4. The 1960s
134
The Bombay Film Industry in the 1960s134
The Economy in 1960s India140
Dara Singh and the Hindi Small-budget Film144
Dara Singh's Wrestling Films154
5. The 1970s
184
The Literature on the 'Angry Young Man'184
Prelude190
Indira Gandhi's U-Turn193
The Bombay Film Industry in the 1970s196
The Action Films of Amitabh Bachchan206
6. Contemporary Action Cinema
230
Bibliography245
Index260
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