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A History of Rajasthan
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A History of Rajasthan
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Rajasthan, also referred to by terms like 'Rajwarra', 'Raethan' and 'Rajputana' in the past, is synonymous in popular perception as the land of rajas and maharajas, chivalry, forts and palaces, the fabled Great Indian desert or thar desert, hardy folk and a treasure-trove of ancient lore, music, dance, ballads and myths.

The present-day Rajasthan cam into being when nineteen princely states and two chiefdoms of Rajputana were merged together between 1948 and 1950. To this, tracts like Ajmer-Merwaa and a few other zones were added in 1956. The region has a long history, stretching from the prehistoric Old Stone Age, in which local geography and environment had a role in determining the settlement-patterns and locations of towns and cities. The book covers a broad spectrum, encompassing the political, socio-cultural and economic history of present-day Rajasthan from the earliest times up to the middle of the twentieth century, in a comprehensive yet easy-to-read text aimed at, both, the general reader and scholar, alike.

A History of Rajasthan uses various archival, epigraphical, numismatical, architectural, archaeological, and art-history related information as well as traditional narratives, and oral and written chronicles, to provide general overview of aspects like literature, religion, art and architecture, position of women, socioeconomic conditions, science and technology, as well as the subaltern, peoples' oriented, 'everyday' life of the 'average citizen'.

An archaeologist, historian and writer, Rima Hooja is currently the Director of Minnesota University's MSID India Program. With a MA in History, Postgraduate Certificate in Archaeology (Cambridge, UK), and a Ph. D in Archaeology, also from Cambridge University, Rima has held several academic post, including Associate Professor Indian Tradition & Culture, Kota Open University, and Visiting Fellow, Institute of Development Studies Jaipur. A Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. She has served on several governing boards, committees and councils.

Rima has over fifty published research papers and articles to her credit, besides journalistic articles, contributions to the Students Encyclopedia Britannica, and presentations at international seminars and conferences. Books by her include The Ahar culture and Beyond; Prince, Patriot, Parliamentarian: Biography of Dr. Karni Singh - Maharaja of Bikaner; Environment Degradation Crusader for Self-Rule: Tej Bahadur Sapru and the Indian National Movement, and an English translation of a fifteenth century AD Sanskrit manuscript on iconography, Mandan's Devata-Murti-Prakarnam",

Introduction

Rajasthan, Also Referred To As 'Rajwarra', 'Raethan' And 'Rajputana' in the past, is synonymous in popular perception as the land of rajas and maharajas, chivalry, forts and palaces, the fabled Thar desert, and hardy folk - ordinary men and women - with a treasure-trove of ancient lore, music, dance, ballads and myths. It is this, and similar aspects of, the rich historical heritage that the present book on Rajasthan's history has attempted to summarise and present.

While the present-day state of Rajasthan is a relatively recent entity, formed in the wake of Indian independence in 1947, the region has a very long history. As such, the book tries to cover a broad spectrum encompassing the basic political, socio-cultural and economic history of the area comprising the area of present-day Rajasthan from the earliest times to the present. It is relevant to note here that in recent years, the importance of regional studies, complementing existing 'mainstream' history, has been recognised, and regional or local history forms part of the academic syllabi of most Indian universities. However, in the case of Rajasthan, though specialized scholarly books and short tracts in Hindi and English, covering specific topics, written by academics are available, there exists a lacuna for a comprehensive, yet easy-to-read, book on Rajasthan's history aimed at both the general reader and scholar alike.

In an age where it is not politically correct to see works with a strong chronological and dynasties-related stress, I should state at the outset that there is a strong element of both these aspects in this book For one thing, the nature of texts and sources so far available (e.g. khyats, rasos, kavya, etc., the numerous genealogical vamshavali and pidhivali etc., court records, epigraphs, inscribed eulogies; coins; oral traditions) make it far easier to present a certain kind of information. Such information focuses more on the elite and the merchants, traders, religious groups; the several warrior clans and their battles; the grants given to bards, priests, religious sects; the literary, architectural and cultural achievements; and so forth. Of done in the past couple of decades on some chronological periods, covering 'late medieval' to pre-modern and modern subaltern aspects, as well as 'late medieval' to pre-modern and modern economic and land-related aspects. Despite such work - much of it substantive - there are still lacunae for many, earlier, aspects of the socio-economic, subaltern, peoples' oriented etc. 'everyday' life of the 'average citizen'.

As such, I look at this present book as fulfilling the role of providing a basic framework of the 'old-fashioned' political history - with generous admixture of other aspects - for Rajasthan through the centuries. To this, I hope to eventually add a couple of further volumes at some point in the future. In these, I will try and take up alternative approaches and subject - matters, and do better justice to the people to the past few millennia who have lived in Rajasthan.

History is much more than a mere chronological arrangement of events and incidents, however. Thus, the book has also tried to provide a general overview of aspects like the literature, religions, art and architecture, position of women, etc. - all of which go into the making of history and culture. However, the limitations of space - and occasionally a paucity of information - have determined to a degree the amount of general socio-cultural, economic, subaltern and gender-related etc. aspects that one has been able to put into this work. Perhaps this can be resolved by another, differently oriented, book in the near future.

Furthermore, despite the not inconsiderable bulk of this work, there remain many other associated aspects of human life that have, due to space constraints as much as being outside the immediate scope of this work, remained scantily touched upon. The history of indigenous science and the development of technology in this region, for instance, have not really been examined in this book - and indeed require a full separate book in itself to do justice to the subject.

To take the example of metals and metallurgy: the erstwhile princely state of Mewar has long been recognised for its mineral wealth, including abundant copper ores, which began to be worked from c. third millennium BC onwards. There are also large deposits of lead and zinc in and around Zawar, about forty kms. southeast of Udaipur. Zawar has been an important centre of zinc production for contemporary India, and in the 1950s the Zawar hills were described as possessing India's richest deposits of lead, zinc and silver Zinc production here has been carried out in recent years by Hindustan Zinc Ltd., public sector Organisation. Fascinatingly, recent studies have shown that zinc smelting was known in the Zawar area at least by the fourteenth-fifteenth centuries AD, if not somewhat earlier (as is discussed further in this book). This date precedes zinc-smelting in most other parts of the world, especially Europe.

While this aspect of science and technology is looked at in this text, many others are not - mainly because of constraints of space. In a different vein, but by way of further whetting the appetite of interested readers, one may also mention just one of the ingenious local methods that evolved to cope with the restrictions imposed by the climate and terrain. On display at Jaisalmer's palace-museum is a device for cooling a room, which is fabricated from wood, metal and frames set with vetiver-grass (khus). This pre-modern cooler incorporates a manually turned spoked wooden wheel, which in turn moves small wooden fan-blades set within a large drum-like structure with wetted frames of khus on both sides. As the wheel turns, the fan-blades revolve, drawing and circulating khus cooled air through the chamber.

