Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
Your interests (Optional)
This will help us make recommendations and send discounts and sale information at times.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
.
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address info@exoticindia.com.

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
|6
Your Cart (0)
Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend
Books > Hindu > Historicity of the Mahabharata (Evidence of Literature, Art and Archaeology)
Displaying 2577 of 7245         Previous  |  NextSubscribe to our newsletter and discounts
Historicity of the Mahabharata (Evidence of Literature, Art and Archaeology)
Historicity of the Mahabharata (Evidence of Literature, Art and Archaeology)
Description
About The Book

To the faithful, everyday mentioned in the Mahabharata is true to the very letter, whereas the skeptic holds that h e epic is nothing more than a mere figment of imagination. How , then, can one ascertain the truth? It is here that archaeology comes to our rescue.

IN 1951-52, Professor B.B. Lal excavated the key-site of Hastinapura, situated on the bank of the Ganga, in Merut district o f Uttar Pradesh. Over here he encountered in the lower levels a settlement which was distinguished by a characteristic pottery called the painted Grey Ware, assignable to circa 1100-800 BCE. This PGW Culture has since been discovered at all the Mahabharata sites a feature which binds them together.

Further, the excavation revealed that a heavy flood in the Ganga destroyed a considerable portion of the Painted Grey Ware settlement at Hastinapura. This archaeological evidence is duly corroborated by the vayu Purnan which states: “When the city of Hastinpura is carried away by the Ganga, Nichksu will abandon it and dwell in Kausambi.”

The shifting of the capital from Hastinapura to Kausambi is, in turn, supported by the fact that in the lowest levels of Kausambi has been encountered the same kind of degenerated Painted Grey Ware as had begun to appear at Hastinapura prior to its destruction by the flood.

Thus, the combined evidence of archaeology and literature duly establishes that the Mahabharata is not a figment of imagination but has a basis in historical reality. At the same time, it is on record that the epic underwent eleven time inflation-from 8,800 to 1,00,000 verses- and hence it is difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff. But let not the precious wheat be thrown away with the chaff.

 

About The Author

An archaeologist of international repute, Professor B.B. al was the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India. His excavation at Kalibangan In Rajasthan has brought to light a prosperous city of the Harappan Civilization. The excavations at Hastinapura, Indraprastha, etc. have established that there was a kernel of truth in the Mahabhrata, thought the epic is full of interpolations. The excavations at Ayodhya, Srinngaverapura, etc. have shown that the Ramayana too has a basis in his history. In 1961, he conducted excavations in Egypt, which threw valuable light on Egyptian prehistory.

He has published over 150 seminal research papers, variously in India, USA, UK, France, Italy, Egypt, Japan, etc. Amongst his recent books are: The Earliest Civilization of South Asia (1997); India 1947-97: New Light on the Indus Civilization (1998); The Sarasvati Flows On: the Continuity of India Culture (2002); The Homeland of the Aryans: Evidence of Rigvedic Flora and Fauna & Archaeology (2005); Rama: His Historicity, Mandir and Setu (2008); How Deep are the Roots of Indian Civilization? Archaeology answers (2009) and Piecing Together: Memoirs of an Archaeologist (2011).

IN 1982, Mithila Visvavidyalaya conferred on Professor Lal the title of Mahamahopadhyaya. IN 1994, he was awarded D. Litt, (honoris causa) by Insitiute of Archaeology, St. Petersburg, Russia. The same year he was elected President of World Archaeological Congress. In 2000, the President of India honored him with Padma Bhusana

 

Preface

On April 26-27,2012, there was an International Conference in Delhi on ‘The Mahabharata: Its Historicity, Antiquity, Evolution and Impact on civilization’. It was organized by Ms. Neera Misra, Chairperson, Draupadi Trust. At it I gave a presentation on ‘Historicity of the Mahabharata: What has Archaeology to say in the Matter?’ The presentation appears to have been greatly appreciated by fellow conferees as well as by the audience who agreed with the archaeological evidence that I presented, namely that the epic did have a basis in history and was not the figment of imagination as some people are prone to believe. Further, that the even its likely to have taken place sometime around 900 BCE.

On the evening of April 27, I invited some senior national and international participants to a dinner at my residence. After the dinner was over, there was a further discussion only presentation during which I answerer many a question. Some of the colleagues were aware of the fact that I had published in 1954-55 a full report on my excavations at Hastinapura and a few papers subsequently. All of them, however, suggested that it would benefit the academic community as well as the general reader if I publish a handy book on the subject. The present booklet is in response to this suggestion. May it be hoped that it fulfils the need.

