Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
Your interests (Optional)
This will help us make recommendations and send discounts and sale information at times.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
.
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address info@exoticindia.com.

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
|6
Your Cart (0)
Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend
Books > History > Land System in Tamilnadu
Displaying 2713 of 4829         Previous  |  NextSubscribe to our newsletter and discounts
Land System in Tamilnadu
Pages from the book
Land System in Tamilnadu
Look Inside the Book
Description
About the Book

Land system in the Tamil country is always a fascinating subject because of the vast data that are available in inscriptions. In this analytical work the author discusses the control exercised by the kings, feudatory chiefs and officials in the land administration. He also discusses the part played by the various local assemblies such as ur, nagaram and sabha. His study on the various aspects of the land system such as land yield, land use, taxes, exemptions and collection of taxes and the interpretations he offered to the various details embedded in the inscriptions are not only convincing but also interesting. The author also brings out the differences among the various regions in the matter of land system -revenues, yields and he dwells at length the reasons for such variations. He also throws light on the role of the temples which came to possess large parcels of land and the conditions under which they administered these lands. The chapters on the land -prices, measuring rods, irrigation facilities give a comprehensive picture of the land-system that was prevalent in Tondaimandalam right from the age of the Pallavas.

About the Author

Dr. J. Sundaram obtained his Ph.D. from Delhi University. He was born in Sivakasi, Ramnad District on 14-4-1927. His first education was started at Mettur Dam and then he came to Chennai. He finished his M.A. in History from Presidency College.

He was working as Senior Epigraphical Assistant at Ootacamund in the Office of the Government of India. Then he went to New Delhi there, for Some- time he was he was a Junior Research Officer in the Epigraphy. He wrote a narrative on the "Operation Shanti" (Indian Army on Peace Mission in Egypt in 1956-1967) which was published by the Ministry of Defence. Then finally he retired as the Senior Research Officer in the Ministry of Defence. After retiring, Dr. S. N. Prasad asked him to write three chapters about the South Indian Army to be included in the Encyclopedia of the Syria Army.

He is now/working for the Uttankita Vidya Aranya Trust at Mysore (Karnataka), initially inspired by the Paramacharyal of Karnakotipitham, Kanchipuram,(now he has attained siddhi), for publishing in series of volumes, all the inscriptions in Sanskrit those have been edited and dealt with in the various publications concerning this subject, so far.

Preface

Auvaiyar, the Tamil poetess who is reputed to have belonged to the Sahgam age (1-15 centuries AD) is credited with a verse which purported to say that the higher the embankments of the fields, more water would stagnate therein leading in turn to a better crop prosperity of the husbandsman (kudi) and ultimately of the king. This reflected that during her period the essentials for promoting rice cultivation and the value of agriculture for the prosperity of the king had been grasped. This verse tells only about the husbands man and the king as the dependent on the land. It does not indicate any intermediary. Whatever may have been the theory behind the king's expectation of a portion of the yield of land. As per this verse, King's interest was in the yield rather than in the land and the dues payable to him were adjusted to the crop. About who these husbandsmen were, other Sangam poems indicated that there were both Brahmins and vellalar, Neither of them is indicated to have had any ulterior purpose in holding land beyond enjoying the benefits from the yield.

So far as the land held by the Brahmins was concerned it can be surmised that it was what had been given to them by the kings for their maintenance on account of their adhering to their ordained duties. There is no reflection in the Sahgam literature that any special rights were enjoyed by these Brahmins holding land during the Sangam period. The Sahgam poems also indicate that during that period the area under agriculture (the main irrigated rice cultivation) was restricted to the basins of the main rivers Kaveri and Tamraparni- Vaigai. On the basin of the Kaveri, in the upper and lower reaches the Chola ad probably the Chera respectively had established their kingships and on the basin of the Tamraparni - Vaigai complex the Pandya kingship was based. The archaeological excavations at Korkai near the confluence of the river Tamraparnl with the sea, have reached that irrigated-rice cultivation had been going on in that portion of the Pandya country from very ancient times. Only these three kings, the Chera, Chola, and Pandya are seen described as the crowned kings (mudi-mannar) of the Tamil country in these poems indicated that their primacy and power were due to their territories agriculturally developed. The beyond the base territories of these crowned kings were apparently underdeveloped or awaiting development. This is borne out when the Sangam poems while describing the exploits of Karikala -Chola (2 century A.D) says that when he conquered the people Aruvalar, Oliyar etc. around the basin of the river South Pennar (i.e.) the southern portion of the land to clear forest and settle Vellalar there into bring that land under the agriculture scheme.