It is openly known that there are various accounts of different periods of the past available to us. For Rajasthan, these are in the form o scantly archaeological data, coins of kings (occasionally queens) and kingdoms, and references in various works of literature and various languages like Sanskrit, Prakrit, Persian, Apabrahmsa, Rajasthani (i.e. Dingal, Pingal) etc. the sources also take the shape of genealogies and archival records, oral traditions and travellers' accounts, as well as numerous inscriptions on copper-plates grants, stone-slabs inset at wells, reservoirs and other water-structures, within caves, on the wall of temples and mosques, and at forts and palaces.

There is, however, an obvious limitation in the amount of knowledge or information that any one of the above categories can convey by themselves. For example, in the case of the archaeological, epigraphical, numismatical, and art and architectural types of data, our 'recreation' of the past based on any on of these is limited by the fact that only a portion of the data has survived down to our times. And that too, in the case of epigraphs, provides a pre-selected perspective, since most inscriptions were engraved as proclamations by the state or king, or to record grants, or the construction of a place of worship, or to commemorate a victory, and so forth. As such, epigraphs are usually different from casual graffiti. For, while graffiti may not provide an alternative side to the story, it can provide additional insights into bygone eras.

Surviving archives in the shape of documents (or inscriptions) in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Persian, Rajasthani etc., pertaining to administrative details, or revenue-records, or listing of estates, or honours, or various taxes and cesses levied, or letters exchanged between two or more kingdoms or chiefdoms, etc., also carry the burden of selectivity. For, not every aspect of everyday life of every category of inhabitant of any area is generally covered in such archival records, but rather, things which seemed relevant for the purpose of recording at the time Similarly, literary works, genealogies, and travellers' accounts etc. have usually recorded, or in the case of the tales and myths have memorised and handed down to future generations, those aspects that appeared important, or noteworthy, or relevant to the recorder or story-teller. Furthermore, the epigraphic, literary and archival records for the period spanning c. sixth century BC to sixth century AD in Rajasthan's history, are fewer than compared to the centuries that followed, and this gap can give a skewed notion about human existence.

It is not as if the area has been oblivious to the notion of history. There is a long tradition of bardic accounts, customary histories, genealogies and ballads, which were maintained, transmitted and publicly recited on occasions by groups like the Charans, Bhats, Badvas, Barhats, Ranimangas and/or Bhopas, as the case may be. Some of this information was penned in the form of khyats, vamshavali, vats, rasos, etc. in Rajasthani. However, while khyats by Nainsi, Bankidas, Dayaldas, Murari Dan and others provide valuable information, I should be borne in mind that at times the khyat-compilers blended Jegendary ancestors and events with real people as generously as they eulogized a patron and criticized their patron's (or his ancestor's) opponents.

One should add here, that there is a rich oral and written tradition, mainly - though not solely - pertaining to dynastic histories. Popular heroes, including of the non-elite category, are a part of this tradition, as for instance in the story of Devnarayan, or the 'Bagavaton ki Kaha'. Oral transmission, even of written texts, has been an important feature of traditional rural and urban life in most parts of Rajasthan. The public performance of the tale of Pabu-ji in villages, using the 'Pabu-ji ka Phad', or a painted scroll depicting the story of Pabu-ji, and entailing several nights of recitation, is an example of this. At another end of the social scale, it was common for the ruling groups to be entertained in their 'baithaks' and durbars after sunset by storytellers and bards, who related and re-told the heroic deeds of past (and occasionally contemporaneous) men and women. However, since impeccable, authenticated and/or verifiable sources of history are of primary importance to historians, one problem faced while delving into the oral and traditionally communicated aspects of the history of Rajasthan, is that of intermeshing and verifying the rich oral tradition with 'history' arrived at through following the accepted rigours of the discipline.

Accounts of travellers like Xuanzang (previously spelt as Hiuen Tsang), or later ones like Tavernier, Bernier, Finch, Manucci, Thomas Roe, Terry, Captain Mundy, Bishop Heber who saw Jaipur in 1825, Manrique, Frey Sebastian and various others too have left a vivid picture of some of their observations, and are important in this respect.

There is also another distinct body of writing, mostly dating from the nineteenth and early twentieth century AD. This category includes works on regional or sub-regional histories by people like Col. James Tod, Kaviraj Shyamaldas, Suryamal Mishran, G. H. Ojha, etc. it also includes the various official reports of British Political Agents, Residents, Agents. To the Governor General and others, besides reports, gazetteers, compendiums and books compiled by British officers like Powlett, Erskine, Tod, Lockett, Willis, etc., as well as the subsequent works of various twentieth century historians.

The late nineteenth and early twentieth century saw some exploration, excavation, survey and conservation work in some of the princely states. For instance, the erstwhile state of Jaipur established a Department of Archaeology and Historical Research in 1926, appointing Dayaram Sahni, who had retired from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), as its first director. Later, K .N. Puri served in that capacity. Excavations and conservation work at various sites, dating to different time-periods, were conducted under both men. Prior to this, Maharaja Ganga Singh of Bikaner appointed an Italian indologist and linguist, Luigi Pio Tessitory, to undertake a general architectural-cum-cultural survey of Bikaner. Tessitori also studied parts of Marwar. In the 1940s the Austro-Hungarian-Briton - Sir Aurel Stein - traversed parts of the erstwhile states of Bikaner, Jaisalmer, and Bahawalpur, which lay further to the west, and found evidence of settlements.

Thus, over time, not only have there been several kinds of writings, narratives, chronicles and oral transmissions of traditions about the area comprising the modern state of Rajasthan, there still exist ample archival, epigraphical, numismatical, architectural, archaeological, and art-history etc. related information records. All these form a valuable source of information for any writer attempting to compile Rajasthan's history into book-form - and, in utilizing these, one must acknowledge an unredeemable debt to the hands and minds that created and lived these 'traditions', sources and bodies of knowledge' as also to the multitudes who have lived and died in this area over the past thousands of years, and played their part in shaping the reality we live in today.

 

