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Books > Hindu > Historical Krishna (Set of 3 Volumes)
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Historical Krishna (Set of 3 Volumes)
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Volume I (Dating of Krishna)

About the Book

Krishna has been a subject of Fascination. He is an enigma.

He Swings between Historicity and Divinity in People’s minds.

He has also been the subject of many mysterious and debates.

Is it possible for a historical personage to ho have performed such deeds?

This Book sheds light on some of the mysterious surrounding Him to rationally establish how Krishna is historical and how historicity need not Preclude divinity.

It is a Key to open the mind to Fathom Krishna in his entirety.

About the Author

D.K. Hari and D.K. Hema Hari are founders of Bharth Gyan, a knowledge initiative to compile and present the knowledge of India, Its traditions, its culture, its global ties – in short, its ethos, from an Indian an Indian perspective.

This husband – wife duo of management and IT professional who have turned researches collators, have authored 12 books, many articles and a host of short films. They are also active on social media.

Foreword

I am grateful to sri D. K. Hari and Smt. Hema Hari , for bestowing on me the great benefit to browsing their three volume typescript of “ Historical Krishna” before it goes public.

Numerous works have come by now various facets of lord Krishna. Perhaps, ‘Historical’ may be a new tile or attitude to Him. It is necessitated by the times now.

Though he declared Himself as Kala (the Time), Lord Krishna taught us thought his life how to respect time in one’s earthly existence. In all our Known past, right from the days Creation, We Witness a physically strong and powerful section of people known as Danavas at one time and ‘intellectuals’ who are wedded to pratyakshavadain.

The present times who questioned the existence of lord Vishnu and his Human incarnations. We have also seen that the devotees had to wait patiently bearing with all the insult and physical pain committed to them by his powerful anti – Vishnu section till some Prahlada like devotees or Vishnu – incarnations come down to earth and provide relief to those who are following the noble path. It is said in the Vishnupurana that Prahlada could at last make his father realise the truth and later Hiranyakashyapa ruled for several year with devotion to Hari.

It is also said that Ravana Knew that none else than Hari had come in the guise of raja Rama and that he departed having realised the truth. Even in our contemporary world. We personally Know a number of our friends and family members who changed their line of thinking at least in their ripe age and realised that they were wrong till then.

The efforts of our Hari couple to make the present ‘intellectual’ world realised that world Lord Krishna incarnated as yadu Krishna and lived during such and such time may at least help doubting ones to again faith in their belief.

No doubt , the divinity of lord Krishna was by some of his contemporaries, but now his very historicity is being questioned by the modern ‘ intellectual’.

The Western educated being separated from the traditional knowledge are following these ‘intellectual’ blindly cutting off the branch on which which they stand. The uneducated are still protected from these tendencies. I am not a specialist in the history of our ‘remote’ past. So I would only look at the Question from a lay man’s point of view representing millions of lay- devotes.

Sri Rama and sri Krishna are the Heroes of the World’s olde3st epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. They are worshiped as very important incarnations of God, one as manifestation of Dharma and the other for Bodha (teaching) to guide men in the path of Sanatana Dharma.

The Family trees of both Iksvakku and yadu dyanasteries are clearly given in the puranas with slight differences. Sri Rama had about 60 predecessors and about 30 successors in the line and the last ruler in the main line fought in the Mahabharata war on the side of Kaurvas and he was killed by Abhimanyu, Son of Arjuna . Later the dynasty was spilt into minor lines and Suddhodhana father of Siddhartha Gautama was the ruler of a major sub line as Siddhartha took sanyasa followed by his son. Rahula. Yaduvamsa (yadu dynasty) came to an end quarrelling among themselves after the departure of Sri Krishna as ‘curshed’ by Queen Gandhari.

The title ‘ Ramayana’ itself means the life journey of Sri Rama written by none other than a Rishi (a ‘ Jnani’) who also a contemporary of Sri Rama. The Title of ‘Maha Bharata’ (originally known as jaya kaavya meaning victory to Dharma) is the history of Bharata vamsa connected to Chandra vamsa, the lineages are clearly given in the ancient literature. The writer was also a sage (Rishi – Jnani) who was not only a contemporary to Pandavas but also to three preceding generations.

Both of the writers were not only contemporary but they were also ‘participatory’ observes’ to use the terminology of modern “empiricists”. We find no parallel to such a phenomenon in the world’s ancient literatures of nations other than India Both, Sage Valmiki of Ramayana and Sage Vyasa of Mahabharata stand role models for a ‘true historian’, being unbiased and truthful in their exposition. Though, both of them strongly believed that Sri Rama and Sri Krishna wee none other than lord Vishnu, they were keen in presenting facts as they happened impartially , leaving the judgement of the event to the readers.

To-day our intellectuals could criticize some of the actions of these great personalities, Sri Rama and Krishna, Taking references only from these works.

Being Devoted to Lord Vishnu, the sages could have hidden some negative references on the lines of some modern researches who depended on select – data for their interpretations. But these great writers held Truth above even their venerable God. The birth –days of both , Valmiki Jayanthi and Vyasa poornima, are being celebrated since times immemorial with great veneration in India. Their Ashrams are well identified. They have become pilgrimages being visited by thousands.

There are some ‘intellectuals’ who argue that the writers were real but not their ‘stories’.

