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Layout For Different Sacrifices According to Different Srauta Sutras
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About the Book

This book,' Layout for Different Sacrifices according to Different Sulbasutras' is a companion volume of the earlier published book 'Layout and construction of Citis according to Baudhayanam, Manava and Apastamba Sulbasstras, by the same author.

The book gives in detail layout of fire-places, vedis, pavilions, etc., required for different sacrifices namely Darsapurnamasau, Caturmasya, Nirudha Pasubandha, Soma, Soma with a citi, and Sautramani, according to four Acaryas, Baudhayana, Manva, Apastamba and Katyayana, a number of detailed dimensioned figures explaining the text are included. References to relevant quotes are given for each statement made regarding layouts.

About the Author

Dr. R.P. Kulkarni is a civil engineer by profession He was awarded Ph. D. in Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, he is an ardent student of Indian Silpasastra and studied sulbasutras as these give information of giving layout of citis, pavilions, vedis, etc. for different sacrifices. The basic knowledge of geometry is also given in these sulbasutras. His following books on this subject are published:

i. Cara Sulbasutre - Translation in Marathi of Sulbsutras by Baudhayana, Manava, Apastamba and Katyayana.

ii. Geometry according to Sulbasutra - Derivations of different geometrical theoroms, formulae, etc., given in the sulbasutras, by different scholars as well as his own contribution, are presented.

iii. Layout and Construction of Citis according to Baudhayana, Manava, and Apastamba Sulbasutras - The present volume is companion of this volume.

Preface

Sulbasutras which are one of the chapters of Srautasutras, give information about methods of giving layout of pavilions, vedis, fire-places, etc., that are required for different kinds of sacrifices. They include knowledge of the basic geometry essential for understanding the principles behind the procedures of giving layout. To give a layout of any structure, from a hut to a five-star hotel, requires knowledge of surveying. But surveying is essentially an engineer's job and hence I undertook the study of sulbasntras as part of my study of the History of Indian Engineering and Technology. When I came across these sulbasutras I was very favourably impressed. The methods of giving layout for different sacrifices, recommended by acaryas are so accurate and flawless, that even now one has to follow these methods. I have, therefore, studied these sulbasntras, although I do not claim scholarship either in the Sanskrit language or the geometry. These sulbasntras, in addition, give information of giving layout and construction of citis of different shapes. I have written a book,' 'Layout and Construction of Citis according to Baudhayana, Manava and Apastamba Sulbasutras'. The present book is its companion volume. These two books together cover almost all the aspects of giving layout and construction of different appertainances of various sacrifices according to the four eminent ancient acaryas, Baudhayana, Manava, Apastamba and Katyayana, Chronologically, Baudhayana is said to be the earliest of these acaryas, But the information of geometry and different methods of layout given by him could not be surpassed by the later acaryas. His thorough knowledge of the principles of geometry and the accumen in its application for giving layout as well as the scientific presentation, are admirable and praiseworthy.

On the basis of the information of layout for different sacrifices as recommended by different acaryas, I have prepared drawings, names of these sacrifices being Darsapurnamasau, Caturmasya, Nirudha Pasubandha, Soma, Soma with a citi, and Sautramani, In order to check my interpretations of these sulbasntras, I have shown these drawings to Prof. C.G. Kashikar, an authority on Vedas and particularly on Srautasutras. He very kindly spared his valuable time to go through these drawings, one by one, and approved them. I am very much grateful to him. I am thankful to the Ministry of Human resources and Development, New Delhi, as it has recommended this book to the Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Vedavidya Pratishthanam, Ujjain, for the publication of this book. I wish to thank Shri M.C. Jain, Consultant (ACD), Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Vadavidya Pratishthanam, for undertaking, with zest, the task of getting the approval of the Project Committe of the Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Vedavidya Pratishthanam, Ujjain and then getting it printed and published.

Introductory The Antiquity of Srauta Sacrifices

The fundamental conceptions of sacrifice go back to Indo-European antiquities though the traces are rather faint. But it is quite clear that the cult of the sacrifice had been much developed in the Indo-Iranian period. There is a very striking resemblance between the Vedic Agnistoma and the Homa ceremony of the Parsis. There are numerous words indicative of the cult of the sacrifice both in the Vedic language and in the ancient Parsi religious books. For example, words like atharvan, ahuti, uktha, barhis, mantra, yajna, soma, savana, stoma, hotr do also occur in the ancient Parsi religious scriptures.