Contents
  Introduction xv
  SECTION 1 1
1 THE LAND AND THE BACKGROUND SETTING 3
  Introduction 4
  The Background Setting: Geography of Rajasthan 5
  The Aravalli Range 13
  The Major Rivers of Rajasthan 14
  The Geology of Rajasthan 16
  Water Collection and Storage Systems 18
  Traditional Geographical, Political and Cultural Divisions 20
2 A PICTURE UNFOLDS: THE PRE- AND PROTO-HISTORY OF RAJASTHAN 33
  Introduction 34
  Climate and Climatic Changes in Pre- and Proto-historic Times: A Summary 34
  The Prehistory and Protohistory of Rajasthan 37
  The Palaeolithic (Or 'Old Stone Age') Period 39
  Lower Palaeolithic 39
  Middle Palaeolithic 41
  Upper Palaeolithic 44
  The Mesolithic (Or 'Late Stone Age') Sites of Rajasthan 45
  Chalcolithic Culture 51
  The Early, Mature and Post-Harappan Sites of Rajasthan 52
  The Ahar Culture 58
  The Ganeshwar-Jodhpura Copper Complex 65
  Iron Age Cultures 74
  The Painted Grey Ware Using Sites 75
  Iron in Southeast Rajasthan 78
  Northern Black Polished Ware 80
  Early Art 81
  SECTION 2 85
3 THE EARLY HISTORICAL PERIOD - C. 500 BC TO AD 300 87
  Introduction 88
  Early Kingdoms and Republics 93
  Rajasthan Between the C. 300 BC -AD 300 Period 100
  Aspects of Society, Economy, Religion, Art and Architecture During this Period 125
4 RAJASTHAN BETWEEN c. AD 300 - AD 700 131
  Introduction 132
  Rajasthan During the Time of the Gupta Empire 133
  Some Local Chiefships in Rajasthan During the Gupta Age 139
  The Guptas, the Huns and the Situation in Rajasthan 141
  The Post-Gupta Period - C. AD 500-700 142
  Some Local Kingdoms of Rajasthan 147
  The Guhilas 152
  The Guhilas of Medpat/Mewar 156
  The Guhilas of Kishkindha (Kishkindhpura) 158
  The Pratiharas of Mandore 160
  The Nagas and Early Towns of Rajasthan 162
  The Administrative and Economic Practices in Rajasthan in the Gupta and Post-Gupta Period 166
  Art and Architecture in Rajasthan During the C. AD 500-700 167
  SECTION 3 169
5 RAJASTHAN BETWEEN c. AD 700 - AD 1200 171
  Introduction 172
  Contact, 'Isolation' and Trade Routes 173
  Rajasthan Between c. AD 700-1000 (Eighth-Eleventh Centuries AD) 174
  Relations with the Arabs During the Early Eighth Century AD 175
  The Rajputs: Their 'Origins' and Consolidation of Power in Rajasthan 177
  The Imperial Pratiharas - Their Rise, Zenith and Decline: from Nagabhata I to the Successors of Trilochanapala 181
  The Imperial Pratiharas and Contemporary Art and Architecture in Rajasthan 192
  The Ghaznavide Raids 195
  Other Important Clans and Chiefdoms in Rajasthan Between c. AD 700-1000 199
  The Pratiharas of Mandore 199
  The Chauhans of Shakambhari and Nadol 202
  The Nadol Branch 209
  The Mauryas of Chittor and Kota 216
  The Nagas 219
  The Parmars 220
  The Parmars of Abu 223
  The Parmars of Vagar 228
  The Parmars of Jalore 231
  The Parmars of Kiradu and/or Bhinmal 231
  The Guhilas of Ghatsu, Mewar and Dhod 232
  The Guhilas of Dhod 239
  The Guhilas of Chatsu 239
  The Bhatis of Western Rajasthan 241
  The Tomars 251
  Other Groups 252
  Post-Imperial Pratihara Struggle for Supremacy 254
  The Chauhans of Shakambhari-Ajmer During the c. 1000-1200 Period 255
  The Age of Prithviraj III 260
  Other Ruling Families and Clans of Rajasthan Up to c. AD 1200 273
  Aspects of the Art and Architecture, Religious Trends, and Administrative and Economic Practices in Rajasthan During the c. AD 1000-1200 Period 281
  Rajasthan at the End of the Twelfth Century AD 287
6 RAJASTHAN BETWEEN C. AD 1200 - AD 1500 289
  Introduction 290
  Transformation, Consolidation and the Re-drawing of Older Boundaries in Rajasthan in the Thirteenth Century AD 291
  Rajasthan and the Delhi Sultanate During AD 1200-1300 293
  The Chauhans of Ranthambore 297
  The Chauhans of Jalore 299
  The Parmars of Abu 301
  Nagaur: A Much Contested Possession 302
  Rajasthan at the Beginning of the Fourteenth Century AD 303
  The Chauhans of Ranthambore and Alauddin Khilji 304
  Chittor and its Conquest by Alauddin Khilji 309
  The Fall of Siwana 314
  The Chauhans of Jalore and Alauddin Khilji's Conquest 314
  Victors and the Vanquished - Some Aspects 318
  The Delhi Sultanate and its Impact Upon Rajasthan During the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries 321
  The Political History of the States of Rajasthan (c. AD 1200-1500) 325
  The Guhila-Sisodias of Mewar 325
  Other Guhila States 348
  The Guhilots of Vagar/Dungarpur 349
  The Deora Chauhans of Sirohi 354
  The Hada Chauhans of Bundi 359
  The Bhatis of Western Rajasthan 364
  The Sankhlas of Janglu 371
  The Rathores of Marwar 372
  The Rathores of Bikaner 384
  The Kachchwahas of Dhoondhar (Or Amber/Jaipur) 389
  The Shekhawats of Shekhawati 397
  The Yaduvamshis of Eastern and North-Eastern Rajasthan 401
  Mewat and the 'Mewatis' of Eastern and North-Eastern Rajasthan 404
  The Badgujars 410
  The Tanwars of Dholpur 411
  The Kyam-Khanis of Shekhawati 411
  The Political History of Nagaur Region 413
  Rajput Relations with 'Indigenous' Groups Like the Meenas, Bhils, and Meds and So on 417
  Rajput-Muslim Interactions and Matrimonial Alliances 422
  Aspects of Art, Architecture, Literature, Religion, Economy, Society and Governance, and Relations with Neighouring States, etc. During C. AD 1200-1500 425
  Rajasthan at the End of the Fifteenth Century 433
  SECTION 4 435
7 RAJASTHAN BETWEEN c. AD 1500- AD 1600 437
  Introduction 438
  The Sultanate of Delhi, the Mughals and the Sur Dynasty Rulers 439
  The Various States of Rajasthan During the Sixteenth Century 447
  The State of Mewar 448
  Other Guhila States 475
  The State of Dungarpur 475
  The State of Banswara 477
  The Guhilots and the State of Pratapgarh-Deoliya 478
  The State of Amber/Dhoondhar 480
  Shekhawati 497
  Mewat and the Mewatis 502
  The State of Sirohi 507
  The State of Bundi 512
  The State of Marwar/Jodhpur 516
  The State of Bikaner 539
  The State of Jaisalmer 547
  The State of Karauli 549
  Dholpur 550
  Inter-religious Interactions and Matrimonial Alliances 550
  Some Aspect of Administration, Socio-Economic Conditions, Art and Architecture, Literature, and Religious Beliefs, etc. in Rajasthan in the Sixteenth Century 554
  Rajasthan at the Close of the Sixteenth Century 561
8 RAJASTHAN FROM c. AD 1600 UP TO THE DEATH OF AURANGZEB (AD 1707) 563
  Introduction 564