In ancient Indian literature, Vedic Vedic literature is ‘heard’. Varous Sastras are not fiction. The Purana, history of the Universe, was flashed to sge Parasara, of sage Vyasa, as a ‘revived memory’. The subject – matter of later Kaavya literature was only taken from the earlier literature. Buddha’s Jataka stories are considered the stories of his previous births revealed to his disciples by the Buddha himself. Fiction writing has become more prevalent in the modern times when writing and printings have become gainful professions. By no means, We can bring epic writers to the category of present fiction writers. The Kathasaritsagara or Panchatantra do not of course belong to the genre of modern fiction.

Both the Epics give us a clear understanding of the geographical expanse of Bharat from Afghanistan in the north- west to Rameswaram in the south-east , and from Himalayan range in the north to the Dravidadesa in the south. The then inhabiting tribes – civilian and forest – are described. Their life styles, their customs and traditions, interrelations, social and political system etc are also given to us very clearly. The geographical regions and political demarcations are described. The dynastic lineages are given. The Events are narrated with the essentials coordinates of time and space. The Time is given so specially that it astronomically dated, the tithi, nakshatra constellations etc., Which is more specific than modern dating.

As a text, the Mahabharata is more comprehensive than the Ramayana. The Mahabharata is also described as encyclopedia and revered as fifth book of Veda. The Bhagavad Gita is Considered the essence of Vedic Knoledge guiding its followers in their laukika and aadhatmika life. Lord Krishna’s bodha is mean for the present Kali times.

These facts are enough for a common man to believe the epic stories to be real and true. By raising doubts in the minds of Indian educated being alienated from their tradition about the historicity of Rama an d Krishna, no good purpose will be served to the by misleading people.

All the sites of Ramayana and Mahabharata are already identified. They are not only known to people since generations but they are considered pious Kshetras for common man.

Mahabharata sites are identified archaeologically are already identified. They are not only known to people since generations but they are considered pious Kshetra for common man.

Mahabharata sites are identified archaeologically in the post – independent survey. Hastinapura, Indraprastha, Kurukshetra, Mathura, Dwaraka (submerged) are well known to every one. Kings from all parts of Bharat Participated in the Great War. They along with their Kingdoms are indentified.

Archaeology suggest that the origin and growth of civilisation in the world could be traced to the end of last ice-age, may be around 10,000 years BP ( Before Present). Many scholars – Indian and foreign – have brought out their these on the date of Mahabharata War referring to the astronomical and scientific data given in the epic. Most of the modern work suggest the dates between 4500 BP to 5200 BP. Since about 30-38 rulers have succeeded Rama in Iksvaku lineage, the gap between Rama and Kishna should be as wide as 30+ generations. There were about 60 rulers before Rama in his line. Even by rough estimate, the origin of civilisation in India could be pushed back to a hundred generations from the Mahabharata times.

Early European scholars had arbitrarily fixed the average reigning years of a King to as low as single digit Years. But , We find that all main characters of the epics, like Dasaratha, Dhrutarashtra, Bhisma, Drona, Krishna and others lived for quite a long time, some of them were even hundred plus. They , even at that age, were also active and strong. They fought a big war. By any estimate the hundred generations before Mahabharata might be in the range of about 3000 years on an average of 30 years (may be arbitrarily) for each reigning period. Thus, the state formation in India could be traced back to at least 8000 BP. We should not forget that even archaeological estimates or carbon analyses are also approximations but not precise. (I owe this understanding to Sadguru, Mahamahopadhyaya, Dr K Sivananda Murtyji, D.Litt, Bheemunipatnam, AP).

Here, the author – couple have endeavoured to answer the question of many a doubting Thomas and presenting a scientific analyses of data available in the Mahabharata itself. They deserve a lot of appreciation form the scholars and serious readers.

Since the work has received the blessing of his holiness Sri Sri Ravi Shankarji, it needs no more authentication.

I Wish the learned couple all the best in their struggle for the cause of Sanatana Dharma.

Preface

While people at large accept the divinity of Krishna , some , at the same time, have doubts about the historicity of Sri Krishna. This book is an effort to understand Krishna from a historical angle and bring out the fact that Krishna, a hero of the land of India, was indeed historical Krishna had walked and lived on this earth, some time in the remote past.

When precisely is this emote past?

Do we have proof of his historical existence?

This book aims to shed light on the historicity of Krishna , using logic and science.

Out of Syllabus

Religious expression of Krishna, the miracles attributed to him and detailed discussion on philosophy, Nishkama Karma and the Gita, are not the focus of this book.

Historicity and Divinity

Some may feel that we are taking away the divinity from Krishna with this effort of trying to establish His historicity.

The idea here is not to offend the religious sentiments of such people. On the contrary, with the relegation of Sri Krishna and the events of His times, to the status of a myth, the basic for his divinity itself is put to test too.

If there was no Krishna, How can He divine?

While divinity is a matter of faith, historicity is a matter of existence.

If the stories of Krishna are to be believed to have been true, then Krishna must have walked this earth.

In this effort , we are responding to those who tend to dismiss Krishna as a myth of cooked up stories.

Infact, once we are able to establish in our minds that Krishna was really a historical person, then those who are able to establish in our minds that Krishna Was really a historical person, then those who are seeking the divine Krishna will find themselves a lot closer in established time and space, to cherish and revere Him better.

