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KAUTILIYA ARTHASASTRA: (2 Volumes)

KAUTILIYA ARTHASASTRA: (2 Volumes)

Specifications

Item Code: IDG099

by R. Shamasastry V. Narain

Hardcover (Edition: 2005)

CHAUKHAMBA SANSKRIT PRATISHTHAN
ISBN 8170842934

Language: Sanskrit Text with English Translation and an Exhaustive Introduction
Size: 8.8" X 5.5"
Pages: 873
Weight of the book: 590 gms
Price: $60.00   Shipping Free - 4 to 6 days
Viewed times since 5th Aug, 2014

Description

About the Book:

The Kautilya-Arthasastra, of which Mr. Shamasastry gives us here his translation, is a work of exceptional interest and value. In the first place, it ascribes itself in unmistakable terms to the famous Brahman Kautilya, also named Visnugupta and known from other sources by the patronymic Canakya who tradition tells us, overthrew the last king of the throne: thus, the two verses with which the work ends recite that it was written by Visnugupta, who from intolerance of misrule rescued the scriptures, the science of weapons, and the earth which had passed to Nanda king and that he wrote it because he had seen many discrepancies on the part of previous commentators; and, in conformity with a common practice of Indian writers the name Kautilya figures constantly through the book, especially in places where the author lays down his own views as differing from others he cites. The work accordingly claims to date from the period 321-296 B.C.: and its archaic style is well in agreement with the claim. Secondly, as regard its nature and value, Kautilya is renowned, not only as a kingmaker, but also for being the greatest Indian exponent of the art of government, the duties of kings, ministers, and officials, and the methods of diplomacy. That a work dealing with such matters was written by him is testified to by various more or less early Indian writers, who have given quotations from it. But the work itself remained hidden from modern eyes until it was found in the text of which this is the translation. The topic of this text is precisely that which has been indicated above, in all its branches, internal and foreign, civil, military, commercial, fiscal, judicial and so on including even tables of weights, measures of length and divisions of time. And it seems to be agreed to by competent judges that, though the existing text is, perhaps, not absolutely word for word that which was written by Kautilya, still we have essentially a work that he did compose in the period stated above. The value of it is unmistakable: it not only endorses and extends much of what we learn in some of its lines from the Greek writer Megasthenes, who, as is well known, spent a long time in India as the representative of the Syrian king, Seleucus I, at the Court of Candragupta, but also fills out what we gather from the epics, from other early writings, and from the inscriptions, and explains statements and allusions in those last-mentioned sourced of information which are otherwise obscure: in short, it throws quite a flood of light on many problems in the branch of Indian studies to which it belongs.

For our introduction to this work we are greatly indebted to Mr. Shamasastry. A manuscript of the text, and with it one of commentary on a small part of it by a writer named Bhattasvamin, was handed over by a Pandit of the Tanjore District to the Mysore Government Oriental Library. From these materials Mr. Shamasastry, who was then the Librarian of that Library, gave a tentative translation in the pages of the Indian Antiquary and elsewhere, in 1905 and following years. By the enlightened encouragement of the Mysore Durbar he was enabled to publish the text itself in 1909, as Vol. 37 of the Biblothecea Sanskrita of Mysore. And under the same appreciative patronage he now lays before us a translation which has been improved in various details, in addition to being brought together in a connected and convenient form. His task has been so easy one. For the formation of his text, as for this translation of it, he has had only the one manuscript and the partial commentary which have been mentioned above: and the text is by no means a simple one; it is laconic and difficult to a degree. In these circumstances, it could hardly be the case that anyone should be able to give us a final treatment of the work straightaway. It seems that, as a result of the attention which Mr. Shamasastry's labours attracted at once, two or three other manuscripts of the work have now been traced. So it may be hoped that eventually another step may be made, by giving us a revised text, based on a collation of materials, which will remove certain obscurities that still exist. Meanwhile, it is impossible to speak in too high terms of the service rendered by Mr. Shamasastry, in the first place by practically discovering the work, and then by laying the contents of it before us so satisfactorily, in spite of the difficulties confronting him, which can only be appreciated by anyone who tries to understand the text without the help of his translation. We are, and shall always remain, under a great obligation to him for a most important addition to our means of studying the general history of ancient India.