Srauta –Sacrifices

The Srauta sutras contain a very detailed, meticulously accurate and vivid description of the several sacrifices that were performed in ancient times. These works were manuals compiled for the practical purpose of giving directions to those who are engaged in such sacrifices. They are based on ancient Brahmana texts, which they quote at every step, many individual sutras being couched in the very language of the Brahmanas, and on actual practice and only bring together what was in vogue.

For a reader who may not have any idea of Srauta sacrifices, a brief sketch of only those sacrifices of which layouts are described is given below.

Darsapurnamasa sacrifices

The New-moon and the Full-moon sacrifices is the pattern or archtype (prakrti) of all other istis (which are called vikrtis or modifications). Darsa means 'the day on which the moon is seen only by the sun and by no one else'. It is 'the day when the sun and the moon dwell or are together'. Paurnamasi is 'the tithi on which the sun and the moon are at the greatest distance from each other'. Four priests, the adhvaryu, brahma, hotr and agnidhra are employed for this isti, An isti means a sacrifice in which the sacrificer employs four priests.

Caturmasya Sacrifices

The Caturmasyas are four, viz. Vaisvadeva, Varunapraghasa, Sakamedha and Sunasiriya. Each of these is called a parvan (part or joint) of the Carurmasyas. They are called Caturmasyas because each of them takes place after four months. They are performed respectively on the Full-moon days of Phalguna (or Caitra), of Asadha, Kartika and on the fifth full moon day from the day on which the Sakamedha is performed (i.e. on Phalguni) or two or three days before it. They indicate the advent of three seasons, viz. vasanta (spring), varsa (rain) and hemanta (autumn). If the Vaisvadeva-parvan is performed on Caitra Full-moon, then the Varunapraghasas and Sakamedhas will be performed on Sravana and Margasirsa Full-moon days respectively. The S.P. Br. gives a fanciful etymology of the word Varunapraghasa. Yavas (barley grains) belong to Varuna and as these are eaten (from ghas to eat) in this rite it is called Varunapraghasa. Two altars (vedis) have to be prepared to the east of the ahavaniya in line towards the east, one south of the other. The northern altar is in charge of the adhvaryu and the southern one in charge of his assistant, the pratiprasthatr. For this sacrifice five priests are required; the adhvaryu, brahma, hotr, agnidhra and pratiprasthatr.

The Sakamedha literally means 'kindling along with or at the same as' (sakam edha). The name is probably given because the first offering in it is a cake on eight potsherds offered to Agni Anikvat with the rising sun. In the Sunasiriya the special offerings are a cake on twelve potsherds to Sunasirau (Vayu and Aditya or to Indra Sunasira), an oblation of fresh warm milk (not heated) direct from the cow to Vayu, a cake on one potsherd to Surya. There is no uttaravedi in this rite.

The Animal Sacrifice

This is an independent sacrifice and it is also performed in Soma sacrifice as a constituent part. The independent sacrifice is called nirudhapasubandha (offering of an eviscered animal) and the subordinate ones are called saurnika. The independent animal sacrifice is to be performed every six months or every year by the ahitagni throughout his life. If done once, in a year it was to be performed in the rainy season (i.e. in Sravana or Bhadrapada) on New-moon or Full-moon day or if done six monthly then at the beginning of the southern and the northern passages of the sun (daksinayana and uttarayana). In this sacrifice there is a sixth priest called Maitravaruna (or Prasastr) in addition to the five required in the Caturmasyas.

CONTENTS
Preface i
Chapter I 1-11
Introductory  
The Antiquity of Srauta Sacrifices. 1
Srauta Sacrifices 1
Darsapurnamasa Sacrifices 1
Caturmasya Sacrifices 2
Animal Sacrifices 3
Agnistoma 3
Sautramani 4
The State of Knowledge of Mathematics 4
at the Srauta Sutra Period  
Implements for giving layout 9
APPENDIX  
Translation by Eggling of Satapatha Brahmana (10.2.3.7-15) 10
PART 1 (BAUDHAYANA)
 