Krishna’s times

The period that Krishna walked this earth, was tumultuous. A major war was fought.

It was epoch changing times. Dwapara Yuga was coming to an and the world was entering in to Kali Yuga. This changed of Yuga was not an event that occurred because of the birth and life of Krishna in that period. It was a Unique astronomical event and the lifetime of Krishna overlapped with that period.

The occurrence of this unique event then, helps us now, to date the events during the times of Krishna, rather precisely.

Geography from Krishna’s Times

If a person has to be historical, then he must have walked on this earth and those places on the earth, must be identifiable today.

There are indeed a plethora of places connected with Krishna’s lifetime that can be indentified in India today. The region around Vrindavan andMathura, collectively known as Braj Bhumi, where Krishna was born and played His delightful childhood pranks, still goes by the same name and tradition.

We have Dwaraka, a city that Krishna got built for Himself and his people to live in.

If within this geography, archaeological remains from remote antiquity, mapping well from ground evidence, if we are to have any. At the same time, the mere absence of such remains, cannot conclusively deny either the historicity of Krishna or the geographical location of the events of his times.

Literature Speak Volumes

This and has had a continuity of literature mentioning the events in the life of Sri Krishna with specific details. Such details are not sketchy accounts but are details that offer enough material for a detailed study to understand the historicity of Krishna and the events of his times.

An Interdisciplinary Approach

Converging results from a multi – pronged approach using in puts from literature, geography, archaeology and other discipline can give the credibility that one would look for in establishing the historicity of Krishna.

Till recent times, the fields of history and sciences were distinct subjects, separate from each other, like parallel lines that do not meet Today however history, history needs the help of science to get uncovered and authenticated. In modern times, sciences have to be judiciously used, correctly too, to prove the historicity of not just Krishna and Rama, but also a host of other such historical personages and events the world over.

This Multi – disciplinary approach to any field to study is essential to move forward in an era where science is at the forefront.

Historical Personages

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a historical person in India . We have no Doubt about this because we have all seen photos and films on Gandhi. We still have in our midst, people who have seen and interacted With Gandhi in Flesh and blood. The meomorabilia left behind by Gandhi including his writings, can still be seen on display in museums and private collections.

Robert Clive, the First British Governor General of India, who paved the way for the British colonial rule in India, is also a historical figure. The British have kept meticulous records and sketches of their exploits in India and Robert Clive figures prominently in them.

Akbar, the Mughal emperor is also a historical figure of India. Akbar figures prominently in the history books of our schools. The buildings that Akbar Built are available with us today in Delhi , Agra and Fatehpur Sikri.

Ashoka, the great Mauryan emperor who fought the bloody Kalinga war and who , immediately after, in repentance, embraced Buddhism, is also a historical figure. The edicts of Ashoka, the Ashoka Pillars and the Stupa that he built are prominent monuments of India.

Alexander the great , the Macedonian King who conquered most of the civilizations of the ancient world and came upto north western part of India, is also a historical figure as noted from tales in Greece, Egypt, Turkey and Persia.

Challenges to History

It is Fascinating to see how the imprints left behind by historical personages have blurred with time.

Starting with memorabilia and photos from recent past we find only portraits as we go back in time. Going further back, we only have monuments. Still further back we have stray edicts and inscriptions alone. Further still we find oral history. Beyond that, We only have legends.

Evidences to prove the historicity of personages thus become less and less tangible as we go back further and further in time.

If evidences have already blurred with the times of Alexander around 300 BCE, what can we expect to find from the times of Krishna to prove His Historicity?

In the case of Krishna, apart from oral legends, there are written palm leaf manuscripts going back by many hundred years, supported by cravings and images going back to thousands of years.

The Native, history Keeping tradition of India, has Kept alive the legends from the past. The traditional scholars of India had followed a meticulous style of record keeping on palm leaf manuscripts and rewriting them on newer ones, as they age, thus passing them down from generation to generations, until recent times.

In the case of Krishna, we have with us today the work authored during the lifetime of Krishna Himself. It is the Epic , Mahabharat, Which is called an itibasa , history of this Land.

We also have us today, the submerged city of Dwaraka which is an archaeological remain of the built by Krishna , along the sea sea Coast.

Contents

Contents3
Benedictory Note9
About Bharath Gyan11
Foreword13
Preface17
Acknowledgements27
Part One - Getting to Know Krishna
The Story of Sri Krishna31
Many a Krishna51
Krishna - Mythology or history?57
Part two - Course of Indian History
From History to Mythology61
Re - establishing Historicity of Krishna75
Part three - Pegging Kali Yuga
History of the Mahabharata story81
The Period of Mahabharata89
Part Four - Historicity From Literature
From Upanishad - A Part of the Veda103
Purana and Other Ancient Texts105
A long Family Tree107
Dating Krishna Through Buddha111
The Buddhist Texts127
The Persian chronicles133
The Tamil Texts137
Part Five - Dates From Archaeo –Astronomy
The Field143
Sky Configurations from Mahabharata Times147
Krishna's Entry Into Mahabharata149
Krishna's Peace Keeping Mission151
Krishna Karna Chariot ride157
The Imminent War163
Balarama's Pilgrimage169
Kurukshetra Battle Start175
The Fall of Bheeshma193
The Yadava Civil War215
the Most Awaited Date217
Krishna's Birth219
Krishna's Departure from the Earth227
Krishna - Kali Yuga connection231
Internal Consistency of Dates243
Archaeo- Astronomy Unique Dating Krishna?245
Further Veracity?259
Possibility of Backdating267
Tiruvallur Tables transcend Time271
The Caveat277
Epilogue281

Volume II (Footprint of Krishna)

About the Book

Krishna is a paradox.