J. F. FLEET

CONTENTS

Forewordv
Prefaceix
Introductionxxxv
Book I : Concerning Discipline
Chapters
1.The Life of a King3
2.Determination of the Place of Anviksaki11
3.Determination of the Place of Triple Vedas13
4.Varta and Dandaniti16
5.Association with the Aged18
6.The Sharing off of the Aggregate of the Six Enemies21
7.The Life of a Saintly King23
8.Creation of Ministers25
9.The Creation of Councilors and Priests28
10.Ascertaing by Temptations, Purity or Impurity in the
Characters of Ministers
31
11.The Institution of Spies35
12.Creation of Wandering Spies39
13.Protection of Parties for or against One's Own Cause in
One's Own State
44
14.Winning over Factions for or against an Enemy Cause
in an Enemy's State
47
15.The Business of Council Meeting51
16.The Mission of Envoys57
17.Protection of Princes62
18.The Conduct of a Prince Kept Under Restraint and the
Treatment of a Restrained Prince
67
19.The Duties of A King70
20.Duty Towards the Harem75
21.Personal Safety79
Book II : The Duties of Government Superintendents
1.Formation of Villages87
2.Division of Land93
3.Construction of Forts96
4.Building Within the Fort101
5.The Duties of the Chamberlain105
6.The Business of Collection of Revenue by the
Collector-General
109
7.The Business of Keeping up Accounts in the
Office of Accountants
115
8.Detection of What is Embezzled by Government
Servants out of State Revenue
121
9.Examination of the Conduct of Government Servant127
10.The Procedure of Forming Royal Writs132
11.Examination of Gems that are to be Entered into Treasury140
12.Conducting Mining Operations and Manufacture153
13.The Superintendent of gold in the Goldsmiths' Office162
14.The Duties of the State Goldsmith in the High Road171
15.The Superintendent of Store-House179
16.The Superintendent of Commerce188
17.The Superintendent of Forest Produce192
18.The Superintendent of The Armoury196
19.The Superintendent of Weights and Measures202
20.Measurement of Space and Time209
21.The Superintendent of Tolls216
22.Regulation of Toll-Dues221
23.The Superintendent of Weaving224
24.The Superintendent of Agriculture227
25.The Superintendent of Liquor234
26.The Superintendent of Slaughter-House241
27.The Superintendent of Prostitutes244
28.The Superintendent of Ships249
29.The Superintendent of Cows254
30.The Superintendent of Horses261
31.The Superintendent of Elephants269
32.The Training of Elephants273
33.The Superintendent of Chariots; the Superintendent of
Infantary and the Duties of the Commander-in-Chief
277
34.The Superintendent of Passports and the Superintendent
of Pasture Lands
280
35.The Duty of Revenue-Collectors; Spies Under the Guise
of Householders, Merchants and Ascetics
282
36.The Duty of a City Superintendent286
Book III : Concerning Law
1.Determination of Forms of Agreement; Determination of
Legal Disputes
297
2.The Duty of Marriage, The Property of a Woman and
Compensations for Re-marriage
305
3.The Duty of a Wife, Maintenance of a Woman, Cruelty to
Women, Enmity between Husband and Wife; A Wife's
Transgression; Her Kindness to Another, and Forbidden
Transactions
311
4.Vagrancy, Elopement and Short and Long Sojournments316
5.Procedure of Portioning Inheritance322
6.Special Shares in Inheritance327
7.Distinction between Sons331
8.House-Building335
9.Sale of Buildings, Boundary Disputes, Determination of
Boundaries, and Miscellaneous Hinderances
336
10.Destruction of Pasture Lands, Fields, and Roads, and
non-performance of Agreements
345
11.Recovery of Debts351
12.Concerning Deposits358
13.Rules regarding Slaves and Labourers365
14.Rules regarding Labourers and Cooperative Undertaking371
15.Rescission of Purchase and Sale376
16.Resumption of Gifts, Sale without Ownership, and
Ownership
379
17.Robbery385
18.Defamation388
19.Assault391
20.Gambling and Betting and Miscellaneous offences396
Book IV : The Removal of Thorns
1.Protection against Artisans403
2.Protection against Merchants411
3.Remedies against National Calamities416
4.Suppression of the Wicked Living by Foul Means421
5.Detection of Youths of Criminal Tendency by
Ascetic Spies
425
6.Seizure of Criminals on Suspicion or in the Very Act428
7.Examination of Sudden Death434
8.Trial and Torture of Elicit Confession439
9.Protection of All Kinds of Government Departments444
10.Fines in Lieu of Mutilation of Limbs451
11.Death with or Without Torture455
12.Sexual Intercourse with Immature Girls459
13.Punishment for Violating Justice465
