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Books > Ayurveda > The Legacy of Vagbhata
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The Legacy of Vagbhata
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The Legacy of Vagbhata
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Vagbhata completes the Great three (Brhatrayi) of Ayurveda with his predecessor, Caraka and Susruta. His identify and period are controversial but a major section of the scholarly community believes that he was a native of Sindh, who lived in the sixth century and wrote Astangadrdayam and Astangasangrah. The two texts frankly acknowledge the authority of the Samhitas of Caraka and Susruta and closely follow in the footsteps of the earlier masters.

The legacy of Vagbhata is based on a study of Astangahrdayam and employs a thematic approach with the plentiful of tables. As in the earlier volumes on Caraka and Susruta great care has been taken in this volume on Vagbhata to maintain fidelity to the original text while ensuring easy readability for the students of Ayurvedic medicine and the sciences.

 

About the Author

A native of Kerala Dr. M S Valiathan received his medical education in Indian and training in surgery and cardiac sugary in the UK and USA. During a career a panning three decades as a surgeon and investigator his major interests were cardiac surgery in children studies on a tropical heart muscle disease and the development of cardiovascular devices. His contributors are embodied in a monograph many scientific papers and a family of medical devices including a tilting disc heart valve which are used widely in India.

Dr. Valiathan is a National Research Professor of the government of India. He is married to Ashima an orthodontist. They have a daughter Manna and a son Manish.

 

Preface

This volume is the third in my Legacy series the two previous ones on Caraka and Susruta having appeared in print during the last five years. The welcome received by the earlier books from a growing readership and their positive appraisal by scholarly persuaded me to undertake a similar exercise on Vagbhata and complete the series on the Great Trinity (Brhattrayi) of Ayurveda.

In writing the Legacy series, I had adopted from the start a format which I hoped would make them readily accessible to the students who opt for Ayurveda and medicine after twelve years of school while maintaining utmost fidelity to the original texts. In The Legacy of Vagbhata, I have therefore refrains form lengthy and inconclusive discussion on non medical topics such as the identity of Vagbhata his date place and so on. Apart form the fact that our ancestors who shaped India’s cultural inheritance were loath to talk about themselves the results of scholarly debates on the historical and personal data of Vagbhata seemed to me to be of limited inters tot benefit to students who are impatient to get on with medical studies. I read many reference to Vagbhata in the books on Ayurvedic history by reputed authors such as Heinrich Zimmer PV Sharma and NVK Varier and also held discussions with senior Ayurvedic colleagues before settling on two editions of Astangahrdaya as the basic texts for my study. These were Asrangahrdayam (three volumes) text and English commentary by Professor Srinath Murthy and Astangahradayam text with Malayalam translation by PM Govindan Vaidyar Astangahrdayam (text with Sarvangasundare commentary of Arunadatta and Ayurvedarasayana tika of Hemadari) edited by harisastry. Once again I followed the thematic approach on the lines of my books on Caraka and Susruta, which seems to have been well accepted by the readers. I must acknowledge that the work on Vagbhata made less demands on my time and effort than the study of the two Samhitas and often became a joyful experience.

Though I had opted to study Astangahrdaya as it represented the essence of Vagbhata’s legacy I had to consider Astangasangraha regardless of whether it was authored by the same Vagbhata. However on going through Sangraha with its extensive commentary by my mentor Shri Ragahvan Thirumulpad I soon realized that neither time nor my training would permit me to write on Vagbhata’s legacy based on a critical and exhaustive study of Sangraha and Hrdaya. Nevertheless as Astangahrdaya proudly claimed that its sprang from the churning of the ocean of Astangasangraha I have attempters a limited comparative analysis of three identical subjects drawn from the Carakasamhita Astangasangraha and Astangahrdaya in the Introduction. The analysis confirmed the general impression that the core of Ayurvedic doctrines profile of diseases and procedures remained unchanged over centuries whereas changes which did over were more or less confined to the domain of medical formulations. The limited exercise also suggested the appropriateness of doing a well planned comparative study on the evolution of Ayurvedic concepts and practice based on classical texts form Caraka to Vagbhata because the five or six centuries which separated them were marked by foreign incisions and major social upheavals in India.