While events connected with Krishna find a place in Geography, Krishna does not find a place in History.

Historicity today demands evidence from archaeology and geography.

If Krishna is historical, then He Must have Walked this earth.

Where did He Live? What did He leave behind?

Seas and deserts are good preservers of ruins.

Unaccessible and untouched by man, ruins safely submerged in the sea or buried in the sands can tell tales of the people sand the times they were in use.

This book uncovers the footprints left behind by Krishna to logically establish Him in history.

Contents

Contents3
Benedictory Note7
About Bharath Gyan9
Foreword11
Preface15
Acknowledgements25
Part Six - Imprints on Geography
History, Geography, Geology, Ecology - Just Subjects?29
From Geography31
Braj Beckons35
Sandipani Teaches55
Dwaraka From the Deep59
Sarsvati Speak Up75
Yamuna Takes a Turn79
A 300 Year Drought - Te Hand of Ecology83
Summing up85
Part Seven - Evidences From Archaeology
Facts About Artifacts89
Evidences for Krishna - Foreigners' Records91
Evidences for Krishna - Indian Inscriptions97
Evidences for Krishna - A Clinching proof103
Sites of the Mahabharata107
Indraprastha of Mahabharata Period109
Hastinapura of Mahabharata Period115
Kurukshetra - The Land of Battles121
Many More Cities and Sites Awaited139
Marine archaeology in Dwaraka151
Dwaraka - The Underwater Museum159
Dwaraka - Anchored by Anchors171
A Seal From the Seals189
Demystifying The Indus Seals193
A Paradox205
Epilogue213

Volume III (Facets of Krishna)

About the Book

Krishna has been a subject of fascination. He is an enigma.

He swing between Historicity and Divinity in people’s minds.

He has also been the Subject of many mysteries and debates.

Is it possible for a historical personage to have performed such deeds?

This book Sheds light on some of the mysteries surrounding Him to rationally establish how Krishna is historical and how historicity need not preclude divinity.

It is a key to open the mind to fathom Krishna in his entirety.

Preface

While people at large accept the divinity of Krishna , some , at the same time, have doubts about the historicity of Sri Krishna. This book is an effort to understand Krishna from a historical angle and bring out the fact that Krishna, a hero of the land of India, was indeed historical Krishna had walked and lived on this earth, some time in the remote past.

When precisely is this emote past?

Do we have proof of his historical existence?

This book aims to shed light on the historicity of Krishna , using logic and science.

Out of Syllabus

Religious expression of Krishna, the miracles attributed to him and detailed discussion on philosophy, Nishkama Karma and the Gita, are not the focus of this book.

Historicity and Divinity

Some may feel that we are taking away the divinity from Krishna with this effort of trying to establish His historicity.

The idea here is not to offend the religious sentiments of such people. On the contrary, with the relegation of Sri Krishna and the events of His times, to the status of a myth, the basic for his divinity itself is put to test too.

If there was no Krishna, How can He divine?

While divinity is a matter of faith, historicity is a matter of existence.

If the stories of Krishna are to be believed to have been true, then Krishna must have walked this earth.

In this effort , we are responding to those who tend to dismiss Krishna as a myth.

In this volume 1, Dating of Krishna, we have seen how Krishna can be dated to 3112 BCE and the Kali Yuga to 3102 BCE based on sky configurations recorded to have been observed during the Mahabharata period.

In Volume 2, footprints of Krishna, we have seen how ground evidences from Geography, Archaeology, Ecology also point to a similar period for the lifetime of Krishna and the Mahabharata.

From this volume , we will be able connect with Krishna as a historical person who walked the geography of this land during a period in time, 5100 years ago leaving behind memories and evidence to treasure far beyond what other historical personages have.

Infact, once we are able to establish in our minds that Krishna was also a historical person, then those who are seeking the divine Krishna will find themselves a lot closer in established time and space, to cherish and Him better.

Contents

Contents3
Benedictory Note7
About Bhrath Gyan9
Foreword11
Preface15
Acknowledgements19
Part Eight - Fascinating Krishna
The Mothers of Krishna23
Pastimes of Young Krishna25
Krishna and the Gopi29
The 16,100 Damsels37
The 8 wives of Krishna41
who was Radha?49
the Goverdhan Giri episode - Lifting A Mountain65
The Parting of Yamuna - A Miracle71
Did Krishna Push for War?77
Dwaraka - A short lived city81
Krisna Lingers On83
Fact versus fiction93
More than a 5000 year lineage103
Krishna - Historical or Divine?107
Purpose of Krishna's Birth109
Krishna's Messages113
Epilogue117

Sample Pages

Volume I (Dating of Krishna)











Volume II (Footprint of Krishna)









Volume III (Facets of Krishna)









Historical Krishna (Set of 3 Volumes)

Item Code:
NAJ155
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2016
ISBN:
Vol. I: 9789385254833
Vol. II: 9789385254840
Vol. III: 9789385254857
Language:
English
Size:
8.5 inch X 5.5 inch
Pages:
630 (Throughout Color Illustrations)
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 915 gms
Price:
$60.00   Shipping Free - 4 to 6 days
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Volume I (Dating of Krishna)

About the Book

Krishna has been a subject of Fascination. He is an enigma.

