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Jaina Logic
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Jaina Logic
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Foreword

The Department of Jainology in the University of Madras was created on 29th August. 1983 on the occasion of the Post-Centenary Silver Jubilee Celebrations of the University, with an Endowment of Rs. I5 Lakhs collected from members of all sects of Jain community and others by Research Foundation for Jainology, Madras.

The growth of the Department from the time of it commenced functioning in 1985 to date is there for all to see; it is gratifying that it has been possible through the unflinching and parallel efforts of Research Foundation for Jainology, Madras. They were ever ready and always willing to be of useful assistance to the Department for augmenting its growth.

It is indeed befitting that the Second Annual Lecture Series. 1987, was delivered by no less than eminent scholar. Dr. Bhagchandra Jain, Head of the Department of Pali & Prakrit, Nagpur University, Nagpur.

As Jaina logicians have quoted 'Utpada vyaya dravyam sat' after the creation of a new Department, even at the infant stage, these annual lectures were arranged by the involved efforts of renowned scholar, late Dr. T. G. Kalghatgi for the benefit of not only the scholars and students of the Department but also the community at large.

It is gratifying that the Department of Jainology, University of Madras has brought out the Lecture series of Dr. Bhagchandraji Jain in book form. It gives me great satisfaction, as General Secretary of Research Foundation (or Jainology that literature ef immense value emerging out ( these Lectures is bound to inspire new and younger generations for deep Jainological studies and research.

It is our earnest hope and wish that this book will be found useful by all those interested in acquiring and increasing their spiritual knowledge.

 

Preface

Life is a complicated phenomenon that has been delineated by the ancient sages, seers, saviours and savants since time immemorial. It is disentangled logically and philosophically by way of poundering over combination of humanity and spirituality. Logical thinking paves the way for philosophical destination and objective reality assumes the content of individual experiences. Without critical and unbiassed examining the standpoints of others, the objective assurance of truth becomes in danger. Therefore, the concept of native and non-absolutism is an essential part to com pre hand the nature of reality and life.

Jain logic is based on this very human consideration and makes laudable efforts to justify the wider scope of thinking, reflection, attitude, cognition etc. It works as a justice who perceives and contemplates the others' speculations and intentions with a clean and clear mind. With this introduction, we can chalk out three dimensions in Jaina logic as follows:

1) Jaina logic of Agamic period from Trrthankara Mabsvrra upto first century A.D.

2) Jaina logic of philosophical period from second century to eighth century A. D ., and

3) Jaina logic of posterior period from nineth century A.D. when the organs of knowledge were critically studied.

Agamic period discusses the knowledge (Pramana) first and then deals with the object of knowledge (Prameya). It denotes that according to Jainism, reality possesses its own independent existence but it depends on knowledge to prove its endurence, Therefore, the concept of knowledge (Jnana) and intution (Darsana) has been discussed there in detail, and accordingly the soul is the knower that knows the reality through knowledge. The relation between them is the relation of substance (Guni) and quality (Guna). They are neither absolutely different nor identical with each other. To clarify the point, the discussion over the concept of soul became a prominent subject of Agamic Texts. They considered it through non-absolutism (Anekantavada),

Soul in Jaina philosophy has the following attributes. It has life, consiousness, upayoga (knowledge and perception) and is potent performs actions, and is affected by their results, is conditioned by his own body, is incorporeal and is ordinarily found with karma. It is free from the defect of karma gets to the highest point of the universe, knows all and perceives all, and obtains the transcendental bliss everlasting.