LENGTH MEASURES ACCORDING TO BAUDHAYANA SULBASUTRA 12
CHAPTER - II 17-34
THE LAYOUT OF FIRE-PLACES AND THE ALTAR OF THE NEW - MOON AND THE FULL-MOON SACRIFICES.  
Fire -places 17
Locations of Fire-places 18
The Altar 24
Mekhalas of Fire-places and the Altar 25
The Rubbish Heap 26
The Fire-hall 27
Proceedure to give the Lay-out 29
The Layout of the Fire-hall 29
The Layout of Fire-places 30
Construction of the Ahavaniya Fire-place 30
Construction of the Garhapatya Fire-place 32
Construction of the Daksinagni 32
Construction of the Altar 33
CHAPTER - III 35-41
THE LAYOUT OF THE ANIMAL SACRIFICE  
Fire-places and the Altar 35
The Pasubandhiki Vedi 35
The Catvala 38
The Utkara 39
The Sacrificial Post 39
The Samitra Vedi 40
The Layout of the Pasuki Vedi 41
CHAPTER IV 42-47
THE LAYOUT OF CATURMASYA SACRIFICES  
The Vaisvadeva-parvan 42
The Varunapraghasa-parvan 42
Layout of Altars 45
The Sakamedha-parvan 45
The Layout of the Paitrki Vedi 47
The Sunasiriya-parvan 47
CHAPTER - V 48-65
THE LAYOUT OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE (AGNISTOMA)  
Selection of the Site for the Soma Sacrifice 48
Fixing the East and the West Directions 48
Construction of the Fire-hall 50
Preparation of Mounds 51
Erection of Other Chambers 52
The Mahavedi 53
The Uttaravedi 55
The Catvala and the Utkara 57
The Sadas 57
Location of the Audumbari-post in the Sadas 59
Location of Dhisnyas in the Sadas 60
The Havirdhana Mandapa 60
Location of the Uparavass 62
The Agnidhriya and the Marjaliya Chambers 63
Erection of the Sacrificial Post 65
The Samitra Vedi 65
CHAPTER - VI 66-72
THE LAYOUT OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE WITH THE CITI  
Fire-places 66
The Garhapatya Citi 66
The Mahavedi and the Mandapas 69
Locations of the Catvala, Utkara and Uparavas 71
Location of the Citi 72
CHAPTER - VII 73-78
THE LAYOUT OF THE SAUTRAMANI SACRIFICE  
The Caraka Sautramani Sacrifice 73
The Layout of the Sautramani Altar 76
PART 2 (MANAVA)
 
LENGTH MEASURES ACCORDING TO MANAVA SULBASUTRA 81-82
CHATER - VIII 83-87
THE LAYOUT OF FIRE-PLACES AND THE ALTAR OF THE NEW-MOON AND THE FULL-MOON SACRIFICES.  
Fire-places 83
The Rubbish Heap 85
The Darsiki Vedi 85
The Fire-hall 86
The Patni-sala 87
CHAPTER - IX 88-95
THE LAYOUT OF CATURMASYA SACRIFICES  
The Varunapraghasa-parvan 88
The Catvala and the Utkara 93
The Sakamedha-parvan 93
The Layout of the Paitrki Vedi 93
CHAPTER - X 96-100
THE LAYOUT OF THE ANIMAL SACRIFICE  
The Pasuki Vedi 96
The layout of the Altar 96
The Catvala 99
The Samitra Vedi 100
CHAPTER - XI 101-111
The Site 101
Fire-places and the Darsiki Vedi 103
The Mahavedi 103
The Fire-hall 103
The Northern Altar 105
The Catvala and the Utkara 105
The Sadas 105
The Procedure of Giving the Layout of the Sadas 106
Dhisnyas in the Sadas 108
The Havirdhana Mandapa 108
The Uparavas 110
The Marjaliya Dhisnya 11
The Samitra Vedi 11
CHAPTER - XII 112-115
THE LAYOUT OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE WITH THE CITI.  
The Garhapatya Citi and the Mounds in the Fire-hall 112
The Sadas 114
The Citi 115
CHAPTER - XIII 116-119
THE LAYOUT OF THE SAUTRAMANI SACRIFICE  
The Fire-hall 116
The Altar 116
Layout of the Altar 116
The Adhvaryu's and the Pratiprasthatr's Mounds 119
PART 3 (APASTAMBA)
 