He Swings between Historicity and Divinity in People’s minds.

He has also been the subject of many mysterious and debates.

Is it possible for a historical personage to ho have performed such deeds?

This Book sheds light on some of the mysterious surrounding Him to rationally establish how Krishna is historical and how historicity need not Preclude divinity.

It is a Key to open the mind to Fathom Krishna in his entirety.

About the Author

D.K. Hari and D.K. Hema Hari are founders of Bharth Gyan, a knowledge initiative to compile and present the knowledge of India, Its traditions, its culture, its global ties – in short, its ethos, from an Indian an Indian perspective.

This husband – wife duo of management and IT professional who have turned researches collators, have authored 12 books, many articles and a host of short films. They are also active on social media.

Foreword

I am grateful to sri D. K. Hari and Smt. Hema Hari , for bestowing on me the great benefit to browsing their three volume typescript of “ Historical Krishna” before it goes public.

Numerous works have come by now various facets of lord Krishna. Perhaps, ‘Historical’ may be a new tile or attitude to Him. It is necessitated by the times now.

Though he declared Himself as Kala (the Time), Lord Krishna taught us thought his life how to respect time in one’s earthly existence. In all our Known past, right from the days Creation, We Witness a physically strong and powerful section of people known as Danavas at one time and ‘intellectuals’ who are wedded to pratyakshavadain.

The present times who questioned the existence of lord Vishnu and his Human incarnations. We have also seen that the devotees had to wait patiently bearing with all the insult and physical pain committed to them by his powerful anti – Vishnu section till some Prahlada like devotees or Vishnu – incarnations come down to earth and provide relief to those who are following the noble path. It is said in the Vishnupurana that Prahlada could at last make his father realise the truth and later Hiranyakashyapa ruled for several year with devotion to Hari.

It is also said that Ravana Knew that none else than Hari had come in the guise of raja Rama and that he departed having realised the truth. Even in our contemporary world. We personally Know a number of our friends and family members who changed their line of thinking at least in their ripe age and realised that they were wrong till then.

The efforts of our Hari couple to make the present ‘intellectual’ world realised that world Lord Krishna incarnated as yadu Krishna and lived during such and such time may at least help doubting ones to again faith in their belief.

No doubt , the divinity of lord Krishna was by some of his contemporaries, but now his very historicity is being questioned by the modern ‘ intellectual’.

The Western educated being separated from the traditional knowledge are following these ‘intellectual’ blindly cutting off the branch on which which they stand. The uneducated are still protected from these tendencies. I am not a specialist in the history of our ‘remote’ past. So I would only look at the Question from a lay man’s point of view representing millions of lay- devotes.

Sri Rama and sri Krishna are the Heroes of the World’s olde3st epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. They are worshiped as very important incarnations of God, one as manifestation of Dharma and the other for Bodha (teaching) to guide men in the path of Sanatana Dharma.

The Family trees of both Iksvakku and yadu dyanasteries are clearly given in the puranas with slight differences. Sri Rama had about 60 predecessors and about 30 successors in the line and the last ruler in the main line fought in the Mahabharata war on the side of Kaurvas and he was killed by Abhimanyu, Son of Arjuna . Later the dynasty was spilt into minor lines and Suddhodhana father of Siddhartha Gautama was the ruler of a major sub line as Siddhartha took sanyasa followed by his son. Rahula. Yaduvamsa (yadu dynasty) came to an end quarrelling among themselves after the departure of Sri Krishna as ‘curshed’ by Queen Gandhari.

The title ‘ Ramayana’ itself means the life journey of Sri Rama written by none other than a Rishi (a ‘ Jnani’) who also a contemporary of Sri Rama. The Title of ‘Maha Bharata’ (originally known as jaya kaavya meaning victory to Dharma) is the history of Bharata vamsa connected to Chandra vamsa, the lineages are clearly given in the ancient literature. The writer was also a sage (Rishi – Jnani) who was not only a contemporary to Pandavas but also to three preceding generations.

Both of the writers were not only contemporary but they were also ‘participatory’ observes’ to use the terminology of modern “empiricists”. We find no parallel to such a phenomenon in the world’s ancient literatures of nations other than India Both, Sage Valmiki of Ramayana and Sage Vyasa of Mahabharata stand role models for a ‘true historian’, being unbiased and truthful in their exposition. Though, both of them strongly believed that Sri Rama and Sri Krishna wee none other than lord Vishnu, they were keen in presenting facts as they happened impartially , leaving the judgement of the event to the readers.

To-day our intellectuals could criticize some of the actions of these great personalities, Sri Rama and Krishna, Taking references only from these works.

Being Devoted to Lord Vishnu, the sages could have hidden some negative references on the lines of some modern researches who depended on select – data for their interpretations. But these great writers held Truth above even their venerable God. The birth –days of both , Valmiki Jayanthi and Vyasa poornima, are being celebrated since times immemorial with great veneration in India. Their Ashrams are well identified. They have become pilgrimages being visited by thousands.