 

Contents

 

  Preface vi
  Acknowledgements vii
  List of Illustrations x
1 Introducing the Mahabharata Text 1
A Introductory 1
B The Critical Edition of the Mahabharata 5
2 Impact of the Mahabharata on South Indian Literature 9
A Tamil Nadu 10
B Karnataka 13
3 Impact of the Mahabharata on Art in India and Abroad 15
A Draupadi's svayamvara 16
B Draupadi's Humiliation 20
C The Pandavas in Exile 23
D Both Duryodhana and Arjuna Approach Krishna for support 24
E The War Begins 28
F Lord Krisna's Visvarupa 34
G Bhisma Lies on a Bed of Arrows 37
H Abhimanyu Caught in the Chakravyuha 42
I Janamejaya's sarpa-yajna (Snake-sacrifice) 42
4 Impact on Coins and Inscriptions 43
A Coin of Agathocles 43
B Heliodorus Pillar Inscription 44
C Nasik Inscription of vasisthiputra Pulumavi 44
D Khoh Copperplate Grant of Maharaja Sarcanatha 45
E Sultanpur Copperplate Inscription 45
F Perjjarangi Grant of Ganga Rajamalla I 46
G A 19th -century Inscription too 46
H An Inscription from Afar-Laos 46
5 Problem of the History of the Mahabharata: 47
A The 'why' of the Problem 47
B The 'How' of the Solution 50
6 Historicity of the Mahabharata: Evidence of Non-Epic Texts 51
A Introductory 51
B The Atharvaveda Samhita 52
C The Aitareya Brahmana 52
D The Brihadaranuaka Upanishad 53
E Panini's Astadhyayi 55
F Kautlya's Arthasastra 55
7 Evidence of Excavations and Explorations at the Mahabharata Sites 59
A Complicated Nature of the Problem 59
B An Archaeologist Faces the Challenge 60
C Excavations at Hastinapura, 1950-52 62
D Chronological Horizons of the Various Periods at Hastinapura 80
E The Hastinapura Archaeological Evidence cis-a vis the Mahabharata 82
F The Date of the Mahabharata War on the Basis of Archaeological -cum-literary Evidence 84
G Other Dates Examined 86
8 Don’t throw the Baby out with the Bath Water 89
  Appendix I: From Pariksit to Udayana 93
  Appendix II: Ballads have a field day even today 95
  Bibliography 99
  Index 101

Sample Pages









Historicity of the Mahabharata (Evidence of Literature, Art and Archaeology)

Item Code:
NAF752
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2013
ISBN:
9788173054587
Language:
English
Size:
10.0 inch x 7.0 inch
Pages:
117 (Throughout Color and B/W Illustrations)
Other Details:
Weight of the book: 610 gms
Price:
$40.00
Discounted:
$32.00   Shipping Free
You Save:
$8.00 (20%)
Add to Wishlist
Send as e-card
Send as free online greeting card
Historicity of the Mahabharata (Evidence of Literature, Art and Archaeology)

Verify the characters on the left

From:
Edit     
You will be informed as and when your card is viewed. Please note that your card will be active in the system for 30 days.

Viewed 3330 times since 5th Jul, 2016
About The Book

To the faithful, everyday mentioned in the Mahabharata is true to the very letter, whereas the skeptic holds that h e epic is nothing more than a mere figment of imagination. How , then, can one ascertain the truth? It is here that archaeology comes to our rescue.

IN 1951-52, Professor B.B. Lal excavated the key-site of Hastinapura, situated on the bank of the Ganga, in Merut district o f Uttar Pradesh. Over here he encountered in the lower levels a settlement which was distinguished by a characteristic pottery called the painted Grey Ware, assignable to circa 1100-800 BCE. This PGW Culture has since been discovered at all the Mahabharata sites a feature which binds them together.

Further, the excavation revealed that a heavy flood in the Ganga destroyed a considerable portion of the Painted Grey Ware settlement at Hastinapura. This archaeological evidence is duly corroborated by the vayu Purnan which states: “When the city of Hastinpura is carried away by the Ganga, Nichksu will abandon it and dwell in Kausambi.”

The shifting of the capital from Hastinapura to Kausambi is, in turn, supported by the fact that in the lowest levels of Kausambi has been encountered the same kind of degenerated Painted Grey Ware as had begun to appear at Hastinapura prior to its destruction by the flood.

Thus, the combined evidence of archaeology and literature duly establishes that the Mahabharata is not a figment of imagination but has a basis in historical reality. At the same time, it is on record that the epic underwent eleven time inflation-from 8,800 to 1,00,000 verses- and hence it is difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff. But let not the precious wheat be thrown away with the chaff.