Book V : The Conduct of Courtiers
1.Concerning the Awards of Punishment475
2.Replenishment of the Treasury482
3.Concerning Subsistence to Government Servants490
4.The Conduct of a Courtier495
5.Time-serving499
6.Consolidation of the Kingdom and Absolute Sovereignty503
Book VI : The Source of Sovereign States
1.The Elements of Sovereignty511
2.Concerning Peace and Exertion515
Book VII : The End of the Six-Fold Policy
1.The Six-fold Policy, and determination of Deterioration,
Stagnation and Progress
523
2.The Nature of Alliance529
3.The Character of Equal, Inferior, and Superior Kings:
and Forms of Agreement made by an Inferior King
532
4.Neutrality after Proclaiming War or after Concluding a
Treaty of Peace; Marching after Proclaiming War or after
Making Peace; and the March of Combined Powers
538
5.Consideration about Marching; against an Assailable
Enemy and a Strong Enemy; Causes Leading to the
Dwindling, Greed, and Disloyalty of the Army; and
Considerations about the Combination of Powers
543
6.The March of Combined Powers; Agreement of Peace with
or without Definite Terms; and Peace with Renegades
550
7.Peace and War by Adopting the Double Policy557
8.The Attitude of an Assailable Enemy and Friends that
Deserve Help
563
9.Agreement for the Acquisition of a Friend or Gold568
10.Agreement of Peace for the Acquisition of Land574
11.Interminable Agreement579
12.Agreement for Undertaking a Work584
13.Considerations about an Enemy in the Rear589
14.Recruitment of Lost Power596
15.Measures Conducive to Peace with a Strong and Provoked
Enemy; and the Attitude of a Conquered Enemy
601
16.The Attitude of a Conquered King606
17.Making Peace and Breaking It611
18.The Conduct of a Madhyama King, a Neutral King,
and of a Circle of States
618
Book VIII : Concerning Vices and Calamities
1.The Aggregate of the Calamities of the Elements of
Sovereignty
627
2.Considerations about the Troubles of the King and of His
Kingdom
633
3.The Aggregate of the Troubles of Men637
4.The Group of Molestations, the Group of Obstructions, and
the Group of Financial Troubles
643
5.The Group of Trouble of the Army, and the Group of
Troubles of a Friend
650
Book IX : The Work of an Invader
1.The Knowledge of Power, Place, Time, Strength, and
Weakness; the Times of Invasion
659
2.The Time of Recruiting the Army; the form of Equipment;
and the Work of Arraying a Rival Force
665
3.Considerations of Annoyance in the Rear; and Remedies
against Internal and External Troubles
671
4.Considerations about Loss of Men, Wealth and Profit677
5.External and Internal Dangers681
6.Persons Associated with Traitors and Enemies685
7.Doubts about Wealth and Harm; and Success to be Obtained
by the Employment of Alternative Strategic Means
692
Book X : Relating to War
1.Encampment703
2.March of the Camp and Protection of the Army in
Times of Distress and Attack
706
3.Forms of Treacherous Fights, Encouragement to
One's Own Army and Fight between One's Own and
Enemy's Armies
710
4.Battlefields; The Work of Infantry, Cavalry, Chariots
and Elephants
717
5.The Distinctive Array of Troops in Respect of Wings,
Flanks, and Front; Distinction between Strong and Weak
Troops, and Battle with Infantary, Cavalry, Chariots
and Elephants
721
6.The Array of the Army Like a Staff, a Snake, a Circle,
or in Detached Order, the Array of the Army against that
of an Enemy
727
Book XI : The Conduct of Corporation
1.Causes of Dissension; and Secret Punishment735
Book XII : Concerning a Powerful Enemy
1.The Duties of a Messenger745
2.Battle of Intrigue749
3.Slaying the Commander-in-Chief and Inciting a
Circle of States
754
4.Spies with Weapons, Fire, and Poison; and Destruction
of Supply, Stores and Granaries
758
5.Capture of the Enemy by Means of Secret Contrivances
or by Means of the Army; and Complete Victory
762
Book XIII : Strategic Means to Capture a Fortress
1.Sowing the Seeds of Dissension771
2.Enticement of Kings by Secret Contrivances775
3.The Work of Spies in a Siege782
4.The Operation of a Siege and Storming a Fort788
5.Restoration of Peace in a Conquered Country796
Book XIV : Secret Means
1.Means to Injure and Enemy803
2.Wonderful and Delusive Contrivances811
3.The Application of Medicines and Mantras830
4.Remedies against the Injuries of One's Own Army830
Book XV : The Plan of a Treatise
1.Paragraphical Divisions of the Treatise835
Index845


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