Though there are no indications above the origin of these three crowned kings available the Sahgam Classics, it can be surmised that they were part of the local population. As such they could have faced any' problem (i.e) hostility from the local population, necessitating the devising of special measures and to keep them in good disposition and under control.

Subsequent to the 7th century a sizeable number of the records are available in the shape of inscriptions. It has is these records revel that more regions had been brought under agriculture. In these inscriptions the terms devadana, brahma-deyam, irai-ili etc. begin to get mentioned Thus the land system has seen to have been institutionalized and based on land. These institutions are also seen to have given a new shape to the land system. The origin of this change is traced to Tondaimandalam.

The region that came to be known as Tondai-nadu or Tondai-mandalam lay along the basin of the rivers Palaru and its major tributary Cheyyaru. During the Sangam period though not unknown, this territory seems to have been only partially settled. The available source material does not throw any light on the land system that was in operation even in that settled portion (i.e.) the areas nearer the coast, though included in the Tamil country had stronger links with the Guntur-Nellore region in the north both politically and culturally. It might have served as a channel for the percolation of the cultural developments in the northern region to the core of the Tamil country in the south. Even so it is seen that the practice of issuing charters granting brahmadeyam which had started in the Guntur-Nellore region even in the 3rd century had not spread even to Tondaimandalam till the latter half of the 7th century. This practice is seen to have been adopted in Tondaimandalam in the 7th century under a special set of circumstances. By this time Tondaimandalam had become the base territory of the Pallava rulers. This dynesty which was earlier based in the Guntur-Nellore region and which probably had portions of Tondaimandalam as adjunct to its territory had been displaced from its original territory and had come to depend on Tondaimandalam for supporting its political existence.

As a consequence they had not only to take measures not only to develop the economic and agricultural potential of the region but they had also to devise ways and means to secure Their control over the different localities in the region. It was in this context that they are seen to have issued the brahmadeyam charters.

Through the issue of such charters they entrusted the brahmins who were fortified with several rights and privileges. The position of the brahmins in society was further strengthened by the development of the institution of temples. Beginning with rock cut shrines, impressive structural temples were set up during the period. Worship in these temples required the presence of the brahmins. Sometimes villages were attached to the temples and such attachment is referred to as devadana. These villages were often left in the charge of the brahmins. Thus brahmadeyam and devadana became characteristic features of the land system in Tondaimandalam under the patron-age of the pallavas. Once developed in Tondaimandalam these institutions are seen to have been adapted into the land system of the Tamil country to change the shape of the land system from 9th century onwards. Hence it has been found that to understand the ramifications of the land system in the Tamil country during the periodi AD800-1200, it is necessary to study systematically the shaping of the land system in Tondaimandalam on the basis of brahmadeyam and devadana during the period (c.AD 670-1000). Such a concentrated study is attempted here and has been cast under the following chapters: The first chapter deals with the physical background against which the land system was developed. It is pointed out how the limited natural resources in the region is evidenced to have been judiciously tapped to maximise their utility only during this period.

Contents

Page No.
Preface(vii)
List of Abbreviations(xv)
Transliteration Table(xvii)
1Physical Background1
2Sources11
3Land Control
(a)Kings
(b)Feudatory Chiefs52
4Communal Control in the Land System141
5Individual Control224
6Irrigation252
7Taxes on Land and Land-Prices288
8Conclusion328
Bibliography352
Appendix
IOriginal homes of brahmadeyam grantees363
IIList of Pariharas368
IIILand measures373
IVKo and his place in the land system377
VPotential for irrigation392
VIIrrigation facilities mentioned in the records of the period397
VIIAntarayam and Pattam414
VIIIList of villages mentioned in the records of the period c.A.D. 670-1000421
Indix438
Maps
No.1Tondaimandalam in Tamil-nadu
NO.2Progress of Settlement
Sample Page