 

About The Author

An archaeologist of international repute, Professor B.B. al was the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India. His excavation at Kalibangan In Rajasthan has brought to light a prosperous city of the Harappan Civilization. The excavations at Hastinapura, Indraprastha, etc. have established that there was a kernel of truth in the Mahabhrata, thought the epic is full of interpolations. The excavations at Ayodhya, Srinngaverapura, etc. have shown that the Ramayana too has a basis in his history. In 1961, he conducted excavations in Egypt, which threw valuable light on Egyptian prehistory.

He has published over 150 seminal research papers, variously in India, USA, UK, France, Italy, Egypt, Japan, etc. Amongst his recent books are: The Earliest Civilization of South Asia (1997); India 1947-97: New Light on the Indus Civilization (1998); The Sarasvati Flows On: the Continuity of India Culture (2002); The Homeland of the Aryans: Evidence of Rigvedic Flora and Fauna & Archaeology (2005); Rama: His Historicity, Mandir and Setu (2008); How Deep are the Roots of Indian Civilization? Archaeology answers (2009) and Piecing Together: Memoirs of an Archaeologist (2011).

IN 1982, Mithila Visvavidyalaya conferred on Professor Lal the title of Mahamahopadhyaya. IN 1994, he was awarded D. Litt, (honoris causa) by Insitiute of Archaeology, St. Petersburg, Russia. The same year he was elected President of World Archaeological Congress. In 2000, the President of India honored him with Padma Bhusana

 

Preface

On April 26-27,2012, there was an International Conference in Delhi on ‘The Mahabharata: Its Historicity, Antiquity, Evolution and Impact on civilization’. It was organized by Ms. Neera Misra, Chairperson, Draupadi Trust. At it I gave a presentation on ‘Historicity of the Mahabharata: What has Archaeology to say in the Matter?’ The presentation appears to have been greatly appreciated by fellow conferees as well as by the audience who agreed with the archaeological evidence that I presented, namely that the epic did have a basis in history and was not the figment of imagination as some people are prone to believe. Further, that the even its likely to have taken place sometime around 900 BCE.

On the evening of April 27, I invited some senior national and international participants to a dinner at my residence. After the dinner was over, there was a further discussion only presentation during which I answerer many a question. Some of the colleagues were aware of the fact that I had published in 1954-55 a full report on my excavations at Hastinapura and a few papers subsequently. All of them, however, suggested that it would benefit the academic community as well as the general reader if I publish a handy book on the subject. The present booklet is in response to this suggestion. May it be hoped that it fulfils the need.

 

Contents

 

  Preface vi
  Acknowledgements vii
  List of Illustrations x
1 Introducing the Mahabharata Text 1
A Introductory 1
B The Critical Edition of the Mahabharata 5
2 Impact of the Mahabharata on South Indian Literature 9
A Tamil Nadu 10
B Karnataka 13
3 Impact of the Mahabharata on Art in India and Abroad 15
A Draupadi's svayamvara 16
B Draupadi's Humiliation 20
C The Pandavas in Exile 23
D Both Duryodhana and Arjuna Approach Krishna for support 24
E The War Begins 28
F Lord Krisna's Visvarupa 34
G Bhisma Lies on a Bed of Arrows 37
H Abhimanyu Caught in the Chakravyuha 42
I Janamejaya's sarpa-yajna (Snake-sacrifice) 42
4 Impact on Coins and Inscriptions 43
A Coin of Agathocles 43
B Heliodorus Pillar Inscription 44
C Nasik Inscription of vasisthiputra Pulumavi 44
D Khoh Copperplate Grant of Maharaja Sarcanatha 45
E Sultanpur Copperplate Inscription 45
F Perjjarangi Grant of Ganga Rajamalla I 46
G A 19th -century Inscription too 46
H An Inscription from Afar-Laos 46
5 Problem of the History of the Mahabharata: 47
A The 'why' of the Problem 47
B The 'How' of the Solution 50
6 Historicity of the Mahabharata: Evidence of Non-Epic Texts 51
A Introductory 51
B The Atharvaveda Samhita 52
C The Aitareya Brahmana 52
D The Brihadaranuaka Upanishad 53
E Panini's Astadhyayi 55
F Kautlya's Arthasastra 55
7 Evidence of Excavations and Explorations at the Mahabharata Sites 59
A Complicated Nature of the Problem 59
B An Archaeologist Faces the Challenge 60
C Excavations at Hastinapura, 1950-52 62
D Chronological Horizons of the Various Periods at Hastinapura 80
E The Hastinapura Archaeological Evidence cis-a vis the Mahabharata 82
F The Date of the Mahabharata War on the Basis of Archaeological -cum-literary Evidence 84
G Other Dates Examined 86
8 Don’t throw the Baby out with the Bath Water 89
  Appendix I: From Pariksit to Udayana 93
  Appendix II: Ballads have a field day even today 95
  Bibliography 99
  Index 101