Explaining the existence of soul Tirthankara Mahavira said "By recollecting himself the details his of previous births or through exposition by one who commands direct knowledge or by hearing from someone who has gained his knowledge such as "Jhave migrated to this world from the eastern direction, or from the southern or western or northern direction or from the direction above, or from the direction below, or from any other direction. or from any intermediate direction", Similarly some people come to Know - "My- soul goes on reincarnating, That which transmigrates from these directions and intermediate directions is none other than' I" (my soul)". Only be who comprehends the doctrine of transmigration is a believer in the doctrine of Atmavada (doctrine of objective reality of soul), Lokavada (doctrine of real existence of the world), Karmavada doctrine of reaping the fruits of one's action), and Kriyavada (doctrine that actions are the cause of bondage of soul"

Considering all the main characteristics of soul Acarya Nemichandra says that it is characterised by Upayoga, is formless and agent, has the same extent as its own body, is the enioyer of the fruits of karma, exists in Samsara, is Siddha and has a characteristic upward motion. Brahmadeva in his commentary on the verse differentiate the Jaina conception of jiva from that of Sankhya, Nyaya, Mimamsa, Carvaka, Sadasiva and Bauddha systems of philosophy on the basis of these characteristics is of view that "Jiva" is established to refute Carvaka its characteristic of having Upayoga consisting Jnana and darsana is said to refute the followers of Nyaya, that of Jiva being formless to refute kumarilabhatta and Carvaka that of the agency of Karma to refute the Sankhyas, that of having the same extent of its body is expressed to refute the three systems, viz the Nyaya, Mimamsa and Sankhya, that of being in the Samsara to refute Sadasiva that of being Siddha to refute kumarilabhattta and Carvaka and that of having an upward motion to refute views of all other philosophers.•

Thus in Jainism the 'nature of soul is dual in character. According to the realistic standpoint, it remains the same under all states, while according to the practical standpoint. it is transformed into modes and thus becomes different in number. Place, form etc.

Soul is pure in its intrinsic nature. The relation of karmas is a cause that makes its cycling into births and therefore it has its pivotal stand for deciding the fruits of one's activities on individual basis. The so - called God cannot exercise its power as a middle man. One will have to bear the result of his deeds. The Acaranga opens with manifesting the existence of soul which is sufficient to prove the unavoidable place of karma in life. It is said there further that only he who comprehends the doctrine of transmigration is a believer in the doctrine of Atmavada, Lokavada, Karmavada and Kriyavada According to Jainism, the vibrations (yoga) and the passions (kasaya) of soul attract karmic matter and trans- form it into karmic body. Yoga is the action of mind, speech and body due to desire, aversion and perverse cognition.

I need not say much here about the concept of Karma in Jaina Philosophy but the point may be stressed by stating that the theory of karma rejects the theory of God as creater, supporter and destroyer of the world. Jainism does not believe in the principles of reward, judgement, incarnation and forgiveness. One will have to bear the result of his own deeds. They cannot be extinguished simply by the mercy of God Jainism, of course, believes in Godhood, the paramatman stage of soul and in innumerable gods. Karma stands to reincarnate the soul as cause to effect. It can be purged through the trinity, right faith, right knowledge and right conduct and then one can attain the Paramatmahood, the most purified stage of soul itself.

There are five types of knowledge in Jainism, viz, Matijnana, srutajnana, Avadhijnana, Manahparyayajnana, and Kevalajnana, Of these, the first two are sensual and the rest are super-sensual. As has already been stated, Knowledge is the natural attribute to soul which is covered with the Karmas. The other sources of knowledge are sense-organs and mind which are dependent on the spiritual development or soul. The knowledge based on sense-organs do not cognise the substance directly. It is capable of knowing only the present and not the past and future modes of reality. But the purified soul knows the reality with its all modes of all the time and becomes Aundriyajnani (Omniscient),

 

Introduction

Philosophy (Darsana) is a scientific study of life and logic makes it intensive and argument-based. Beings take birth and death according to their karmas in universe with different dimensions and logic paves the way to get rid of them. To attain salvation is an ultimate aim and object of a person who strives to comprehend the reality through knowledge. Thus, logic is related to understand the nature of soul, universe, karma, god and reality. Through one's right knowledge, one attains the spiritual development and complete liberation from karmas. Therefore, epistomology, ontology, ethics, psychology etc, are the main branches of Logic.