Land System in Tamilnadu

Item Code:
NAI432
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2009
ISBN:
9788180902383
Language:
English
Size:
9 inch X 6 inch
Pages:
464
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 720 gms
Price:
$35.00   Shipping Free
Look Inside the Book
Add to Wishlist
Send as e-card
Send as free online greeting card
Land System in Tamilnadu

Verify the characters on the left

From:
Edit     
You will be informed as and when your card is viewed. Please note that your card will be active in the system for 30 days.

Viewed 1397 times since 27th Sep, 2014
About the Book

Land system in the Tamil country is always a fascinating subject because of the vast data that are available in inscriptions. In this analytical work the author discusses the control exercised by the kings, feudatory chiefs and officials in the land administration. He also discusses the part played by the various local assemblies such as ur, nagaram and sabha. His study on the various aspects of the land system such as land yield, land use, taxes, exemptions and collection of taxes and the interpretations he offered to the various details embedded in the inscriptions are not only convincing but also interesting. The author also brings out the differences among the various regions in the matter of land system -revenues, yields and he dwells at length the reasons for such variations. He also throws light on the role of the temples which came to possess large parcels of land and the conditions under which they administered these lands. The chapters on the land -prices, measuring rods, irrigation facilities give a comprehensive picture of the land-system that was prevalent in Tondaimandalam right from the age of the Pallavas.

About the Author

Dr. J. Sundaram obtained his Ph.D. from Delhi University. He was born in Sivakasi, Ramnad District on 14-4-1927. His first education was started at Mettur Dam and then he came to Chennai. He finished his M.A. in History from Presidency College.

He was working as Senior Epigraphical Assistant at Ootacamund in the Office of the Government of India. Then he went to New Delhi there, for Some- time he was he was a Junior Research Officer in the Epigraphy. He wrote a narrative on the "Operation Shanti" (Indian Army on Peace Mission in Egypt in 1956-1967) which was published by the Ministry of Defence. Then finally he retired as the Senior Research Officer in the Ministry of Defence. After retiring, Dr. S. N. Prasad asked him to write three chapters about the South Indian Army to be included in the Encyclopedia of the Syria Army.

He is now/working for the Uttankita Vidya Aranya Trust at Mysore (Karnataka), initially inspired by the Paramacharyal of Karnakotipitham, Kanchipuram,(now he has attained siddhi), for publishing in series of volumes, all the inscriptions in Sanskrit those have been edited and dealt with in the various publications concerning this subject, so far.

Preface

Auvaiyar, the Tamil poetess who is reputed to have belonged to the Sahgam age (1-15 centuries AD) is credited with a verse which purported to say that the higher the embankments of the fields, more water would stagnate therein leading in turn to a better crop prosperity of the husbandsman (kudi) and ultimately of the king. This reflected that during her period the essentials for promoting rice cultivation and the value of agriculture for the prosperity of the king had been grasped. This verse tells only about the husbands man and the king as the dependent on the land. It does not indicate any intermediary. Whatever may have been the theory behind the king's expectation of a portion of the yield of land. As per this verse, King's interest was in the yield rather than in the land and the dues payable to him were adjusted to the crop. About who these husbandsmen were, other Sangam poems indicated that there were both Brahmins and vellalar, Neither of them is indicated to have had any ulterior purpose in holding land beyond enjoying the benefits from the yield.