Dr. Ramankutty of the Arya Vaidya Sala Kottakkal a brilliant Ayurvedic scholar and authority on medicinal plants has been a friend philosopher and guide during my Ayurvedic studies for the last few years. He not only encouraged scanned my entire manuscript and made numerous suggestions for corrections and improvements. Additionally he gave valuable assistance by listing the botanical names of plants mentioned in this book preparing an index and reading the proofs. I have no words to thank him for his untiring support and assistance. As Astangahrdaya is a distillate of earlier texts. I have taken the liberty of reproducing some of the figures drawn by MR. joy for my books on Caraka and Susruta in the present volume for the permission of which I express my thanks to Orient Blackswan. The inimitable picture of Vagbhata on the cover which has allusions to his legendary connection with Kerala was drawn specially for this volume by the renowned artist Nabudiri of Keral to whom I am much beholden.

I am grateful to the Ministry of Human Resources Development Governments of India for the award of a National Research Professorship which has supported me during my years of labor in the Ayurvedic vineyard. I am equally grateful to DR. Ramdas Pai President of the Manipal University for continuing to provide me excellent facilities and a congenial environment to follow my academic pursuit in Manipal. It is a pleasure to acknowledge with thanks the assistance of Ms Usha Kamath who typed and retyped my bulky manuscript untiringly and oversaw the smooth movement of papers in the Manipal Kottakkal Chennai triangle. I am grateful to Ms Ramaa kishore for reading the proofs. Ms Padmaja Anant or Orient Blackswan has been unfailingly supportive fore which I am grateful to her.

I can do no better than conclude by quoting Goethe Nowhere would anyone grant that science and poetry can be united. People forgot that science had developed from poetry and they failed to take into consideration that a swing of the pendulum might beneficently reunite the two at a higher level and to mutual advantage Vagbhata represents Goethe’s beneficent reunion of science and poetry at a higher level.

 

Introduction

Caraka Susruta and Vagbhata are the Great (Brhatrayi) of Ayurveda. In line with his predecessors Vagbhata cared to say little about himself or the times he lived in and let his works speak for himself. In the Astangahrdaya (AH) he stated explicitly that Astangasangraha (AS) grew out of the boundless and immaculate knowledge of ancient sages and AH was no more than its distillate which would benefit even the less industrious. He affirmed that AH fulfilled the 18 requirements for an authoritative text which was at the same time free from 15 defects which bedevil inferior works. His confidence in AH was so great that he threw a challenge to his contemporaries and posterity on the inescapability of studying masterly texts such as AH regardless of whether they had been composed by ancient sages in the line of Caraka and Susruta. For him the heart of the massive literature of Ayurveda throbbed in AH which he believed would radiate beneficence for the whole world. One would therefore do no injustice to Vagbhata if a twenty first century study on his legacy were to be based on AH.

Astangahrdaya is one of the authorities’ texts of Ayurveda which continues to be equally popular among students practitioners and scholars. It is medically oriented work with principal emphasis on internal medicine(kayacikitsa) and only brief references o surgical obstruct that of the Samhitas of Caraka and Susruta whose names are revered but whose works are not widely read. The descriptions of medical concepts procedures and herbal formulations in AH can be traced to the Samhitas of Caraka and Susruta which were to the source for as well as. AH owned its great appeal over earlier texts to the beauty of its verses its masterly style of condensation logical arrangement of topics clarity of description another merits. No wonder it was translated into foreign languages such as Arabic Persian Tibetan many centuries ago and more recently into European languages.

Uttaratantra constitutes a large part of AH and deals with diseases of children disease caused by evil spirits disease of the head and neck surgical treatment poisoning rejuvenant and virilising therapies. The existence of Uttarasthana in CS is controversial but many of the subjects discussed in AH under Uttaratantra are conversed in the Cikitsa and other Sthanas of CS. Unlike CS and AS which contain a mixture of prose and poetry AH is composed in verse barring a few prose lines at the beginning and end of each chapter. A summary of the subjects dealt with in AH is indicated below.

Sutra: Wish for long life code of daily and seasonal conduct food and drinks ensuring safety of food substance and properties tastes dosas in health and disease principles of treatment procedures in treatments instruments and their use in surgery.

Sarira: Development of the embryo; pregnancy and disorders associated with it; parts of the body; vital spots; significance of messengers; omens and dreams.

Nidana: Diagnosis based on clinical features; fever pitta-induced bleeding, cough, hiccup shortness of breath hoarseness of voice phthisis alcoholic intoxication, piles, diarrhea and bowel disorders, loss of appetite, vomiting, heart disease, morbid thirst scrotal enlargements, gaseous lumps of abdomen urinary obstruction, polyurias including diabetes, abscesses, abdominal enlargement pallor swelling cellulites skin disease including leprosy, leucoderma, worm infestation vata disorders blood disorders.