LENGTH MEASURES ACCORDING TO APASTAMBA SULBASUTRA 123
CHAPTER XIV 125-131
THE LAYOUT OF FIRE-PLACES, THE ALTAR AND THE FIRE-HALL OF THE NEW-MOON AND THE FULL-MOON SACRIFICES.  
The Fire-chambers 125
The Ahavaniya Fire-place 127
The Garhapatya Fire-place 127
The Daksinagni 127
The Sabhya and the Avasathya Fire-place 128
Locations of Fire-places 128
The Darsiki Vedi 129
The Rubbish Heap 131
CHAPTER XV 132-137
THE LAYOUT OF THE NIRUDHA PASUBANDHA SACRIFICE  
Fire-places 132
The Pasuki Vedi 132
The Catvala 134
The Utkara 135
Specifications of the Sacrificial Post 135
CHAPTER - XVI 138-142
THE LAYOUT OF CATURHASYA SACRIFICES  
The Varunapraghasa-parvan 138
The Uttaravedi 138
The Catvala 140
The Utakara 140
The Sakamedha-parvan 140
Fire-places 140
The paitrki Vedi 142
CHAPTER - XVII 143-172
Selection of the Site 143
Fire-places 143
The Fire-hall 145
The Mahavedi 146
The Uttaravedi 146
The Catvala 147
The Rubbish Heap 147
The Sadas 148
Dhisnyas in the Sadas 149
The Havirdhana Mandapa 150
The Uparavas 152
The Mound 153
The Agnidhriya Mandapa 153
The Marjaliya Dhisnya 154
The Samitr Dhisnya 155
Procedure of Giving the Layout 155
Erection of the Fire-hall 156
Erection of the Diksa Mandapa 157
The Layout of Fire-places in the fire-hall 158
The Ahavaniya Fire-place 158
The Garhapatya Fire place 159
The Anvaharyapacana Fire-place 159
The Darsiki Vedi 160
Layout of Kharas 162
The Mahavedi 162
The Catvala 164
The Utkara 165
The Uttara Vedi 165
The Sadas 165
The Havirdhana Mandapa 168
The Agnidhriya Mandapa 171
The Marjaliya Dhisnya 172
The Samitra Vedi 172
CHAPTER XVIII 173-174
THE LAYOUT OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE WITH THE CITI  
The Garhapatya Citi 173
Dhisnyas 174
CHAPTER - XIX 175
THE LAYOUT OF THE SAUTRAMANI SACRIFICE  
The Caraka Sautramani 175
The Kaukili Sautramani 175
PART 4 (KATYAYANA)
 
LENGTH MEASURES ACCORDING TO KATYAYANA SULBASUTRA 179
CHAPTER XX 181-186
THE LAYOUT OF FIRE-PLACES, THE DARSIKI VEDI AND THE FIRE-HALL OF THE NEW-MOON AND THE FULL-MOON SACRIFICES.  
Fire places 181
Locations of fire-places 183
The Rubbish Heap 184
The Darsiki Vedi 184
Pavilions 186
CHAPTER - XXI 187-192
The Varunapraghasa-parvan 187
The Southern Altar 189
The Catvala 189
The Utkara 191
The Sacrificial Post 191
The Sakamedha Parvan 191
CHAPTER XXII 193-195
THE LAYOUT OF THE NIRUDHA PASUBANDHA SACRIFICE  
Fire-places and Altars 193
The Catvala and the Utkara 193
Specifications of the Sacrificial Post 193
CHAPTER - XXIII 196-207
THE LAYOUT OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE  
Selection of the Site 196
Fixing the central East-West line 196
The fire-hall 199
The Mahavedi 200
The Sadas 201
The Havirdhana Mandapa 203
The Agnidhriya Mandapa 205
The Marjaliya Mandapa 206
The Uttaravedi 206
The Catvala 206
The Utkara 207
CHAPTER XXIV 208-212
THE LAYOUT OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE WITH THE CITI  
Unit Measures 208
Additional Chambers 208
The Garhapatya Citi 210
The Mahavedi 211
The Sadas 211
The Havirdhana Mandapa 211
The Agnidhriya and the Marjaliya Mandapas 212
The Citi 212
CHAPTER - XXV 213-215
THE LAYOUT OF THE SAUTRAMANI SACRIFICE  
Fire-places 213
The Sautramani Altar 213
Prakritik Vihar Karika 217-220
Chaturmasya Vihar Karika 221-223
APPENDIX-1 225-229
LAYOUT OF FIRE-PLACE, PAVILIONS,  
ALTARS, ETC., FOR SACRIFICES ACCORDING  
TO OTHER SRAUTA SUTRAS  

 

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Layout For Different Sacrifices According to Different Srauta Sutras

Item Code:
IDH216
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Edition:
1997
Publisher:
Nag Publishers
ISBN:
8170813409
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8.6" X 5.4"
Pages:
240
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Weight of the Book: 435 gms
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About the Book

This book,' Layout for Different Sacrifices according to Different Sulbasutras' is a companion volume of the earlier published book 'Layout and construction of Citis according to Baudhayanam, Manava and Apastamba Sulbasstras, by the same author.