So far as the land held by the Brahmins was concerned it can be surmised that it was what had been given to them by the kings for their maintenance on account of their adhering to their ordained duties. There is no reflection in the Sahgam literature that any special rights were enjoyed by these Brahmins holding land during the Sangam period. The Sahgam poems also indicate that during that period the area under agriculture (the main irrigated rice cultivation) was restricted to the basins of the main rivers Kaveri and Tamraparni- Vaigai. On the basin of the Kaveri, in the upper and lower reaches the Chola ad probably the Chera respectively had established their kingships and on the basin of the Tamraparni - Vaigai complex the Pandya kingship was based. The archaeological excavations at Korkai near the confluence of the river Tamraparnl with the sea, have reached that irrigated-rice cultivation had been going on in that portion of the Pandya country from very ancient times. Only these three kings, the Chera, Chola, and Pandya are seen described as the crowned kings (mudi-mannar) of the Tamil country in these poems indicated that their primacy and power were due to their territories agriculturally developed. The beyond the base territories of these crowned kings were apparently underdeveloped or awaiting development. This is borne out when the Sangam poems while describing the exploits of Karikala -Chola (2 century A.D) says that when he conquered the people Aruvalar, Oliyar etc. around the basin of the river South Pennar (i.e.) the southern portion of the land to clear forest and settle Vellalar there into bring that land under the agriculture scheme.

Though there are no indications above the origin of these three crowned kings available the Sahgam Classics, it can be surmised that they were part of the local population. As such they could have faced any' problem (i.e) hostility from the local population, necessitating the devising of special measures and to keep them in good disposition and under control.

Subsequent to the 7th century a sizeable number of the records are available in the shape of inscriptions. It has is these records revel that more regions had been brought under agriculture. In these inscriptions the terms devadana, brahma-deyam, irai-ili etc. begin to get mentioned Thus the land system has seen to have been institutionalized and based on land. These institutions are also seen to have given a new shape to the land system. The origin of this change is traced to Tondaimandalam.

The region that came to be known as Tondai-nadu or Tondai-mandalam lay along the basin of the rivers Palaru and its major tributary Cheyyaru. During the Sangam period though not unknown, this territory seems to have been only partially settled. The available source material does not throw any light on the land system that was in operation even in that settled portion (i.e.) the areas nearer the coast, though included in the Tamil country had stronger links with the Guntur-Nellore region in the north both politically and culturally. It might have served as a channel for the percolation of the cultural developments in the northern region to the core of the Tamil country in the south. Even so it is seen that the practice of issuing charters granting brahmadeyam which had started in the Guntur-Nellore region even in the 3rd century had not spread even to Tondaimandalam till the latter half of the 7th century. This practice is seen to have been adopted in Tondaimandalam in the 7th century under a special set of circumstances. By this time Tondaimandalam had become the base territory of the Pallava rulers. This dynesty which was earlier based in the Guntur-Nellore region and which probably had portions of Tondaimandalam as adjunct to its territory had been displaced from its original territory and had come to depend on Tondaimandalam for supporting its political existence.

As a consequence they had not only to take measures not only to develop the economic and agricultural potential of the region but they had also to devise ways and means to secure Their control over the different localities in the region. It was in this context that they are seen to have issued the brahmadeyam charters.

Through the issue of such charters they entrusted the brahmins who were fortified with several rights and privileges. The position of the brahmins in society was further strengthened by the development of the institution of temples. Beginning with rock cut shrines, impressive structural temples were set up during the period. Worship in these temples required the presence of the brahmins. Sometimes villages were attached to the temples and such attachment is referred to as devadana. These villages were often left in the charge of the brahmins. Thus brahmadeyam and devadana became characteristic features of the land system in Tondaimandalam under the patron-age of the pallavas. Once developed in Tondaimandalam these institutions are seen to have been adapted into the land system of the Tamil country to change the shape of the land system from 9th century onwards. Hence it has been found that to understand the ramifications of the land system in the Tamil country during the periodi AD800-1200, it is necessary to study systematically the shaping of the land system in Tondaimandalam on the basis of brahmadeyam and devadana during the period (c.AD 670-1000). Such a concentrated study is attempted here and has been cast under the following chapters: The first chapter deals with the physical background against which the land system was developed. It is pointed out how the limited natural resources in the region is evidenced to have been judiciously tapped to maximise their utility only during this period.