Cikitsa:Fever, Pitta-induced bleeding, cough, shortness of breath, hiccup, hoarseness of voice, phthisis vomiting loss of appetite heart disease urinary obstruction intoxication, piles, diarrhea, bowel disorders urinary obstruction polyurias including diabetes abscess abdominal enlargement scrotal swelling worm infestation, gaseous lumps of the abdomen, pallor, swelling, celluttuis, skin disorders including leprosy leucoderma vata-induced blood disorders.

Kalpa: Siddhi : Emesis purgation and complication enemas and complications drugs employed in the procedures.

Uttara: children’s diseases, disease caused by evil spirits insanity epilepsy, eye diseases; diseases of the car, nose, mouth, head; ulcers, fracture, ano-rectal fistula, tumors, filarial, swelling, glandular swellings and sinuses; minor diseases; poisoning bites by snakes spiders rats insects rejuvenent therapy virilising therapy.

The immense popularity of AH is testified by the many commentaries on it numbering over thirty excluding commentaries partly regional only in manuscript form and only six are said to be available in print form. Among these Arunadatta’s Savangasundara which reaches back to the twelfth century has received the highest critical acclaim. Among the commentaries in regional languages, PM Govindan Vaidyan’s Arunodaya century and chapped Achutha varier’s commentary in Malayalam have been popular in Kerala where AH became a great favorite among the intelligentsia centuries ago.

Vagbhata identity place of birth date and religious affiliation are far form certain. Scholars are equally divided on the question whether AS and AH were composed by an identical Vagbhata or whether Vagbhata Senior authored AS and Vagbhata Junior summarized it later as AH. There is a scholarly view that another Vagbhata (Madhya Vagbhata) intervened between the senior and junior Vagbhata and wrote Astangavatara. The Vagbhata who wrote AS stated in the concluding verse there lived a great physician named Vagbhata who was my grandfather whose name I bear. His son was Simhagupta who was my father. I was born I Sindhudesa. After learning the science form Avalokita my teacher and more form my father and devoting myself to a large number of books in this science. I have composed this text. He also claimed that the text was written to suit his times (yanagupta). The scholars who claim that the Vagbhata of AS is the same individual who composed AH point to the statement at the end of AH that it is a distillate of AS which is an ocean of medical science; and a large number of verses from AS reproduced without changes in AH etc., as evidence of the identify of the authors. On the other hand other s noted that ancient commentators distinguished Vrddha Vagbhata who wrote AS from Vagbhata who authored AH and the dissonance between the two texts in relation to style observation on faith and sociology scientific principles etc. (PV Sharma). In the present state of learned ignorance the identity of Vagbhata cannot be established with certainly nor can the question in AH antedating AS be answered on the basis of irrefutable evidence.

Vagbhata’s date: As AH contains several verses form the CS which was revised and completed by Drdhabala, Vagbhata probably lived after Drdhabala whose date has been fixed by general agreement around 500 A.D Professor Srikantha Murhty has pointed to a verse closely similar to one form AH or probably taken from it in the Brhatsamhita of Varhamihira who is known to have lived between 500-580 AD. This would support the view the Vagbhata lived in the sixth century when Gupta rules was beginning to decline in north India.

Legendary Vagbhata : Reputed commentators such as Jejjata and Niscalakara have described Vagbhata as a raja or Rajarsi. Professor PV Sharma was of the opinion that Vagbhata might have left his small kingdom in Shindh and moved to Ujjain Following the invasion by sakas. Vagbhata’s connection with Kerala is also legendry. He is the patron saint of Ayurveda and Astangahrdaya the principal text for the traditional learning of Ayurveda in Kerala. According to popular belief, Vagbhata a Brahmana masters Ayurveda under the guidance of a Buddhist teacher in Sindhiseas when Buddhism was a dominant religion and Buddhist physicians the leaders of Ayurvedic practice and training. On the completion of training Vagbhata found himself ostracized by Brahmans whereupon he left Sichudesa on a long journey which ended in Kerala. There he found intelligent and admiring pupils among the Namputiris who were hungry for Ayurvedic knowledge. According to this belief he establish the Astavaidya families each specializing in one branch of Ayurveda and all depending on AH as their therapeutic manual. Unfortunately no evidence of Ayurveda and Astangahrdaya in Sri Lanka believe that Vagbhata lived in the island after his departure form Sind.