  The Mughal Empire During the Seventeenth Century and Rajput Participation in its Governance and Campaigns 567
  The Various Prominent States of Rajasthan in the Seventeenth Century 571
  The Kachchwahas of Dhoondhar 571
  The Shekhawati Area 580
  The State of Marwar/Jodhpur 586
  The Rathores of Bikaner 603
  The Rathores of Kishangarh 607
  The Mewatis 608
  The Rise of the Jats - the Kingdom of Bharatpur 609
  The State of Mewar/Udaipur 611
  Other Guhila States and Principalities 626
  Dungarpur 626
  Banswara 627
  The Guhilots of Pratapgarh-Deoliya 628
  Sirohi 629
  The State of Bundi 632
  The Kingdom of Kota 636
  The Kingdom of Jaisalmer 638
  Karauli 640
  Contemporaneous Archival Records 640
  Some Aspects of Art, Architecture, Literature, Socio-cultural and Religious Conditions During the Seventeenth Century 641
  Rajasthan at the Beginning of The Eighteenth Century 649
  SECTION 5 651
9 AN ERA OF DISQUIET AND THE SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVES: RAJASTHAN IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AD 1700 - 1800  
  Introduction 654
  The Mughal Empire During the Eighteenth Century and its Interaction with Rajasthan 655
  The Rajput States and the Marathas 657
  The State of Dhoondhar/Amber-Jaipur 666
  The Shekhawati Area 684
  Mewar/Udaipur 697
  Marwar/Jodhpur 704
  Bikaner 718
  Jaisalmer 721
  Karauli 723
  The Narukas of Alwar 724
  The 'Jatwara' Kingdoms of Bharatpur and Dholpur 729
  Dholpur 738
  Bundi 739
  Kota 746
  Kishangarh 752
  Sirohi 754
  Dungarpur 756
  Banswara 758
  Pratapgarh-Deoliya 759
  Aspects of the Art, Architecture, Literature, Society, Economy and Religious Trends etc. in the Eighteenth Century 759
  Rajasthan at the End of the Eighteenth Century 766
  SECTION 6 767
  Introduction 770
  Rajasthan and the Marathas, Pindaris and East India Company in the Early Nineteenth Century 771
  The Pindaris 775
  British Ascendance in Rajasthan: The Rajput States and British Paramountcy 779
  The Establishment of the Rajputana Agency 783
  The Doctrine of Lapse, the Evens of 1857, and the States of Rajputana 785
  Post-1858 Rajputana, Sanads (Grants) of Adoption of Heirs, and Relations with the British 789
  The State of Rajputana During the Nineteenth Century 793
  The State of Tonk 793
  British Recognition to the Chiefships of Lawa and Kushalgarh 796
  Mewar/Udaipur 797
  Dungarpur 820
  Banswara 823
  Kushalgarh 824
  Pratapgarh-Deoliya (Pertabgarh) 825
  Marwar 826
  Bikaner 845
  Kishangarh 853
  Karauli 853
  Dholpur 857
  British Possession of Ajmer-Merware 858
  Jaipur/Amber 863
  Alwar 874
  The Shekhawati Area 886
  Sirohi 893
  Bundi 898
  Kotah 902
  Establishment of Jhalawar 906
  Jaisalmer 907
  Bharatpur 913
  Agrarian Movements 918
  British Monopoly Over the Salt Trade of Rajasthan 918
  Opium, the British, and the States of Rajputana 924
  Aspects of the Art, Architecture, Literature, Society, Economy, Education, etc. in Rajasthan During the Nineteenth Century 930
  Rajasthan at the End of the Nineteenth Century 939
  SECTION 6 767
10 DIPLOMACY, TRANSFORMATIONS AND BRITISH PARAMOUNTCY: RAJPUTANA DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 769
  Introduction 770
  Rajasthan and the Marathas, Pindaris and East India Company in the Early Nineteenth Century 771
  The Pindaris 775
  British Ascendance in Rajasthan: The Rajput Stats and British Paramountcy 779
  The Establishment of the Rajputana Agency 783
  The Doctrine of Lapse, the Events of 1857, and the States of Rajputana 785
  Post-1858 Rajputana, Sanads (Grants) of Adoption of Heirs, and Relations with the British 789
  The States of Rajputana During the Nineteenth Century 783
  The State of Tonk 793
  British Recognition to the Chiefships of Lawa and Kushalgarh 796
  Mewar/Udaipur 797
  Dungarpur 820
  Banswara 823
  Kushalgarh 824
  Pratapgarh-Deoliya (Pertabgarh) 825
  Marwar 826
  Bikaner 845
  Kishangarh 853
  Karauli 853
  Dholpur 857
  British Possession of Ajmer-Merwara 858
  Jaipur/Amber 863
  Alwar 874
  The Shekhawati Area 886
  Sirohi 893
  Bundi 898
  Kotah 902
  Establishment of Jhalawar 906
  Jaisalmer 907
  Bharatpur 913
  Agrarian Movements 918
  British Monopoly Over the Salt Trade of Rajasthan 918
  Opium, the British, and the States of Rajputana 924
  Aspects of the Art, Architecture, Literature, Society Economy, Education, etc. in Rajasthan During the Nineteenth Century 930
  Rajasthan at the End of the Nineteenth Century 939
  SECTION 7 941
11 Rajputana 1900 - 1947 943
  Introduction 944
  Background to Movements for Agrarian, Political and Socio-economic 945
  Reforms in Rajputana and their Concomitant Role in the Formation of Modern Rajasthan  
  The National Movement, British India, and the Princely States of Rajputana (1900-1947) 986
  Political Awareness in Rajputana 986
  Peasant and Popular Movements and Uprisings 990
  Tribal-related Movements 1002
  Mewar 1008
  Dungarpur 1017
  Banswara 1024
  Pratapgarh-Deoliya 1026
  Shahpura - from Chiefship to State to Merger 1027
  Alwar 1030
  Bharatpur 1055
  Kotah 1067
  Bundi 1068
  Jhalawar 1071
  Jaisalmer 1072
  Bikaner 1074
  Jaipur 1089
  Marwar 1099
  Kishangarh 1109
  Karauli 1110
  Sirohi 1112
  Tonk 1116
  Dholpur 1120
  British Administered Ajmer-Merwara 1122
  The Transition from Rajputana to Rajasthan 1125
  SECTION 8 1127
12 A NEW AWAKENING: THE MAKING OF PRESENT-DAY RAJASTHAN 1129
  Introduction 1130
  Towards the 'Integration' of Rajputana's Princely States 1131
  The Process and stages of Integration in Rajasthan 1134
  The New Political Administration of Rajasthan 1141
  Aspects of Integration - An Overview 1144
  Administrative Integration 1147
  Judicial Integration 1148
  Financial Integration 1149
  Integration of the Various States' Armed Forces 1150
  Various Government Schemes, Programmes, Acts and Attempts for Development 1153
  Land Reforms and the Abolition of Jagirs etc. 1153
  Land Reforms and the Protests of the 'Ancien Regime' 1154
  Inauguration of Panchayati Raj in Rajasthan 1162
  Municipalities and Urban Local Administration 1166
  Towards the Future 1167
  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1171
  GLOSSARY 1191
  SOME TRADITIONAL WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 1202
  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1103
  INDEX 1205