The book gives in detail layout of fire-places, vedis, pavilions, etc., required for different sacrifices namely Darsapurnamasau, Caturmasya, Nirudha Pasubandha, Soma, Soma with a citi, and Sautramani, according to four Acaryas, Baudhayana, Manva, Apastamba and Katyayana, a number of detailed dimensioned figures explaining the text are included. References to relevant quotes are given for each statement made regarding layouts.

About the Author

Dr. R.P. Kulkarni is a civil engineer by profession He was awarded Ph. D. in Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, he is an ardent student of Indian Silpasastra and studied sulbasutras as these give information of giving layout of citis, pavilions, vedis, etc. for different sacrifices. The basic knowledge of geometry is also given in these sulbasutras. His following books on this subject are published:

i. Cara Sulbasutre - Translation in Marathi of Sulbsutras by Baudhayana, Manava, Apastamba and Katyayana.

ii. Geometry according to Sulbasutra - Derivations of different geometrical theoroms, formulae, etc., given in the sulbasutras, by different scholars as well as his own contribution, are presented.

iii. Layout and Construction of Citis according to Baudhayana, Manava, and Apastamba Sulbasutras - The present volume is companion of this volume.

Preface

Sulbasutras which are one of the chapters of Srautasutras, give information about methods of giving layout of pavilions, vedis, fire-places, etc., that are required for different kinds of sacrifices. They include knowledge of the basic geometry essential for understanding the principles behind the procedures of giving layout. To give a layout of any structure, from a hut to a five-star hotel, requires knowledge of surveying. But surveying is essentially an engineer's job and hence I undertook the study of sulbasntras as part of my study of the History of Indian Engineering and Technology. When I came across these sulbasutras I was very favourably impressed. The methods of giving layout for different sacrifices, recommended by acaryas are so accurate and flawless, that even now one has to follow these methods. I have, therefore, studied these sulbasntras, although I do not claim scholarship either in the Sanskrit language or the geometry. These sulbasntras, in addition, give information of giving layout and construction of citis of different shapes. I have written a book,' 'Layout and Construction of Citis according to Baudhayana, Manava and Apastamba Sulbasutras'. The present book is its companion volume. These two books together cover almost all the aspects of giving layout and construction of different appertainances of various sacrifices according to the four eminent ancient acaryas, Baudhayana, Manava, Apastamba and Katyayana, Chronologically, Baudhayana is said to be the earliest of these acaryas, But the information of geometry and different methods of layout given by him could not be surpassed by the later acaryas. His thorough knowledge of the principles of geometry and the accumen in its application for giving layout as well as the scientific presentation, are admirable and praiseworthy.

On the basis of the information of layout for different sacrifices as recommended by different acaryas, I have prepared drawings, names of these sacrifices being Darsapurnamasau, Caturmasya, Nirudha Pasubandha, Soma, Soma with a citi, and Sautramani, In order to check my interpretations of these sulbasntras, I have shown these drawings to Prof. C.G. Kashikar, an authority on Vedas and particularly on Srautasutras. He very kindly spared his valuable time to go through these drawings, one by one, and approved them. I am very much grateful to him. I am thankful to the Ministry of Human resources and Development, New Delhi, as it has recommended this book to the Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Vedavidya Pratishthanam, Ujjain, for the publication of this book. I wish to thank Shri M.C. Jain, Consultant (ACD), Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Vadavidya Pratishthanam, for undertaking, with zest, the task of getting the approval of the Project Committe of the Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Vedavidya Pratishthanam, Ujjain and then getting it printed and published.

Introductory The Antiquity of Srauta Sacrifices

The fundamental conceptions of sacrifice go back to Indo-European antiquities though the traces are rather faint. But it is quite clear that the cult of the sacrifice had been much developed in the Indo-Iranian period. There is a very striking resemblance between the Vedic Agnistoma and the Homa ceremony of the Parsis. There are numerous words indicative of the cult of the sacrifice both in the Vedic language and in the ancient Parsi religious books. For example, words like atharvan, ahuti, uktha, barhis, mantra, yajna, soma, savana, stoma, hotr do also occur in the ancient Parsi religious scriptures.