Logic possesses two constituents, viz, Pramana (knowledge) and Prameya (reality). The existence of reality is proved by knowledge-(Siddhi Pramaya Pramanaddhi). Some systems acknowledge the existence of reality whereas others deny it. Therefore, both these points became prominent for consideration in the logical field.

The history of philosophy reveals the fact that before the Jain logicians entered into the field, it was quite developed Therefore, to understand the proper place of Jaina logic, It will be discussed here in three phases, viz.

1) Introduction to Jaina Logic and Logicians:

2) Pramnna (knowledge)

3) The treatment of nature of Prameya: Anekantavada

1 Introduction To Jaina Logic And Logicians

Definition of Nyaya: (Logic). To begin with it will be worth-while to understand the definition of Nyaya (Logic). Kautilya (327 B. C) in his Arthasastra mentions the four types of Vidyas, viz , Anviksiki, trayi varta and dandaniti, Of these the Anviksiki perceives the reality through reasons- It is a lamp to all learnings and a base to all religions Jainacarya Somadeva (959 A. D.) added one more point. He says that is also requisite to the sphere of spirituality Vatsyayana considers it Nyayavidya if it deals with Sansaya chala, jnti, etc. Otherwise it remains as Adhyatmavidya, It can, therefore, be conclusively said that logic is related to both, Hetuvada and Adhyntmavada. Vatsyayana supported the view stating that the Pratyaksa and Agama based Anumana is Anvikas.

Nyaya is, as a matter of fact, a solid medium to comprehend the reality by means of Pramana and Naya which are collectively named as Yuktisnstra or Nyaya (logic). Just to popularise Nyayavidya, the Nyayadarsana was introduced to the field of knowledge. It was quite well developed before the advent of Jain and Buddhist Nyaya to the arena. Prior to Jainas, the Buddhist philosophers contributed some treatises to the development of logic and established the definition of Pramnna. The Jain philosophers evaluated it afterwards. Therefore, the impact of non-Jain philosophers on them can easily be understood. For instance, Ntlgarjuna, the Buddhist philosopher (300 A.D.) criticised the sixteen types of Padarthes of Nyayadarsana which was replied by Vstsyayana (400 A D.) in Nyayasutrabhasya, Thereafter the refutation and counter refutation between Buddhist and Nyaya philosophers went on for a long time. Dinnaga 500 (AD.) criticised Vatsyayana" Udyotkara (600 A.D.) criticised Dinnaga, Dharmakirti criticised Udyotkara and Vacaspatimisra (800A.D.) criticised Dharmakirti, After Dharmakirti, (629-685 A.D), Jain Nyaya was introduced by Acarya Akalanka (720-780 A D) systematically.

Divisions of Jaina Logic

Logic (hetu or tarka) has better and greater importance in comparison to .Agama in the field of philosophy and logic Hetu (linga) has of course been utilised in Jainagamas in context of Lihgaja srutajnana but that could not have been so much popularised. Since it was already prevailing in non-Jain philosophical schools, the Jaina philosophers felt its indispensable necessity of making Jainism more purposeful (sahetukai and reasoning. Yativrsabha, therefore, established Hetuvada with the view to attract the disciples towards scriptural knowledge and reality. The sensible objects require more reasons for proving their existence in comparison to super-sensible objects. Samantabhadra aptly said that the objects perceived by non-omniscient people are proved by reason and those perceived by omniscient and are subjected to a test by their cords. 8 By the time of Samantabhadra, knowledge was recognised as Pramnna in Jainism, by Umasvati, Anumnna Pramnna appears to be main reason in origin of logic in philosophical schools.