 

Contents

 

Transliteration Chart  
Preface  
Quotes form Vagbhata  
Introduction  
Section I
 
Chapter 1: Ayurveda an Overview
Divine origin of Ayurveda – eight divisions – dosas and
properties – dhatus and malas – tastes – substances (dravya) and
qualities (guna) – health and disease – principles of treatment - prognosis
1
Section II: Healthy Living (Svastavrtta)
 
Chapter 2: A Code for Healthy conduct (Svastavrtta)
A day in Healthy living – sleep – sexual intercourse – general and
personal conduct – unacceptable conduct
8
Chapter 3: Life in Harmony with seasons (rtucarya)
Six seasons – lifestyle changes to suit the seasons
15
Section III: Drinks and Food (Dravadravya)
 
Chapter 4: Liquids as food (dravadravya)
Water for different sources – milk and Milk products-
sugarcane juice and products – oils- wines- urines
21
Chapter 5: Food (annasvarupa)
Classification – awned cereals – pulses – prepared foods – meats-
greens – fruit – medication – salts- alkalis - plants
33
Chapter 6: Food Safety (annaraksa)
Signs of positioned food and drinks – signs of poison giver – tests
for poisoned food – disease caused by poisons – incompatible food
adaptation and de adaptation to food
54
Chapter 7: Measure of food for health (matrasitiya)
adequate quantity of food – alasaka, ajirna – code for dining
– unacceptable and acceptable food for regular use – after drinks
60
Section IV: Human Body (Sarira)
 
Chapter 8: Pancabhutas as the stuff of existence(dravyavijnana)
Pancabhutas – properties – taste – potency, post digestive taste,
specific effective action (prabhava)
66
Chapter 9: Tastes (rasas)
Six primary tastes- properties – actions of tastes- classification
of substances according to taste- combination of tastes
70
Chapter 10: Dosas, tissues (dhatus) wastes(malas)
Basic components of the body

Three Dosas and their actions – tissues – manifestations of
excess in tissues malas – deficiency of dosas tissues and malas
treatments of increase in dosas – fires (agnis) in the body – ojas
76
Chapter 11: Dosas, (dosabhediya)
Locations and divisions of three dosas- accumulations and
perturbation of dosas- general features of dosa perturbation
- classification of diseases based on the origin –guidelines for
the physician in examining patients.

 

83
Section V: Developments, Structure and Function
of the Body (sarira)
 
Chapter 12: Procreation Pregnancy and fetal development
(garbhotpatti, garbhavakrantiya)

Menstruation – semen and Menstrual blood-rituals associated
with conception –antenatal care – congenital anomalies- fetal
development –delivery –postnatal care

 

91
Chapter 13:Disorders of pregnancy (garbhavyapat)
Abortion- fetal anomalies- fetal death – extraction of placenta-
abdominal delivery –protection of pregnancy – false pregnancy

 

100
Chapter 14: Body parts and function (angavibhaga)
Major and accessory parts – maternal and paternal contribution
to body composition –skin membranes (kalas), hollow and
other viscera- tendons muscles none’s – veins suitable and
unsuitable for vensection – sirasand dhamanis –digestive
fire – digestion of food –medical triads –measure of body
tissues – body constitution (dehapraktri) and dosa prakrti – ideal physique

 

106
Chapter 15: Vital Spots (marmas)
Location in the body – consequences of injury – vital sports
in relation to tissues and structure – clinical features of injury
prognosis – measure of vital spots – sequelae of injury

 

122
Section VI: Outline of Medical Measures (Cikitsa)
 
Chapter 16: Management of perturbed dosas ((dosopakrama)
Disease induced by vata, pitta and kapha – principles of
treatment – dosas lodged in other than native locations- dosas
mixed with poorly digested food – management of dosas during
change of seasons – time for ingestion of drugs

 

131
Chapter 17: Increasing (brmhana, santarpana)
and reducing (langhana, apatarpana)
the body mass

Reducing the body mass and persons requiring it – increasing
body mass and persons requiring it – therapy for increasing and
decreasing body mass – complication of over treatment

 

136
Chapter 18: Groups of drugs for evacuative
and other measures (sodhanadi group)

thirty three groups and functions in therapeutics

 

141
Chapter 19: Herbal drugs (bhesajakalpa)
Five decoctions –features – dosage – cooking procedure
- weights and measures –geographical influences on drugs

 

147
Chapter 20: Lubricant therapy (snehana)
four lubricants – persons requiring bared form lubricant
therapy – time for therapy – aftercare – signs of satisfactory
lubrication – emergency lubricant therapy

 

152
Chapter 21: Fomentation (svedana)
Four methods- principles of application procedure – excess
treatment – person appropriate and inappropriate for receiving
treatment – fermentation without fire

 

159
Chapter 22: Emesis and purgation (vamana,virecana)
Appropriate and inappropriate condition for emesis- procedure
for emesis – aftercare – appropriate and inappropriate condition
for purgation – poor results – aftercare