Srauta –Sacrifices

The Srauta sutras contain a very detailed, meticulously accurate and vivid description of the several sacrifices that were performed in ancient times. These works were manuals compiled for the practical purpose of giving directions to those who are engaged in such sacrifices. They are based on ancient Brahmana texts, which they quote at every step, many individual sutras being couched in the very language of the Brahmanas, and on actual practice and only bring together what was in vogue.

For a reader who may not have any idea of Srauta sacrifices, a brief sketch of only those sacrifices of which layouts are described is given below.

Darsapurnamasa sacrifices

The New-moon and the Full-moon sacrifices is the pattern or archtype (prakrti) of all other istis (which are called vikrtis or modifications). Darsa means 'the day on which the moon is seen only by the sun and by no one else'. It is 'the day when the sun and the moon dwell or are together'. Paurnamasi is 'the tithi on which the sun and the moon are at the greatest distance from each other'. Four priests, the adhvaryu, brahma, hotr and agnidhra are employed for this isti, An isti means a sacrifice in which the sacrificer employs four priests.

Caturmasya Sacrifices

The Caturmasyas are four, viz. Vaisvadeva, Varunapraghasa, Sakamedha and Sunasiriya. Each of these is called a parvan (part or joint) of the Carurmasyas. They are called Caturmasyas because each of them takes place after four months. They are performed respectively on the Full-moon days of Phalguna (or Caitra), of Asadha, Kartika and on the fifth full moon day from the day on which the Sakamedha is performed (i.e. on Phalguni) or two or three days before it. They indicate the advent of three seasons, viz. vasanta (spring), varsa (rain) and hemanta (autumn). If the Vaisvadeva-parvan is performed on Caitra Full-moon, then the Varunapraghasas and Sakamedhas will be performed on Sravana and Margasirsa Full-moon days respectively. The S.P. Br. gives a fanciful etymology of the word Varunapraghasa. Yavas (barley grains) belong to Varuna and as these are eaten (from ghas to eat) in this rite it is called Varunapraghasa. Two altars (vedis) have to be prepared to the east of the ahavaniya in line towards the east, one south of the other. The northern altar is in charge of the adhvaryu and the southern one in charge of his assistant, the pratiprasthatr. For this sacrifice five priests are required; the adhvaryu, brahma, hotr, agnidhra and pratiprasthatr.

The Sakamedha literally means 'kindling along with or at the same as' (sakam edha). The name is probably given because the first offering in it is a cake on eight potsherds offered to Agni Anikvat with the rising sun. In the Sunasiriya the special offerings are a cake on twelve potsherds to Sunasirau (Vayu and Aditya or to Indra Sunasira), an oblation of fresh warm milk (not heated) direct from the cow to Vayu, a cake on one potsherd to Surya. There is no uttaravedi in this rite.

The Animal Sacrifice

This is an independent sacrifice and it is also performed in Soma sacrifice as a constituent part. The independent sacrifice is called nirudhapasubandha (offering of an eviscered animal) and the subordinate ones are called saurnika. The independent animal sacrifice is to be performed every six months or every year by the ahitagni throughout his life. If done once, in a year it was to be performed in the rainy season (i.e. in Sravana or Bhadrapada) on New-moon or Full-moon day or if done six monthly then at the beginning of the southern and the northern passages of the sun (daksinayana and uttarayana). In this sacrifice there is a sixth priest called Maitravaruna (or Prasastr) in addition to the five required in the Caturmasyas.

CONTENTS
Preface i
Chapter I 1-11
Introductory  
The Antiquity of Srauta Sacrifices. 1
Srauta Sacrifices 1
Darsapurnamasa Sacrifices 1
Caturmasya Sacrifices 2
Animal Sacrifices 3
Agnistoma 3
Sautramani 4
The State of Knowledge of Mathematics 4
at the Srauta Sutra Period  
Implements for giving layout 9
APPENDIX  
Translation by Eggling of Satapatha Brahmana (10.2.3.7-15) 10
PART 1 (BAUDHAYANA)
 