The Jain logic, therefore', may be devided into two on its evolution basis, viz 1) Agama period, and 2) Philosophical period. Both these kinds will be dealt with in due course. But this much can be said here that Jainagamas are traditionally considered pre-historic. They came down from First Tirthankara Adinatha and remained upto 24th Tirthankara Mahavira to certain extent. The Agamas available at present have come down to us from Mahavira. Tirthankaras are called Jinas who are supposed to be Aptapurusas or omniscients They used to have debaters (Vadis) who were supposed not to use such reasons (he/us) which encourage violence and antagonism

The Basic of Jaina Logic: Anekantavada.

Knowledge is the natural attribute of the soul which has two phases uncovered and covered. The uncovered consciousness is the innate Knowledge (Kevalajnana) free from all clouds, when the knowledge is covered, it becomes dim and is called (Sopadhikajnana) (consciousness mutilated.) Knowledge always exists with the soul. At the time of death it is not 'annihilated but it remains with the soul. Kevalajnana or Nirupadhikajnana is an uncommon achievement. Therefore it does not become a prominent topic for discussion amongst ogicians, The predominant theme of logical treatise is the empirical knowledge matijanna and (Srutajnana).

Jainism considers reality on the basis of syadvada, the doctrine of conditional judgement and Nayavada, the doctrine of standpoints. Our way s of thinking and speaking are nnumerable, Therefore the variation of Nayas also become a subject for determination accordingly,

 

Contents

 

  General Editor's note 5 (i)
  Foreword 7 (i)
  preface 11 (i)
1 Introduction to Jaina Logic and Logicians 1
2 A Critical study of organs of knowledge 29
3 A treatment of the nature of reality Anekantavada (Non-absolutism) 72

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Jaina Logic

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Foreword

The Department of Jainology in the University of Madras was created on 29th August. 1983 on the occasion of the Post-Centenary Silver Jubilee Celebrations of the University, with an Endowment of Rs. I5 Lakhs collected from members of all sects of Jain community and others by Research Foundation for Jainology, Madras.

The growth of the Department from the time of it commenced functioning in 1985 to date is there for all to see; it is gratifying that it has been possible through the unflinching and parallel efforts of Research Foundation for Jainology, Madras. They were ever ready and always willing to be of useful assistance to the Department for augmenting its growth.

It is indeed befitting that the Second Annual Lecture Series. 1987, was delivered by no less than eminent scholar. Dr. Bhagchandra Jain, Head of the Department of Pali & Prakrit, Nagpur University, Nagpur.

As Jaina logicians have quoted 'Utpada vyaya dravyam sat' after the creation of a new Department, even at the infant stage, these annual lectures were arranged by the involved efforts of renowned scholar, late Dr. T. G. Kalghatgi for the benefit of not only the scholars and students of the Department but also the community at large.

It is gratifying that the Department of Jainology, University of Madras has brought out the Lecture series of Dr. Bhagchandraji Jain in book form. It gives me great satisfaction, as General Secretary of Research Foundation (or Jainology that literature ef immense value emerging out ( these Lectures is bound to inspire new and younger generations for deep Jainological studies and research.

It is our earnest hope and wish that this book will be found useful by all those interested in acquiring and increasing their spiritual knowledge.

 

Preface

Life is a complicated phenomenon that has been delineated by the ancient sages, seers, saviours and savants since time immemorial. It is disentangled logically and philosophically by way of poundering over combination of humanity and spirituality. Logical thinking paves the way for philosophical destination and objective reality assumes the content of individual experiences. Without critical and unbiassed examining the standpoints of others, the objective assurance of truth becomes in danger. Therefore, the concept of native and non-absolutism is an essential part to com pre hand the nature of reality and life.

Jain logic is based on this very human consideration and makes laudable efforts to justify the wider scope of thinking, reflection, attitude, cognition etc. It works as a justice who perceives and contemplates the others' speculations and intentions with a clean and clear mind. With this introduction, we can chalk out three dimensions in Jaina logic as follows:

1) Jaina logic of Agamic period from Trrthankara Mabsvrra upto first century A.D.