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A History of Rajasthan

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Edition:
2006
ISBN:
9788129108906
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English
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From the Jacket

Rajasthan, also referred to by terms like 'Rajwarra', 'Raethan' and 'Rajputana' in the past, is synonymous in popular perception as the land of rajas and maharajas, chivalry, forts and palaces, the fabled Great Indian desert or thar desert, hardy folk and a treasure-trove of ancient lore, music, dance, ballads and myths.

The present-day Rajasthan cam into being when nineteen princely states and two chiefdoms of Rajputana were merged together between 1948 and 1950. To this, tracts like Ajmer-Merwaa and a few other zones were added in 1956. The region has a long history, stretching from the prehistoric Old Stone Age, in which local geography and environment had a role in determining the settlement-patterns and locations of towns and cities. The book covers a broad spectrum, encompassing the political, socio-cultural and economic history of present-day Rajasthan from the earliest times up to the middle of the twentieth century, in a comprehensive yet easy-to-read text aimed at, both, the general reader and scholar, alike.

A History of Rajasthan uses various archival, epigraphical, numismatical, architectural, archaeological, and art-history related information as well as traditional narratives, and oral and written chronicles, to provide general overview of aspects like literature, religion, art and architecture, position of women, socioeconomic conditions, science and technology, as well as the subaltern, peoples' oriented, 'everyday' life of the 'average citizen'.

An archaeologist, historian and writer, Rima Hooja is currently the Director of Minnesota University's MSID India Program. With a MA in History, Postgraduate Certificate in Archaeology (Cambridge, UK), and a Ph. D in Archaeology, also from Cambridge University, Rima has held several academic post, including Associate Professor Indian Tradition & Culture, Kota Open University, and Visiting Fellow, Institute of Development Studies Jaipur. A Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. She has served on several governing boards, committees and councils.

Rima has over fifty published research papers and articles to her credit, besides journalistic articles, contributions to the Students Encyclopedia Britannica, and presentations at international seminars and conferences. Books by her include The Ahar culture and Beyond; Prince, Patriot, Parliamentarian: Biography of Dr. Karni Singh - Maharaja of Bikaner; Environment Degradation Crusader for Self-Rule: Tej Bahadur Sapru and the Indian National Movement, and an English translation of a fifteenth century AD Sanskrit manuscript on iconography, Mandan's Devata-Murti-Prakarnam",

Introduction

Rajasthan, Also Referred To As 'Rajwarra', 'Raethan' And 'Rajputana' in the past, is synonymous in popular perception as the land of rajas and maharajas, chivalry, forts and palaces, the fabled Thar desert, and hardy folk - ordinary men and women - with a treasure-trove of ancient lore, music, dance, ballads and myths. It is this, and similar aspects of, the rich historical heritage that the present book on Rajasthan's history has attempted to summarise and present.

While the present-day state of Rajasthan is a relatively recent entity, formed in the wake of Indian independence in 1947, the region has a very long history. As such, the book tries to cover a broad spectrum encompassing the basic political, socio-cultural and economic history of the area comprising the area of present-day Rajasthan from the earliest times to the present. It is relevant to note here that in recent years, the importance of regional studies, complementing existing 'mainstream' history, has been recognised, and regional or local history forms part of the academic syllabi of most Indian universities. However, in the case of Rajasthan, though specialized scholarly books and short tracts in Hindi and English, covering specific topics, written by academics are available, there exists a lacuna for a comprehensive, yet easy-to-read, book on Rajasthan's history aimed at both the general reader and scholar alike.

In an age where it is not politically correct to see works with a strong chronological and dynasties-related stress, I should state at the outset that there is a strong element of both these aspects in this book For one thing, the nature of texts and sources so far available (e.g. khyats, rasos, kavya, etc., the numerous genealogical vamshavali and pidhivali etc., court records, epigraphs, inscribed eulogies; coins; oral traditions) make it far easier to present a certain kind of information. Such information focuses more on the elite and the merchants, traders, religious groups; the several warrior clans and their battles; the grants given to bards, priests, religious sects; the literary, architectural and cultural achievements; and so forth. Of done in the past couple of decades on some chronological periods, covering 'late medieval' to pre-modern and modern subaltern aspects, as well as 'late medieval' to pre-modern and modern economic and land-related aspects. Despite such work - much of it substantive - there are still lacunae for many, earlier, aspects of the socio-economic, subaltern, peoples' oriented etc. 'everyday' life of the 'average citizen'.

As such, I look at this present book as fulfilling the role of providing a basic framework of the 'old-fashioned' political history - with generous admixture of other aspects - for Rajasthan through the centuries. To this, I hope to eventually add a couple of further volumes at some point in the future. In these, I will try and take up alternative approaches and subject - matters, and do better justice to the people to the past few millennia who have lived in Rajasthan.

History is much more than a mere chronological arrangement of events and incidents, however. Thus, the book has also tried to provide a general overview of aspects like the literature, religions, art and architecture, position of women, etc. - all of which go into the making of history and culture. However, the limitations of space - and occasionally a paucity of information - have determined to a degree the amount of general socio-cultural, economic, subaltern and gender-related etc. aspects that one has been able to put into this work. Perhaps this can be resolved by another, differently oriented, book in the near future.

Furthermore, despite the not inconsiderable bulk of this work, there remain many other associated aspects of human life that have, due to space constraints as much as being outside the immediate scope of this work, remained scantily touched upon. The history of indigenous science and the development of technology in this region, for instance, have not really been examined in this book - and indeed require a full separate book in itself to do justice to the subject.

To take the example of metals and metallurgy: the erstwhile princely state of Mewar has long been recognised for its mineral wealth, including abundant copper ores, which began to be worked from c. third millennium BC onwards. There are also large deposits of lead and zinc in and around Zawar, about forty kms. southeast of Udaipur. Zawar has been an important centre of zinc production for contemporary India, and in the 1950s the Zawar hills were described as possessing India's richest deposits of lead, zinc and silver Zinc production here has been carried out in recent years by Hindustan Zinc Ltd., public sector Organisation. Fascinatingly, recent studies have shown that zinc smelting was known in the Zawar area at least by the fourteenth-fifteenth centuries AD, if not somewhat earlier (as is discussed further in this book). This date precedes zinc-smelting in most other parts of the world, especially Europe.

While this aspect of science and technology is looked at in this text, many others are not - mainly because of constraints of space. In a different vein, but by way of further whetting the appetite of interested readers, one may also mention just one of the ingenious local methods that evolved to cope with the restrictions imposed by the climate and terrain. On display at Jaisalmer's palace-museum is a device for cooling a room, which is fabricated from wood, metal and frames set with vetiver-grass (khus). This pre-modern cooler incorporates a manually turned spoked wooden wheel, which in turn moves small wooden fan-blades set within a large drum-like structure with wetted frames of khus on both sides. As the wheel turns, the fan-blades revolve, drawing and circulating khus cooled air through the chamber.