LENGTH MEASURES ACCORDING TO BAUDHAYANA SULBASUTRA 12
CHAPTER - II 17-34
THE LAYOUT OF FIRE-PLACES AND THE ALTAR OF THE NEW - MOON AND THE FULL-MOON SACRIFICES.  
Fire -places 17
Locations of Fire-places 18
The Altar 24
Mekhalas of Fire-places and the Altar 25
The Rubbish Heap 26
The Fire-hall 27
Proceedure to give the Lay-out 29
The Layout of the Fire-hall 29
The Layout of Fire-places 30
Construction of the Ahavaniya Fire-place 30
Construction of the Garhapatya Fire-place 32
Construction of the Daksinagni 32
Construction of the Altar 33
CHAPTER - III 35-41
THE LAYOUT OF THE ANIMAL SACRIFICE  
Fire-places and the Altar 35
The Pasubandhiki Vedi 35
The Catvala 38
The Utkara 39
The Sacrificial Post 39
The Samitra Vedi 40
The Layout of the Pasuki Vedi 41
CHAPTER IV 42-47
THE LAYOUT OF CATURMASYA SACRIFICES  
The Vaisvadeva-parvan 42
The Varunapraghasa-parvan 42
Layout of Altars 45
The Sakamedha-parvan 45
The Layout of the Paitrki Vedi 47
The Sunasiriya-parvan 47
CHAPTER - V 48-65
THE LAYOUT OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE (AGNISTOMA)  
Selection of the Site for the Soma Sacrifice 48
Fixing the East and the West Directions 48
Construction of the Fire-hall 50
Preparation of Mounds 51
Erection of Other Chambers 52
The Mahavedi 53
The Uttaravedi 55
The Catvala and the Utkara 57
The Sadas 57
Location of the Audumbari-post in the Sadas 59
Location of Dhisnyas in the Sadas 60
The Havirdhana Mandapa 60
Location of the Uparavass 62
The Agnidhriya and the Marjaliya Chambers 63
Erection of the Sacrificial Post 65
The Samitra Vedi 65
CHAPTER - VI 66-72
THE LAYOUT OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE WITH THE CITI  
Fire-places 66
The Garhapatya Citi 66
The Mahavedi and the Mandapas 69
Locations of the Catvala, Utkara and Uparavas 71
Location of the Citi 72
CHAPTER - VII 73-78
THE LAYOUT OF THE SAUTRAMANI SACRIFICE  
The Caraka Sautramani Sacrifice 73
The Layout of the Sautramani Altar 76
PART 2 (MANAVA)
 
LENGTH MEASURES ACCORDING TO MANAVA SULBASUTRA 81-82
CHATER - VIII 83-87
THE LAYOUT OF FIRE-PLACES AND THE ALTAR OF THE NEW-MOON AND THE FULL-MOON SACRIFICES.  
Fire-places 83
The Rubbish Heap 85
The Darsiki Vedi 85
The Fire-hall 86
The Patni-sala 87
CHAPTER - IX 88-95
THE LAYOUT OF CATURMASYA SACRIFICES  
The Varunapraghasa-parvan 88
The Catvala and the Utkara 93
The Sakamedha-parvan 93
The Layout of the Paitrki Vedi 93
CHAPTER - X 96-100
THE LAYOUT OF THE ANIMAL SACRIFICE  
The Pasuki Vedi 96
The layout of the Altar 96
The Catvala 99
The Samitra Vedi 100
CHAPTER - XI 101-111
The Site 101
Fire-places and the Darsiki Vedi 103
The Mahavedi 103
The Fire-hall 103
The Northern Altar 105
The Catvala and the Utkara 105
The Sadas 105
The Procedure of Giving the Layout of the Sadas 106
Dhisnyas in the Sadas 108
The Havirdhana Mandapa 108
The Uparavas 110
The Marjaliya Dhisnya 11
The Samitra Vedi 11
CHAPTER - XII 112-115
THE LAYOUT OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE WITH THE CITI.  
The Garhapatya Citi and the Mounds in the Fire-hall 112
The Sadas 114
The Citi 115
CHAPTER - XIII 116-119
THE LAYOUT OF THE SAUTRAMANI SACRIFICE  
The Fire-hall 116
The Altar 116
Layout of the Altar 116
The Adhvaryu's and the Pratiprasthatr's Mounds 119
PART 3 (APASTAMBA)
 