2) Jaina logic of philosophical period from second century to eighth century A. D ., and

3) Jaina logic of posterior period from nineth century A.D. when the organs of knowledge were critically studied.

Agamic period discusses the knowledge (Pramana) first and then deals with the object of knowledge (Prameya). It denotes that according to Jainism, reality possesses its own independent existence but it depends on knowledge to prove its endurence, Therefore, the concept of knowledge (Jnana) and intution (Darsana) has been discussed there in detail, and accordingly the soul is the knower that knows the reality through knowledge. The relation between them is the relation of substance (Guni) and quality (Guna). They are neither absolutely different nor identical with each other. To clarify the point, the discussion over the concept of soul became a prominent subject of Agamic Texts. They considered it through non-absolutism (Anekantavada),

Soul in Jaina philosophy has the following attributes. It has life, consiousness, upayoga (knowledge and perception) and is potent performs actions, and is affected by their results, is conditioned by his own body, is incorporeal and is ordinarily found with karma. It is free from the defect of karma gets to the highest point of the universe, knows all and perceives all, and obtains the transcendental bliss everlasting.

Explaining the existence of soul Tirthankara Mahavira said "By recollecting himself the details his of previous births or through exposition by one who commands direct knowledge or by hearing from someone who has gained his knowledge such as "Jhave migrated to this world from the eastern direction, or from the southern or western or northern direction or from the direction above, or from the direction below, or from any other direction. or from any intermediate direction", Similarly some people come to Know - "My- soul goes on reincarnating, That which transmigrates from these directions and intermediate directions is none other than' I" (my soul)". Only be who comprehends the doctrine of transmigration is a believer in the doctrine of Atmavada (doctrine of objective reality of soul), Lokavada (doctrine of real existence of the world), Karmavada doctrine of reaping the fruits of one's action), and Kriyavada (doctrine that actions are the cause of bondage of soul"

Considering all the main characteristics of soul Acarya Nemichandra says that it is characterised by Upayoga, is formless and agent, has the same extent as its own body, is the enioyer of the fruits of karma, exists in Samsara, is Siddha and has a characteristic upward motion. Brahmadeva in his commentary on the verse differentiate the Jaina conception of jiva from that of Sankhya, Nyaya, Mimamsa, Carvaka, Sadasiva and Bauddha systems of philosophy on the basis of these characteristics is of view that "Jiva" is established to refute Carvaka its characteristic of having Upayoga consisting Jnana and darsana is said to refute the followers of Nyaya, that of Jiva being formless to refute kumarilabhatta and Carvaka that of the agency of Karma to refute the Sankhyas, that of having the same extent of its body is expressed to refute the three systems, viz the Nyaya, Mimamsa and Sankhya, that of being in the Samsara to refute Sadasiva that of being Siddha to refute kumarilabhattta and Carvaka and that of having an upward motion to refute views of all other philosophers.•

Thus in Jainism the 'nature of soul is dual in character. According to the realistic standpoint, it remains the same under all states, while according to the practical standpoint. it is transformed into modes and thus becomes different in number. Place, form etc.

Soul is pure in its intrinsic nature. The relation of karmas is a cause that makes its cycling into births and therefore it has its pivotal stand for deciding the fruits of one's activities on individual basis. The so - called God cannot exercise its power as a middle man. One will have to bear the result of his deeds. The Acaranga opens with manifesting the existence of soul which is sufficient to prove the unavoidable place of karma in life. It is said there further that only he who comprehends the doctrine of transmigration is a believer in the doctrine of Atmavada, Lokavada, Karmavada and Kriyavada According to Jainism, the vibrations (yoga) and the passions (kasaya) of soul attract karmic matter and trans- form it into karmic body. Yoga is the action of mind, speech and body due to desire, aversion and perverse cognition.