It is openly known that there are various accounts of different periods of the past available to us. For Rajasthan, these are in the form o scantly archaeological data, coins of kings (occasionally queens) and kingdoms, and references in various works of literature and various languages like Sanskrit, Prakrit, Persian, Apabrahmsa, Rajasthani (i.e. Dingal, Pingal) etc. the sources also take the shape of genealogies and archival records, oral traditions and travellers' accounts, as well as numerous inscriptions on copper-plates grants, stone-slabs inset at wells, reservoirs and other water-structures, within caves, on the wall of temples and mosques, and at forts and palaces.

There is, however, an obvious limitation in the amount of knowledge or information that any one of the above categories can convey by themselves. For example, in the case of the archaeological, epigraphical, numismatical, and art and architectural types of data, our 'recreation' of the past based on any on of these is limited by the fact that only a portion of the data has survived down to our times. And that too, in the case of epigraphs, provides a pre-selected perspective, since most inscriptions were engraved as proclamations by the state or king, or to record grants, or the construction of a place of worship, or to commemorate a victory, and so forth. As such, epigraphs are usually different from casual graffiti. For, while graffiti may not provide an alternative side to the story, it can provide additional insights into bygone eras.

Surviving archives in the shape of documents (or inscriptions) in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Persian, Rajasthani etc., pertaining to administrative details, or revenue-records, or listing of estates, or honours, or various taxes and cesses levied, or letters exchanged between two or more kingdoms or chiefdoms, etc., also carry the burden of selectivity. For, not every aspect of everyday life of every category of inhabitant of any area is generally covered in such archival records, but rather, things which seemed relevant for the purpose of recording at the time Similarly, literary works, genealogies, and travellers' accounts etc. have usually recorded, or in the case of the tales and myths have memorised and handed down to future generations, those aspects that appeared important, or noteworthy, or relevant to the recorder or story-teller. Furthermore, the epigraphic, literary and archival records for the period spanning c. sixth century BC to sixth century AD in Rajasthan's history, are fewer than compared to the centuries that followed, and this gap can give a skewed notion about human existence.

It is not as if the area has been oblivious to the notion of history. There is a long tradition of bardic accounts, customary histories, genealogies and ballads, which were maintained, transmitted and publicly recited on occasions by groups like the Charans, Bhats, Badvas, Barhats, Ranimangas and/or Bhopas, as the case may be. Some of this information was penned in the form of khyats, vamshavali, vats, rasos, etc. in Rajasthani. However, while khyats by Nainsi, Bankidas, Dayaldas, Murari Dan and others provide valuable information, I should be borne in mind that at times the khyat-compilers blended Jegendary ancestors and events with real people as generously as they eulogized a patron and criticized their patron's (or his ancestor's) opponents.

One should add here, that there is a rich oral and written tradition, mainly - though not solely - pertaining to dynastic histories. Popular heroes, including of the non-elite category, are a part of this tradition, as for instance in the story of Devnarayan, or the 'Bagavaton ki Kaha'. Oral transmission, even of written texts, has been an important feature of traditional rural and urban life in most parts of Rajasthan. The public performance of the tale of Pabu-ji in villages, using the 'Pabu-ji ka Phad', or a painted scroll depicting the story of Pabu-ji, and entailing several nights of recitation, is an example of this. At another end of the social scale, it was common for the ruling groups to be entertained in their 'baithaks' and durbars after sunset by storytellers and bards, who related and re-told the heroic deeds of past (and occasionally contemporaneous) men and women. However, since impeccable, authenticated and/or verifiable sources of history are of primary importance to historians, one problem faced while delving into the oral and traditionally communicated aspects of the history of Rajasthan, is that of intermeshing and verifying the rich oral tradition with 'history' arrived at through following the accepted rigours of the discipline.

Accounts of travellers like Xuanzang (previously spelt as Hiuen Tsang), or later ones like Tavernier, Bernier, Finch, Manucci, Thomas Roe, Terry, Captain Mundy, Bishop Heber who saw Jaipur in 1825, Manrique, Frey Sebastian and various others too have left a vivid picture of some of their observations, and are important in this respect.

There is also another distinct body of writing, mostly dating from the nineteenth and early twentieth century AD. This category includes works on regional or sub-regional histories by people like Col. James Tod, Kaviraj Shyamaldas, Suryamal Mishran, G. H. Ojha, etc. it also includes the various official reports of British Political Agents, Residents, Agents. To the Governor General and others, besides reports, gazetteers, compendiums and books compiled by British officers like Powlett, Erskine, Tod, Lockett, Willis, etc., as well as the subsequent works of various twentieth century historians.

The late nineteenth and early twentieth century saw some exploration, excavation, survey and conservation work in some of the princely states. For instance, the erstwhile state of Jaipur established a Department of Archaeology and Historical Research in 1926, appointing Dayaram Sahni, who had retired from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), as its first director. Later, K .N. Puri served in that capacity. Excavations and conservation work at various sites, dating to different time-periods, were conducted under both men. Prior to this, Maharaja Ganga Singh of Bikaner appointed an Italian indologist and linguist, Luigi Pio Tessitory, to undertake a general architectural-cum-cultural survey of Bikaner. Tessitori also studied parts of Marwar. In the 1940s the Austro-Hungarian-Briton - Sir Aurel Stein - traversed parts of the erstwhile states of Bikaner, Jaisalmer, and Bahawalpur, which lay further to the west, and found evidence of settlements.

Thus, over time, not only have there been several kinds of writings, narratives, chronicles and oral transmissions of traditions about the area comprising the modern state of Rajasthan, there still exist ample archival, epigraphical, numismatical, architectural, archaeological, and art-history etc. related information records. All these form a valuable source of information for any writer attempting to compile Rajasthan's history into book-form - and, in utilizing these, one must acknowledge an unredeemable debt to the hands and minds that created and lived these 'traditions', sources and bodies of knowledge' as also to the multitudes who have lived and died in this area over the past thousands of years, and played their part in shaping the reality we live in today.

 