There are some ‘intellectuals’ who argue that the writers were real but not their ‘stories’.

In ancient Indian literature, Vedic Vedic literature is ‘heard’. Varous Sastras are not fiction. The Purana, history of the Universe, was flashed to sge Parasara, of sage Vyasa, as a ‘revived memory’. The subject – matter of later Kaavya literature was only taken from the earlier literature. Buddha’s Jataka stories are considered the stories of his previous births revealed to his disciples by the Buddha himself. Fiction writing has become more prevalent in the modern times when writing and printings have become gainful professions. By no means, We can bring epic writers to the category of present fiction writers. The Kathasaritsagara or Panchatantra do not of course belong to the genre of modern fiction.

Both the Epics give us a clear understanding of the geographical expanse of Bharat from Afghanistan in the north- west to Rameswaram in the south-east , and from Himalayan range in the north to the Dravidadesa in the south. The then inhabiting tribes – civilian and forest – are described. Their life styles, their customs and traditions, interrelations, social and political system etc are also given to us very clearly. The geographical regions and political demarcations are described. The dynastic lineages are given. The Events are narrated with the essentials coordinates of time and space. The Time is given so specially that it astronomically dated, the tithi, nakshatra constellations etc., Which is more specific than modern dating.

As a text, the Mahabharata is more comprehensive than the Ramayana. The Mahabharata is also described as encyclopedia and revered as fifth book of Veda. The Bhagavad Gita is Considered the essence of Vedic Knoledge guiding its followers in their laukika and aadhatmika life. Lord Krishna’s bodha is mean for the present Kali times.

These facts are enough for a common man to believe the epic stories to be real and true. By raising doubts in the minds of Indian educated being alienated from their tradition about the historicity of Rama an d Krishna, no good purpose will be served to the by misleading people.

All the sites of Ramayana and Mahabharata are already identified. They are not only known to people since generations but they are considered pious Kshetras for common man.

Mahabharata sites are identified archaeologically are already identified. They are not only known to people since generations but they are considered pious Kshetra for common man.

Mahabharata sites are identified archaeologically in the post – independent survey. Hastinapura, Indraprastha, Kurukshetra, Mathura, Dwaraka (submerged) are well known to every one. Kings from all parts of Bharat Participated in the Great War. They along with their Kingdoms are indentified.

Archaeology suggest that the origin and growth of civilisation in the world could be traced to the end of last ice-age, may be around 10,000 years BP ( Before Present). Many scholars – Indian and foreign – have brought out their these on the date of Mahabharata War referring to the astronomical and scientific data given in the epic. Most of the modern work suggest the dates between 4500 BP to 5200 BP. Since about 30-38 rulers have succeeded Rama in Iksvaku lineage, the gap between Rama and Kishna should be as wide as 30+ generations. There were about 60 rulers before Rama in his line. Even by rough estimate, the origin of civilisation in India could be pushed back to a hundred generations from the Mahabharata times.

Early European scholars had arbitrarily fixed the average reigning years of a King to as low as single digit Years. But , We find that all main characters of the epics, like Dasaratha, Dhrutarashtra, Bhisma, Drona, Krishna and others lived for quite a long time, some of them were even hundred plus. They , even at that age, were also active and strong. They fought a big war. By any estimate the hundred generations before Mahabharata might be in the range of about 3000 years on an average of 30 years (may be arbitrarily) for each reigning period. Thus, the state formation in India could be traced back to at least 8000 BP. We should not forget that even archaeological estimates or carbon analyses are also approximations but not precise. (I owe this understanding to Sadguru, Mahamahopadhyaya, Dr K Sivananda Murtyji, D.Litt, Bheemunipatnam, AP).

Here, the author – couple have endeavoured to answer the question of many a doubting Thomas and presenting a scientific analyses of data available in the Mahabharata itself. They deserve a lot of appreciation form the scholars and serious readers.

Since the work has received the blessing of his holiness Sri Sri Ravi Shankarji, it needs no more authentication.

I Wish the learned couple all the best in their struggle for the cause of Sanatana Dharma.

Preface

While people at large accept the divinity of Krishna , some , at the same time, have doubts about the historicity of Sri Krishna. This book is an effort to understand Krishna from a historical angle and bring out the fact that Krishna, a hero of the land of India, was indeed historical Krishna had walked and lived on this earth, some time in the remote past.

When precisely is this emote past?

Do we have proof of his historical existence?

This book aims to shed light on the historicity of Krishna , using logic and science.

Out of Syllabus

Religious expression of Krishna, the miracles attributed to him and detailed discussion on philosophy, Nishkama Karma and the Gita, are not the focus of this book.

Historicity and Divinity

Some may feel that we are taking away the divinity from Krishna with this effort of trying to establish His historicity.

The idea here is not to offend the religious sentiments of such people. On the contrary, with the relegation of Sri Krishna and the events of His times, to the status of a myth, the basic for his divinity itself is put to test too.

If there was no Krishna, How can He divine?

While divinity is a matter of faith, historicity is a matter of existence.

If the stories of Krishna are to be believed to have been true, then Krishna must have walked this earth.

In this effort , we are responding to those who tend to dismiss Krishna as a myth of cooked up stories.