I need not say much here about the concept of Karma in Jaina Philosophy but the point may be stressed by stating that the theory of karma rejects the theory of God as creater, supporter and destroyer of the world. Jainism does not believe in the principles of reward, judgement, incarnation and forgiveness. One will have to bear the result of his own deeds. They cannot be extinguished simply by the mercy of God Jainism, of course, believes in Godhood, the paramatman stage of soul and in innumerable gods. Karma stands to reincarnate the soul as cause to effect. It can be purged through the trinity, right faith, right knowledge and right conduct and then one can attain the Paramatmahood, the most purified stage of soul itself.

There are five types of knowledge in Jainism, viz, Matijnana, srutajnana, Avadhijnana, Manahparyayajnana, and Kevalajnana, Of these, the first two are sensual and the rest are super-sensual. As has already been stated, Knowledge is the natural attribute to soul which is covered with the Karmas. The other sources of knowledge are sense-organs and mind which are dependent on the spiritual development or soul. The knowledge based on sense-organs do not cognise the substance directly. It is capable of knowing only the present and not the past and future modes of reality. But the purified soul knows the reality with its all modes of all the time and becomes Aundriyajnani (Omniscient),

 

Introduction

Philosophy (Darsana) is a scientific study of life and logic makes it intensive and argument-based. Beings take birth and death according to their karmas in universe with different dimensions and logic paves the way to get rid of them. To attain salvation is an ultimate aim and object of a person who strives to comprehend the reality through knowledge. Thus, logic is related to understand the nature of soul, universe, karma, god and reality. Through one's right knowledge, one attains the spiritual development and complete liberation from karmas. Therefore, epistomology, ontology, ethics, psychology etc, are the main branches of Logic.

Logic possesses two constituents, viz, Pramana (knowledge) and Prameya (reality). The existence of reality is proved by knowledge-(Siddhi Pramaya Pramanaddhi). Some systems acknowledge the existence of reality whereas others deny it. Therefore, both these points became prominent for consideration in the logical field.

The history of philosophy reveals the fact that before the Jain logicians entered into the field, it was quite developed Therefore, to understand the proper place of Jaina logic, It will be discussed here in three phases, viz.

1) Introduction to Jaina Logic and Logicians:

2) Pramnna (knowledge)

3) The treatment of nature of Prameya: Anekantavada

1 Introduction To Jaina Logic And Logicians

Definition of Nyaya: (Logic). To begin with it will be worth-while to understand the definition of Nyaya (Logic). Kautilya (327 B. C) in his Arthasastra mentions the four types of Vidyas, viz , Anviksiki, trayi varta and dandaniti, Of these the Anviksiki perceives the reality through reasons- It is a lamp to all learnings and a base to all religions Jainacarya Somadeva (959 A. D.) added one more point. He says that is also requisite to the sphere of spirituality Vatsyayana considers it Nyayavidya if it deals with Sansaya chala, jnti, etc. Otherwise it remains as Adhyatmavidya, It can, therefore, be conclusively said that logic is related to both, Hetuvada and Adhyntmavada. Vatsyayana supported the view stating that the Pratyaksa and Agama based Anumana is Anvikas.

Nyaya is, as a matter of fact, a solid medium to comprehend the reality by means of Pramana and Naya which are collectively named as Yuktisnstra or Nyaya (logic). Just to popularise Nyayavidya, the Nyayadarsana was introduced to the field of knowledge. It was quite well developed before the advent of Jain and Buddhist Nyaya to the arena. Prior to Jainas, the Buddhist philosophers contributed some treatises to the development of logic and established the definition of Pramnna. The Jain philosophers evaluated it afterwards. Therefore, the impact of non-Jain philosophers on them can easily be understood. For instance, Ntlgarjuna, the Buddhist philosopher (300 A.D.) criticised the sixteen types of Padarthes of Nyayadarsana which was replied by Vstsyayana (400 A D.) in Nyayasutrabhasya, Thereafter the refutation and counter refutation between Buddhist and Nyaya philosophers went on for a long time. Dinnaga 500 (AD.) criticised Vatsyayana" Udyotkara (600 A.D.) criticised Dinnaga, Dharmakirti criticised Udyotkara and Vacaspatimisra (800A.D.) criticised Dharmakirti, After Dharmakirti, (629-685 A.D), Jain Nyaya was introduced by Acarya Akalanka (720-780 A D) systematically.