LENGTH MEASURES ACCORDING TO APASTAMBA SULBASUTRA 123
CHAPTER XIV 125-131
THE LAYOUT OF FIRE-PLACES, THE ALTAR AND THE FIRE-HALL OF THE NEW-MOON AND THE FULL-MOON SACRIFICES.  
The Fire-chambers 125
The Ahavaniya Fire-place 127
The Garhapatya Fire-place 127
The Daksinagni 127
The Sabhya and the Avasathya Fire-place 128
Locations of Fire-places 128
The Darsiki Vedi 129
The Rubbish Heap 131
CHAPTER XV 132-137
THE LAYOUT OF THE NIRUDHA PASUBANDHA SACRIFICE  
Fire-places 132
The Pasuki Vedi 132
The Catvala 134
The Utkara 135
Specifications of the Sacrificial Post 135
CHAPTER - XVI 138-142
THE LAYOUT OF CATURHASYA SACRIFICES  
The Varunapraghasa-parvan 138
The Uttaravedi 138
The Catvala 140
The Utakara 140
The Sakamedha-parvan 140
Fire-places 140
The paitrki Vedi 142
CHAPTER - XVII 143-172
Selection of the Site 143
Fire-places 143
The Fire-hall 145
The Mahavedi 146
The Uttaravedi 146
The Catvala 147
The Rubbish Heap 147
The Sadas 148
Dhisnyas in the Sadas 149
The Havirdhana Mandapa 150
The Uparavas 152
The Mound 153
The Agnidhriya Mandapa 153
The Marjaliya Dhisnya 154
The Samitr Dhisnya 155
Procedure of Giving the Layout 155
Erection of the Fire-hall 156
Erection of the Diksa Mandapa 157
The Layout of Fire-places in the fire-hall 158
The Ahavaniya Fire-place 158
The Garhapatya Fire place 159
The Anvaharyapacana Fire-place 159
The Darsiki Vedi 160
Layout of Kharas 162
The Mahavedi 162
The Catvala 164
The Utkara 165
The Uttara Vedi 165
The Sadas 165
The Havirdhana Mandapa 168
The Agnidhriya Mandapa 171
The Marjaliya Dhisnya 172
The Samitra Vedi 172
CHAPTER XVIII 173-174
THE LAYOUT OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE WITH THE CITI  
The Garhapatya Citi 173
Dhisnyas 174
CHAPTER - XIX 175
THE LAYOUT OF THE SAUTRAMANI SACRIFICE  
The Caraka Sautramani 175
The Kaukili Sautramani 175
PART 4 (KATYAYANA)
 
LENGTH MEASURES ACCORDING TO KATYAYANA SULBASUTRA 179
CHAPTER XX 181-186
THE LAYOUT OF FIRE-PLACES, THE DARSIKI VEDI AND THE FIRE-HALL OF THE NEW-MOON AND THE FULL-MOON SACRIFICES.  
Fire places 181
Locations of fire-places 183
The Rubbish Heap 184
The Darsiki Vedi 184
Pavilions 186
CHAPTER - XXI 187-192
The Varunapraghasa-parvan 187
The Southern Altar 189
The Catvala 189
The Utkara 191
The Sacrificial Post 191
The Sakamedha Parvan 191
CHAPTER XXII 193-195
THE LAYOUT OF THE NIRUDHA PASUBANDHA SACRIFICE  
Fire-places and Altars 193
The Catvala and the Utkara 193
Specifications of the Sacrificial Post 193
CHAPTER - XXIII 196-207
THE LAYOUT OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE  
Selection of the Site 196
Fixing the central East-West line 196
The fire-hall 199
The Mahavedi 200
The Sadas 201
The Havirdhana Mandapa 203
The Agnidhriya Mandapa 205
The Marjaliya Mandapa 206
The Uttaravedi 206
The Catvala 206
The Utkara 207
CHAPTER XXIV 208-212
THE LAYOUT OF THE SOMA SACRIFICE WITH THE CITI  
Unit Measures 208
Additional Chambers 208
The Garhapatya Citi 210
The Mahavedi 211
The Sadas 211
The Havirdhana Mandapa 211
The Agnidhriya and the Marjaliya Mandapas 212
The Citi 212
CHAPTER - XXV 213-215
THE LAYOUT OF THE SAUTRAMANI SACRIFICE  
Fire-places 213
The Sautramani Altar 213
Prakritik Vihar Karika 217-220
Chaturmasya Vihar Karika 221-223
APPENDIX-1 225-229
LAYOUT OF FIRE-PLACE, PAVILIONS,  
ALTARS, ETC., FOR SACRIFICES ACCORDING  
TO OTHER SRAUTA SUTRAS  

 

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