Infact, once we are able to establish in our minds that Krishna was really a historical person, then those who are able to establish in our minds that Krishna Was really a historical person, then those who are seeking the divine Krishna will find themselves a lot closer in established time and space, to cherish and revere Him better.

Krishna’s times

The period that Krishna walked this earth, was tumultuous. A major war was fought.

It was epoch changing times. Dwapara Yuga was coming to an and the world was entering in to Kali Yuga. This changed of Yuga was not an event that occurred because of the birth and life of Krishna in that period. It was a Unique astronomical event and the lifetime of Krishna overlapped with that period.

The occurrence of this unique event then, helps us now, to date the events during the times of Krishna, rather precisely.

Geography from Krishna’s Times

If a person has to be historical, then he must have walked on this earth and those places on the earth, must be identifiable today.

There are indeed a plethora of places connected with Krishna’s lifetime that can be indentified in India today. The region around Vrindavan andMathura, collectively known as Braj Bhumi, where Krishna was born and played His delightful childhood pranks, still goes by the same name and tradition.

We have Dwaraka, a city that Krishna got built for Himself and his people to live in.

If within this geography, archaeological remains from remote antiquity, mapping well from ground evidence, if we are to have any. At the same time, the mere absence of such remains, cannot conclusively deny either the historicity of Krishna or the geographical location of the events of his times.

Literature Speak Volumes

This and has had a continuity of literature mentioning the events in the life of Sri Krishna with specific details. Such details are not sketchy accounts but are details that offer enough material for a detailed study to understand the historicity of Krishna and the events of his times.

An Interdisciplinary Approach

Converging results from a multi – pronged approach using in puts from literature, geography, archaeology and other discipline can give the credibility that one would look for in establishing the historicity of Krishna.

Till recent times, the fields of history and sciences were distinct subjects, separate from each other, like parallel lines that do not meet Today however history, history needs the help of science to get uncovered and authenticated. In modern times, sciences have to be judiciously used, correctly too, to prove the historicity of not just Krishna and Rama, but also a host of other such historical personages and events the world over.

This Multi – disciplinary approach to any field to study is essential to move forward in an era where science is at the forefront.

Historical Personages

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a historical person in India . We have no Doubt about this because we have all seen photos and films on Gandhi. We still have in our midst, people who have seen and interacted With Gandhi in Flesh and blood. The meomorabilia left behind by Gandhi including his writings, can still be seen on display in museums and private collections.

Robert Clive, the First British Governor General of India, who paved the way for the British colonial rule in India, is also a historical figure. The British have kept meticulous records and sketches of their exploits in India and Robert Clive figures prominently in them.

Akbar, the Mughal emperor is also a historical figure of India. Akbar figures prominently in the history books of our schools. The buildings that Akbar Built are available with us today in Delhi , Agra and Fatehpur Sikri.

Ashoka, the great Mauryan emperor who fought the bloody Kalinga war and who , immediately after, in repentance, embraced Buddhism, is also a historical figure. The edicts of Ashoka, the Ashoka Pillars and the Stupa that he built are prominent monuments of India.

Alexander the great , the Macedonian King who conquered most of the civilizations of the ancient world and came upto north western part of India, is also a historical figure as noted from tales in Greece, Egypt, Turkey and Persia.

Challenges to History

It is Fascinating to see how the imprints left behind by historical personages have blurred with time.

Starting with memorabilia and photos from recent past we find only portraits as we go back in time. Going further back, we only have monuments. Still further back we have stray edicts and inscriptions alone. Further still we find oral history. Beyond that, We only have legends.

Evidences to prove the historicity of personages thus become less and less tangible as we go back further and further in time.

If evidences have already blurred with the times of Alexander around 300 BCE, what can we expect to find from the times of Krishna to prove His Historicity?

In the case of Krishna, apart from oral legends, there are written palm leaf manuscripts going back by many hundred years, supported by cravings and images going back to thousands of years.

The Native, history Keeping tradition of India, has Kept alive the legends from the past. The traditional scholars of India had followed a meticulous style of record keeping on palm leaf manuscripts and rewriting them on newer ones, as they age, thus passing them down from generation to generations, until recent times.

In the case of Krishna, we have with us today the work authored during the lifetime of Krishna Himself. It is the Epic , Mahabharat, Which is called an itibasa , history of this Land.

We also have us today, the submerged city of Dwaraka which is an archaeological remain of the built by Krishna , along the sea sea Coast.

Contents

Contents3
Benedictory Note9
About Bharath Gyan11
Foreword13
Preface17
Acknowledgements27
Part One - Getting to Know Krishna
The Story of Sri Krishna31
Many a Krishna51
Krishna - Mythology or history?57
Part two - Course of Indian History
From History to Mythology61
Re - establishing Historicity of Krishna75
Part three - Pegging Kali Yuga
History of the Mahabharata story81
The Period of Mahabharata89
Part Four - Historicity From Literature
From Upanishad - A Part of the Veda103
Purana and Other Ancient Texts105
A long Family Tree107
Dating Krishna Through Buddha111
The Buddhist Texts127
The Persian chronicles133
The Tamil Texts137
Part Five - Dates From Archaeo –Astronomy
The Field143
Sky Configurations from Mahabharata Times147
Krishna's Entry Into Mahabharata149
Krishna's Peace Keeping Mission151
Krishna Karna Chariot ride157
The Imminent War163
Balarama's Pilgrimage169
Kurukshetra Battle Start175
The Fall of Bheeshma193
The Yadava Civil War215
the Most Awaited Date217
Krishna's Birth219
Krishna's Departure from the Earth227
Krishna - Kali Yuga connection231
Internal Consistency of Dates243
Archaeo- Astronomy Unique Dating Krishna?245
Further Veracity?259
Possibility of Backdating267
Tiruvallur Tables transcend Time271
The Caveat277
Epilogue281

Volume II (Footprint of Krishna)

About the Book

Krishna is a paradox.