Contents
  Introduction xv
  SECTION 1 1
1 THE LAND AND THE BACKGROUND SETTING 3
  Introduction 4
  The Background Setting: Geography of Rajasthan 5
  The Aravalli Range 13
  The Major Rivers of Rajasthan 14
  The Geology of Rajasthan 16
  Water Collection and Storage Systems 18
  Traditional Geographical, Political and Cultural Divisions 20
2 A PICTURE UNFOLDS: THE PRE- AND PROTO-HISTORY OF RAJASTHAN 33
  Introduction 34
  Climate and Climatic Changes in Pre- and Proto-historic Times: A Summary 34
  The Prehistory and Protohistory of Rajasthan 37
  The Palaeolithic (Or 'Old Stone Age') Period 39
  Lower Palaeolithic 39
  Middle Palaeolithic 41
  Upper Palaeolithic 44
  The Mesolithic (Or 'Late Stone Age') Sites of Rajasthan 45
  Chalcolithic Culture 51
  The Early, Mature and Post-Harappan Sites of Rajasthan 52
  The Ahar Culture 58
  The Ganeshwar-Jodhpura Copper Complex 65
  Iron Age Cultures 74
  The Painted Grey Ware Using Sites 75
  Iron in Southeast Rajasthan 78
  Northern Black Polished Ware 80
  Early Art 81
  SECTION 2 85
3 THE EARLY HISTORICAL PERIOD - C. 500 BC TO AD 300 87
  Introduction 88
  Early Kingdoms and Republics 93
  Rajasthan Between the C. 300 BC -AD 300 Period 100
  Aspects of Society, Economy, Religion, Art and Architecture During this Period 125
4 RAJASTHAN BETWEEN c. AD 300 - AD 700 131
  Introduction 132
  Rajasthan During the Time of the Gupta Empire 133
  Some Local Chiefships in Rajasthan During the Gupta Age 139
  The Guptas, the Huns and the Situation in Rajasthan 141
  The Post-Gupta Period - C. AD 500-700 142
  Some Local Kingdoms of Rajasthan 147
  The Guhilas 152
  The Guhilas of Medpat/Mewar 156
  The Guhilas of Kishkindha (Kishkindhpura) 158
  The Pratiharas of Mandore 160
  The Nagas and Early Towns of Rajasthan 162
  The Administrative and Economic Practices in Rajasthan in the Gupta and Post-Gupta Period 166
  Art and Architecture in Rajasthan During the C. AD 500-700 167
  SECTION 3 169
5 RAJASTHAN BETWEEN c. AD 700 - AD 1200 171
  Introduction 172
  Contact, 'Isolation' and Trade Routes 173
  Rajasthan Between c. AD 700-1000 (Eighth-Eleventh Centuries AD) 174
  Relations with the Arabs During the Early Eighth Century AD 175
  The Rajputs: Their 'Origins' and Consolidation of Power in Rajasthan 177
  The Imperial Pratiharas - Their Rise, Zenith and Decline: from Nagabhata I to the Successors of Trilochanapala 181
  The Imperial Pratiharas and Contemporary Art and Architecture in Rajasthan 192
  The Ghaznavide Raids 195
  Other Important Clans and Chiefdoms in Rajasthan Between c. AD 700-1000 199
  The Pratiharas of Mandore 199
  The Chauhans of Shakambhari and Nadol 202
  The Nadol Branch 209
  The Mauryas of Chittor and Kota 216
  The Nagas 219
  The Parmars 220
  The Parmars of Abu 223
  The Parmars of Vagar 228
  The Parmars of Jalore 231
  The Parmars of Kiradu and/or Bhinmal 231
  The Guhilas of Ghatsu, Mewar and Dhod 232
  The Guhilas of Dhod 239
  The Guhilas of Chatsu 239
  The Bhatis of Western Rajasthan 241
  The Tomars 251
  Other Groups 252
  Post-Imperial Pratihara Struggle for Supremacy 254
  The Chauhans of Shakambhari-Ajmer During the c. 1000-1200 Period 255
  The Age of Prithviraj III 260
  Other Ruling Families and Clans of Rajasthan Up to c. AD 1200 273
  Aspects of the Art and Architecture, Religious Trends, and Administrative and Economic Practices in Rajasthan During the c. AD 1000-1200 Period 281
  Rajasthan at the End of the Twelfth Century AD 287
6 RAJASTHAN BETWEEN C. AD 1200 - AD 1500 289
  Introduction 290
  Transformation, Consolidation and the Re-drawing of Older Boundaries in Rajasthan in the Thirteenth Century AD 291
  Rajasthan and the Delhi Sultanate During AD 1200-1300 293
  The Chauhans of Ranthambore 297
  The Chauhans of Jalore 299
  The Parmars of Abu 301
  Nagaur: A Much Contested Possession 302
  Rajasthan at the Beginning of the Fourteenth Century AD 303
  The Chauhans of Ranthambore and Alauddin Khilji 304
  Chittor and its Conquest by Alauddin Khilji 309
  The Fall of Siwana 314
  The Chauhans of Jalore and Alauddin Khilji's Conquest 314
  Victors and the Vanquished - Some Aspects 318
  The Delhi Sultanate and its Impact Upon Rajasthan During the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries 321
  The Political History of the States of Rajasthan (c. AD 1200-1500) 325
  The Guhila-Sisodias of Mewar 325
  Other Guhila States 348
  The Guhilots of Vagar/Dungarpur 349
  The Deora Chauhans of Sirohi 354
  The Hada Chauhans of Bundi 359
  The Bhatis of Western Rajasthan 364
  The Sankhlas of Janglu 371
  The Rathores of Marwar 372
  The Rathores of Bikaner 384
  The Kachchwahas of Dhoondhar (Or Amber/Jaipur) 389
  The Shekhawats of Shekhawati 397
  The Yaduvamshis of Eastern and North-Eastern Rajasthan 401
  Mewat and the 'Mewatis' of Eastern and North-Eastern Rajasthan 404
  The Badgujars 410
  The Tanwars of Dholpur 411
  The Kyam-Khanis of Shekhawati 411
  The Political History of Nagaur Region 413
  Rajput Relations with 'Indigenous' Groups Like the Meenas, Bhils, and Meds and So on 417
  Rajput-Muslim Interactions and Matrimonial Alliances 422
  Aspects of Art, Architecture, Literature, Religion, Economy, Society and Governance, and Relations with Neighouring States, etc. During C. AD 1200-1500 425
  Rajasthan at the End of the Fifteenth Century 433
  SECTION 4 435
7 RAJASTHAN BETWEEN c. AD 1500- AD 1600 437
  Introduction 438
  The Sultanate of Delhi, the Mughals and the Sur Dynasty Rulers 439
  The Various States of Rajasthan During the Sixteenth Century 447
  The State of Mewar 448
  Other Guhila States 475
  The State of Dungarpur 475
  The State of Banswara 477
  The Guhilots and the State of Pratapgarh-Deoliya 478
  The State of Amber/Dhoondhar 480
  Shekhawati 497
  Mewat and the Mewatis 502
  The State of Sirohi 507
  The State of Bundi 512
  The State of Marwar/Jodhpur 516
  The State of Bikaner 539
  The State of Jaisalmer 547
  The State of Karauli 549
  Dholpur 550
  Inter-religious Interactions and Matrimonial Alliances 550
  Some Aspect of Administration, Socio-Economic Conditions, Art and Architecture, Literature, and Religious Beliefs, etc. in Rajasthan in the Sixteenth Century 554
  Rajasthan at the Close of the Sixteenth Century 561
8 RAJASTHAN FROM c. AD 1600 UP TO THE DEATH OF AURANGZEB (AD 1707) 563
  Introduction 564