Contents

Page No.
Preface(vii)
List of Abbreviations(xv)
Transliteration Table(xvii)
1Physical Background1
2Sources11
3Land Control
(a)Kings
(b)Feudatory Chiefs52
4Communal Control in the Land System141
5Individual Control224
6Irrigation252
7Taxes on Land and Land-Prices288
8Conclusion328
Bibliography352
Appendix
IOriginal homes of brahmadeyam grantees363
IIList of Pariharas368
IIILand measures373
IVKo and his place in the land system377
VPotential for irrigation392
VIIrrigation facilities mentioned in the records of the period397
VIIAntarayam and Pattam414
VIIIList of villages mentioned in the records of the period c.A.D. 670-1000421
Indix438
Maps
No.1Tondaimandalam in Tamil-nadu
NO.2Progress of Settlement
Sample Page


Post a Comment
 
Post Review
Post a Query
For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy

Related Items

Facets of Jainism
by N. Vasupal
Paperback (Edition: 2005)
University of Madras
Item Code: NAJ496
$25.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Dharampal Collected Writings (Set of 5 Volumes)
by Dharampal
Paperback (Edition: 2007)
Aditya Prakashan
Item Code: NAL033
$65.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Tirumalavadi Temple (An Old and Rare Books)
by C. Mookka Reddy
Hardcover (Edition: 1986)
B.R. Publishing Corporation
Item Code: NAL118
$35.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Nityasumangali (Devadasi Tradition in South India)
Item Code: NAE650
$27.50
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Temples of the Gangas of Karnataka
by I. K. Sarma
Hardcover (Edition: 1992)
Archaeological Survey of India
Item Code: IDJ304
$50.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Land and Caste in a South Indian Village
by Dr. A. Karuppiah
Paperback (Edition: 1998)
University of Madras
Item Code: NAJ498
$25.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Environmental Awareness in Jainism
by Dr. N.Vasupal
Paperback (Edition: 2006)
University of Madras
Item Code: NAK367
$20.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Jaina Ethical Works
by Dr. N. Vasupal
Paperback (Edition: 2006)
University of Madras
Item Code: NAK317
$20.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
In The Tracks of the Mahatma (The Making of a Documentary)
by Various Author
Hardcover (Edition: 2007)
Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: NAG007
$30.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Contribution to The History of The Wheeled Vehicle In India
Item Code: NAL260
$45.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
A Cultural History of India
Item Code: IDF960
$30.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Senji : Gingee (A Fortified City in the Tamil Country)
by Jean Deloche
Hardcover (Edition: 2005)
Institute Francais De Pondichery
Item Code: NAK856
$85.00
Add to Cart
Buy Now

Testimonials

The Lakshmi statue arrived today and it is beautiful. Thank you so much for all of your help. I am thrilled and she is an amazing statue for my living room.
Susanna, West Hollywood, CA.
I received my ordered items in good condition. I appreciate your excellent service that includes a very good collection of items and prompt delivery service arrangements upon receiving the order.
Ram, USA
Adishankaracharya arrived safely in Munich. You all did a great job. The packaging was extraordinary well done. Thanks to all of you. I´m very happy...
Hermann, Germany
We had placed the order on your site and we received it today. We had tried a lot for finding that book but we couldn't. Thanks for the book.This was what we wanted.
Harkaran
I received my items in good condition. Packing was excellent. I appreciate your excellent service that includes a very good array of items you offer, various good shipping options, and prompt response upon receiving the order.
Ram
I received the necklace today. It is absolutely beautiful -so amazing. And the beautiful box it came in. Thank you so much for this amazing art. Very best regards.
Clare, Ireland
I received a dupatta with a Warli print. It is so beautiful! Great price.
Marie, USA
I just got the package delivered. The books look in good condition from outside. Thanks again. It is always a pleasure doing business with you.
Shambhu, Brooklyn
I wanted to let you know that the books arrived yesterday in excellent condition. Many, many thanks for the very rapid response. My husband had purchased many years ago a Kâshî Sanskrit Series edition of Nâgesha’s work that lacked the second volume. Delighted to have found the entire work — and in the original edition.
Cheryl, Portland.
I received a sterling silver cuff and ring. Both are more beautiful than I imagined. They came in a beautiful box; I will treasure them. The items here are made by artists.. and the shipping was faster than I expected.
Marie, USA
TRUSTe
Language:
Currency:
All rights reserved. Copyright 2017 © Exotic India