While events connected with Krishna find a place in Geography, Krishna does not find a place in History.

Historicity today demands evidence from archaeology and geography.

If Krishna is historical, then He Must have Walked this earth.

Where did He Live? What did He leave behind?

Seas and deserts are good preservers of ruins.

Unaccessible and untouched by man, ruins safely submerged in the sea or buried in the sands can tell tales of the people sand the times they were in use.

This book uncovers the footprints left behind by Krishna to logically establish Him in history.

Contents

Contents3
Benedictory Note7
About Bharath Gyan9
Foreword11
Preface15
Acknowledgements25
Part Six - Imprints on Geography
History, Geography, Geology, Ecology - Just Subjects?29
From Geography31
Braj Beckons35
Sandipani Teaches55
Dwaraka From the Deep59
Sarsvati Speak Up75
Yamuna Takes a Turn79
A 300 Year Drought - Te Hand of Ecology83
Summing up85
Part Seven - Evidences From Archaeology
Facts About Artifacts89
Evidences for Krishna - Foreigners' Records91
Evidences for Krishna - Indian Inscriptions97
Evidences for Krishna - A Clinching proof103
Sites of the Mahabharata107
Indraprastha of Mahabharata Period109
Hastinapura of Mahabharata Period115
Kurukshetra - The Land of Battles121
Many More Cities and Sites Awaited139
Marine archaeology in Dwaraka151
Dwaraka - The Underwater Museum159
Dwaraka - Anchored by Anchors171
A Seal From the Seals189
Demystifying The Indus Seals193
A Paradox205
Epilogue213

Volume III (Facets of Krishna)

About the Book

Krishna has been a subject of fascination. He is an enigma.

He swing between Historicity and Divinity in people’s minds.

He has also been the Subject of many mysteries and debates.

Is it possible for a historical personage to have performed such deeds?

This book Sheds light on some of the mysteries surrounding Him to rationally establish how Krishna is historical and how historicity need not preclude divinity.

It is a key to open the mind to fathom Krishna in his entirety.

Preface

While people at large accept the divinity of Krishna , some , at the same time, have doubts about the historicity of Sri Krishna. This book is an effort to understand Krishna from a historical angle and bring out the fact that Krishna, a hero of the land of India, was indeed historical Krishna had walked and lived on this earth, some time in the remote past.

When precisely is this emote past?

Do we have proof of his historical existence?

This book aims to shed light on the historicity of Krishna , using logic and science.

Out of Syllabus

Religious expression of Krishna, the miracles attributed to him and detailed discussion on philosophy, Nishkama Karma and the Gita, are not the focus of this book.

Historicity and Divinity

Some may feel that we are taking away the divinity from Krishna with this effort of trying to establish His historicity.

The idea here is not to offend the religious sentiments of such people. On the contrary, with the relegation of Sri Krishna and the events of His times, to the status of a myth, the basic for his divinity itself is put to test too.

If there was no Krishna, How can He divine?

While divinity is a matter of faith, historicity is a matter of existence.

If the stories of Krishna are to be believed to have been true, then Krishna must have walked this earth.

In this effort , we are responding to those who tend to dismiss Krishna as a myth.

In this volume 1, Dating of Krishna, we have seen how Krishna can be dated to 3112 BCE and the Kali Yuga to 3102 BCE based on sky configurations recorded to have been observed during the Mahabharata period.

In Volume 2, footprints of Krishna, we have seen how ground evidences from Geography, Archaeology, Ecology also point to a similar period for the lifetime of Krishna and the Mahabharata.

From this volume , we will be able connect with Krishna as a historical person who walked the geography of this land during a period in time, 5100 years ago leaving behind memories and evidence to treasure far beyond what other historical personages have.

Infact, once we are able to establish in our minds that Krishna was also a historical person, then those who are seeking the divine Krishna will find themselves a lot closer in established time and space, to cherish and Him better.

Contents

Contents3
Benedictory Note7
About Bhrath Gyan9
Foreword11
Preface15
Acknowledgements19
Part Eight - Fascinating Krishna
The Mothers of Krishna23
Pastimes of Young Krishna25
Krishna and the Gopi29
The 16,100 Damsels37
The 8 wives of Krishna41
who was Radha?49
the Goverdhan Giri episode - Lifting A Mountain65
The Parting of Yamuna - A Miracle71
Did Krishna Push for War?77
Dwaraka - A short lived city81
Krisna Lingers On83
Fact versus fiction93
More than a 5000 year lineage103
Krishna - Historical or Divine?107
Purpose of Krishna's Birth109
Krishna's Messages113
Epilogue117

Sample Pages

Volume I (Dating of Krishna)











Volume II (Footprint of Krishna)









Volume III (Facets of Krishna)









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