  The Mughal Empire During the Seventeenth Century and Rajput Participation in its Governance and Campaigns 567
  The Various Prominent States of Rajasthan in the Seventeenth Century 571
  The Kachchwahas of Dhoondhar 571
  The Shekhawati Area 580
  The State of Marwar/Jodhpur 586
  The Rathores of Bikaner 603
  The Rathores of Kishangarh 607
  The Mewatis 608
  The Rise of the Jats - the Kingdom of Bharatpur 609
  The State of Mewar/Udaipur 611
  Other Guhila States and Principalities 626
  Dungarpur 626
  Banswara 627
  The Guhilots of Pratapgarh-Deoliya 628
  Sirohi 629
  The State of Bundi 632
  The Kingdom of Kota 636
  The Kingdom of Jaisalmer 638
  Karauli 640
  Contemporaneous Archival Records 640
  Some Aspects of Art, Architecture, Literature, Socio-cultural and Religious Conditions During the Seventeenth Century 641
  Rajasthan at the Beginning of The Eighteenth Century 649
  SECTION 5 651
9 AN ERA OF DISQUIET AND THE SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVES: RAJASTHAN IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AD 1700 - 1800  
  Introduction 654
  The Mughal Empire During the Eighteenth Century and its Interaction with Rajasthan 655
  The Rajput States and the Marathas 657
  The State of Dhoondhar/Amber-Jaipur 666
  The Shekhawati Area 684
  Mewar/Udaipur 697
  Marwar/Jodhpur 704
  Bikaner 718
  Jaisalmer 721
  Karauli 723
  The Narukas of Alwar 724
  The 'Jatwara' Kingdoms of Bharatpur and Dholpur 729
  Dholpur 738
  Bundi 739
  Kota 746
  Kishangarh 752
  Sirohi 754
  Dungarpur 756
  Banswara 758
  Pratapgarh-Deoliya 759
  Aspects of the Art, Architecture, Literature, Society, Economy and Religious Trends etc. in the Eighteenth Century 759
  Rajasthan at the End of the Eighteenth Century 766
  SECTION 6 767
  Introduction 770
  Rajasthan and the Marathas, Pindaris and East India Company in the Early Nineteenth Century 771
  The Pindaris 775
  British Ascendance in Rajasthan: The Rajput States and British Paramountcy 779
  The Establishment of the Rajputana Agency 783
  The Doctrine of Lapse, the Evens of 1857, and the States of Rajputana 785
  Post-1858 Rajputana, Sanads (Grants) of Adoption of Heirs, and Relations with the British 789
  The State of Rajputana During the Nineteenth Century 793
  The State of Tonk 793
  British Recognition to the Chiefships of Lawa and Kushalgarh 796
  Mewar/Udaipur 797
  Dungarpur 820
  Banswara 823
  Kushalgarh 824
  Pratapgarh-Deoliya (Pertabgarh) 825
  Marwar 826
  Bikaner 845
  Kishangarh 853
  Karauli 853
  Dholpur 857
  British Possession of Ajmer-Merware 858
  Jaipur/Amber 863
  Alwar 874
  The Shekhawati Area 886
  Sirohi 893
  Bundi 898
  Kotah 902
  Establishment of Jhalawar 906
  Jaisalmer 907
  Bharatpur 913
  Agrarian Movements 918
  British Monopoly Over the Salt Trade of Rajasthan 918
  Opium, the British, and the States of Rajputana 924
  Aspects of the Art, Architecture, Literature, Society, Economy, Education, etc. in Rajasthan During the Nineteenth Century 930
  Rajasthan at the End of the Nineteenth Century 939
  SECTION 6 767
10 DIPLOMACY, TRANSFORMATIONS AND BRITISH PARAMOUNTCY: RAJPUTANA DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 769
  Introduction 770
  Rajasthan and the Marathas, Pindaris and East India Company in the Early Nineteenth Century 771
  The Pindaris 775
  British Ascendance in Rajasthan: The Rajput Stats and British Paramountcy 779
  The Establishment of the Rajputana Agency 783
  The Doctrine of Lapse, the Events of 1857, and the States of Rajputana 785
  Post-1858 Rajputana, Sanads (Grants) of Adoption of Heirs, and Relations with the British 789
  The States of Rajputana During the Nineteenth Century 783
  The State of Tonk 793
  British Recognition to the Chiefships of Lawa and Kushalgarh 796
  Mewar/Udaipur 797
  Dungarpur 820
  Banswara 823
  Kushalgarh 824
  Pratapgarh-Deoliya (Pertabgarh) 825
  Marwar 826
  Bikaner 845
  Kishangarh 853
  Karauli 853
  Dholpur 857
  British Possession of Ajmer-Merwara 858
  Jaipur/Amber 863
  Alwar 874
  The Shekhawati Area 886
  Sirohi 893
  Bundi 898
  Kotah 902
  Establishment of Jhalawar 906
  Jaisalmer 907
  Bharatpur 913
  Agrarian Movements 918
  British Monopoly Over the Salt Trade of Rajasthan 918
  Opium, the British, and the States of Rajputana 924
  Aspects of the Art, Architecture, Literature, Society Economy, Education, etc. in Rajasthan During the Nineteenth Century 930
  Rajasthan at the End of the Nineteenth Century 939
  SECTION 7 941
11 Rajputana 1900 - 1947 943
  Introduction 944
  Background to Movements for Agrarian, Political and Socio-economic 945
  Reforms in Rajputana and their Concomitant Role in the Formation of Modern Rajasthan  
  The National Movement, British India, and the Princely States of Rajputana (1900-1947) 986
  Political Awareness in Rajputana 986
  Peasant and Popular Movements and Uprisings 990
  Tribal-related Movements 1002
  Mewar 1008
  Dungarpur 1017
  Banswara 1024
  Pratapgarh-Deoliya 1026
  Shahpura - from Chiefship to State to Merger 1027
  Alwar 1030
  Bharatpur 1055
  Kotah 1067
  Bundi 1068
  Jhalawar 1071
  Jaisalmer 1072
  Bikaner 1074
  Jaipur 1089
  Marwar 1099
  Kishangarh 1109
  Karauli 1110
  Sirohi 1112
  Tonk 1116
  Dholpur 1120
  British Administered Ajmer-Merwara 1122
  The Transition from Rajputana to Rajasthan 1125
  SECTION 8 1127
12 A NEW AWAKENING: THE MAKING OF PRESENT-DAY RAJASTHAN 1129
  Introduction 1130
  Towards the 'Integration' of Rajputana's Princely States 1131
  The Process and stages of Integration in Rajasthan 1134
  The New Political Administration of Rajasthan 1141
  Aspects of Integration - An Overview 1144
  Administrative Integration 1147
  Judicial Integration 1148
  Financial Integration 1149
  Integration of the Various States' Armed Forces 1150
  Various Government Schemes, Programmes, Acts and Attempts for Development 1153
  Land Reforms and the Abolition of Jagirs etc. 1153
  Land Reforms and the Protests of the 'Ancien Regime' 1154
  Inauguration of Panchayati Raj in Rajasthan 1162
  Municipalities and Urban Local Administration 1166
  Towards the Future 1167
  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1171
  GLOSSARY 1191
  SOME TRADITIONAL WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 1202
  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1103
  INDEX 1205

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