Divisions of Jaina Logic

Logic (hetu or tarka) has better and greater importance in comparison to .Agama in the field of philosophy and logic Hetu (linga) has of course been utilised in Jainagamas in context of Lihgaja srutajnana but that could not have been so much popularised. Since it was already prevailing in non-Jain philosophical schools, the Jaina philosophers felt its indispensable necessity of making Jainism more purposeful (sahetukai and reasoning. Yativrsabha, therefore, established Hetuvada with the view to attract the disciples towards scriptural knowledge and reality. The sensible objects require more reasons for proving their existence in comparison to super-sensible objects. Samantabhadra aptly said that the objects perceived by non-omniscient people are proved by reason and those perceived by omniscient and are subjected to a test by their cords. 8 By the time of Samantabhadra, knowledge was recognised as Pramnna in Jainism, by Umasvati, Anumnna Pramnna appears to be main reason in origin of logic in philosophical schools.

The Jain logic, therefore', may be devided into two on its evolution basis, viz 1) Agama period, and 2) Philosophical period. Both these kinds will be dealt with in due course. But this much can be said here that Jainagamas are traditionally considered pre-historic. They came down from First Tirthankara Adinatha and remained upto 24th Tirthankara Mahavira to certain extent. The Agamas available at present have come down to us from Mahavira. Tirthankaras are called Jinas who are supposed to be Aptapurusas or omniscients They used to have debaters (Vadis) who were supposed not to use such reasons (he/us) which encourage violence and antagonism

The Basic of Jaina Logic: Anekantavada.

Knowledge is the natural attribute of the soul which has two phases uncovered and covered. The uncovered consciousness is the innate Knowledge (Kevalajnana) free from all clouds, when the knowledge is covered, it becomes dim and is called (Sopadhikajnana) (consciousness mutilated.) Knowledge always exists with the soul. At the time of death it is not 'annihilated but it remains with the soul. Kevalajnana or Nirupadhikajnana is an uncommon achievement. Therefore it does not become a prominent topic for discussion amongst ogicians, The predominant theme of logical treatise is the empirical knowledge matijanna and (Srutajnana).

Jainism considers reality on the basis of syadvada, the doctrine of conditional judgement and Nayavada, the doctrine of standpoints. Our way s of thinking and speaking are nnumerable, Therefore the variation of Nayas also become a subject for determination accordingly,

 

Contents

 

  General Editor's note 5 (i)
  Foreword 7 (i)
  preface 11 (i)
1 Introduction to Jaina Logic and Logicians 1
2 A Critical study of organs of knowledge 29
3 A treatment of the nature of reality Anekantavada (Non-absolutism) 72

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Jaina Philosophy of Language
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Prakrti The Integral Vision (Vol. 2 Vedic, Buddhist and Jain Traditions)
by Sampat Narayanan
Hardcover (Edition: 1995)
D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
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Jaina Method of Curing: Healing Through Mantra, Tantra and Yantra
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I wanted to let you know how happy we are with our framed pieces of Shree Durga and Shree Kali. Thank you and thank your framers for us. By the way, this month we offered a Puja and Yagna to the Ardhanarishwara murti we purchased from you last November. The Brahmin priest, Shree Vivek Godbol, who was visiting LA preformed the rites. He really loved our murti and thought it very paka. I am so happy to have found your site , it is very paka and trustworthy. Plus such great packing and quick shipping. Thanks for your service Vipin, it is a pleasure.
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