Sample Pages









Post a Comment
 
Post Review
Post a Query
For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy

Related Items

The Mahabharata Patriline (Gender, Culture and the Royal Hereditary)
Item Code: NAM991
$60.00$48.00
You save: $12.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Making of Womanhood (Gender Relations in The Mahabharata)
Item Code: NAE666
$35.00$28.00
You save: $7.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Epic Nation (Reimagining the Mahabharata in the Age of the Empire)
by Pamela Lothspeich
Hardcover (Edition: 2009)
Oxford University Press
Item Code: IDL195
$40.00$32.00
You save: $8.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Indigenous Methods and Manuscript Preservation: Samraksika
Item Code: NAF685
$25.00$20.00
You save: $5.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
A History of Indian Literature – Introduction, Veda, Epics, Puranas and Tantras (Volume I)
Item Code: NAC704
$50.00$40.00
You save: $10.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
HINDU POLITY: A CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF INDIA IN HINDU TIMES
Item Code: IDG249
$40.00$32.00
You save: $8.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Lost City of Dvaraka
by S. R. Rao
Hardcover (Edition: 1999)
Aditya Prakashan
Item Code: NAN107
$70.00$56.00
You save: $14.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Delhi Down The Ages (Travel Through History)
by Dinesh Kapoor
Paperback (Edition: 2012)
Bennett Coleman and Co. Ltd
Item Code: NAF459
$25.00$20.00
You save: $5.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Political Thought In Ancient India
by G.P. Singh
Hardcover (Edition: 2005)
D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: IDD090
$24.50$19.60
You save: $4.90 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Cultural Heritage of India (Set of 9 Volumes)
Item Code: NAF605
$450.00$360.00
You save: $90.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Stolen Images of Nepal
Item Code: NAM761
$70.00$56.00
You save: $14.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
History of The Punjab (From Pre-Historic Times to The Age of Asoka)
Item Code: NAJ588
$30.00$24.00
You save: $6.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now

Testimonials

Very grateful for this service, of making this precious treasure of Haveli Sangeet for ThakurJi so easily in the US. Appreciate the fact that notation is provided.
Leena, USA.
The Bhairava painting I ordered by Sri Kailash Raj is excellent. I have been purchasing from Exotic India for well over a decade and am always beyond delighted with my extraordinary purchases and customer service. Thank you.
Marc, UK
I have been buying from Exotic India for years and am always pleased and excited to receive my packages. Thanks for the quality products.
Delia, USA
As ever, brilliant price and service.
Howard, UK.
The best and fastest service worldwide - I am in Australia and I put in a big order of books (14 items) on a Wednesday; it was sent on Friday and arrived at my doorstep early on Monday morning - amazing! All very securely packed in a very strong cardboard box. I have bought several times from Exotic India and the service is always exceptionally good. THANK YOU and NAMASTE!
Charles (Rudra)
I just wanted to say that this is I think my 3rd (big) order from you, and the last two times I received immaculate service, the books arrived well and it has been a very pleasant experience. Just wanted to say thanks for your efficient service.
Shantala, Belgium
Thank you so much EXOTIC INDIA for the wonderfull packaging!! I received my order today and it was gift wrapped with so much love and taste in a beautiful golden gift wrap and everything was neat and beautifully packed. Also my order came very fast... i am impressed! Besides selling fantastic items, you provide an exceptional customer service and i will surely purchase again from you! I am very glad and happy :) Thank you, Salma
Salma, Canada.
Artwork received today. Very pleased both with the product quality and speed of delivery. Many thanks for your help.
Carl, UK.
I wanted to let you know how happy we are with our framed pieces of Shree Durga and Shree Kali. Thank you and thank your framers for us. By the way, this month we offered a Puja and Yagna to the Ardhanarishwara murti we purchased from you last November. The Brahmin priest, Shree Vivek Godbol, who was visiting LA preformed the rites. He really loved our murti and thought it very paka. I am so happy to have found your site , it is very paka and trustworthy. Plus such great packing and quick shipping. Thanks for your service Vipin, it is a pleasure.
Gina, USA
My marble statue of Durga arrived today in perfect condition, it's such a beautiful statue. Thanks again for giving me a discount on it, I'm always very pleased with the items I order from you. You always have the best quality items.
Charles, Tennessee
TRUSTe
Language:
Currency:
All rights reserved. Copyright 2017 © Exotic India