 

164
Chapter 23:Emetics and purgative; medical formulations;
complications (vamankalpa, virencankalpa)

Emetics – madana jimuta, iksvaku dhamargava ksveda, kutaja
- medical formulations –purgatives –trivrt rajavrksa tilvaka,
sudha snakhini – saptala, danti dravanti haritaki – medicinal
formulations – complications due to inadequate or excess use

 

171
Chapter 24: Enemas (Vasti)
Non-lubricant enema – condition and persons appropriate/
inappropriate for the procedure –lubricant enemas – condition
and persons appropriate/ inappropriate for the procedure
– equipment for enema – technique – enemas for dosa disorders
special enemas –urethral and vaginal enema

 

187
Chapter 25: More on enemas ( vastikalpa)
Non-lubricant enemas – applications in dosa – dominant diseases
- idea enemas; lubricant enemas – classified compilation of
enemas – post enemas, management

 

197
Chapter 26: Nasal Purging (nasya)
Three methods – persons and conditions – inappropriate and
appropriate for the procedure – technique – time for the
procedure – aftercare

 

211
Chapter 27: Others procedures smoking
(dhumapana) gargling (kabaja)

Three grades of medicate smoking – persons and conditions
barred form smoking – gargles – equipment – procedure – drugs for
medicinal smoke – gargles – local application inside the mouth
and on the face – application of oil pouch in the head

 

217
Chapter 28:Produres for eye care (ascyotana, anjana)
Eye drops; collyrium – conditions inappropriate for the use
of collyrium – time of application – technique tarpana and
putapaka – procedure

 

225
Section VII: Outline of Surgical Measures (Salya)
 
Chapter 29: Blunt instruments (yantras)
Uses- classification into cruciform, forceps, tubular rod-like
hooks with subtypes – animal horn and gourd – accessory
instruments

 

231
Chapter 30: Sharp instruments (sastras)
Twenty-six types – description and surgical applications -
application of leeches –procedure

 

239
Chapter 31: Vensection (siravyadh)
Condition appropriate and inappropriate for consecution
- choice of location – procedure – special sites- aftercare

 

248
Chapter 32: Removal of foreign bodies (salyaharana)
Sings of foreign bodies in different locations – treatments and
guidelines

 

254
Chapter 33: Surgical operations (sastrakarma)
Draining abscesses – pre and post operative care – management
of traumatic wounds- bandaging – chronic ulcers

 

260
Chapter 34: Cauterization (ksaragnikarma)
alkaline cautery – inappropriate conditions for use – preparation
and durable qualities alkalis –cauterization procedure- thermal
cattery –appropriate and inappropriate use of cauterization

 

268
Section VIII: Systemic Diseases
 
Chapter 35: causation and clinical course of diseases
(nidana, purvarupa, rupa, upasaya, samprapti)

Cause – premonitory sign and clinical features – causes for
increase in dosas

 

275
Chapter 36: Fevers (jvara)
fevers caused by vata pitta and kapha singly or jointly – caused
by external agents- other classification of fevers – treatment
-evacuative procedures – diet role of ghee milk – medicinal
formulation – treatment of complex fevers

 

279
Chapter 37: Pitta included bleeding disease (raktapitta)
Premonitory signs- clinical features – treatments – pacificatory
and evacuative measures – dietary preparations- medicinal
formulation

 

305
Chapter 38: Cough (kasa)
Different types of cough – treatment of cough due to vata, pitta,
kapha excess- diet-medicinal formulations – cough following
chest injury and treatment – cough in phthisis

 

312
Chapter 39: Shortness of breath hiccup (svasa; hikka)
Five years of shortness of breath and hiccup – treatments
- evacuative measures – medicinal formulation – other measures

 

332
Chapter 40: Phthisis and allied conditions (sosa)
Causes – Premonitory signs and clinical features – treatment
- evacuative and building up procedures – diet- formulations
hoarseness – features – loss of appetite treatment
excessive salivation and treatment vomiting and treatment –heart
disease treatments morbid thirst and treatment

 

342
Chapter 41: Alcoholic intoxication (madatyaya)
Stages of intoxication – clinical features- fainting – coma
– treatment – wine as antidote – formulation – role of milk – in
praise of wine – treatment of non alcoholic intoxication

 

368
Chapter 42: Diarrhea (arisara)
Clinical features – different classification – treatments of unripe
and ripe diarrheas- dysentery – rectal prolapsed- enemas puttapaka
etc. in treatment – diarrhea induced by dosas and treatment

 

383
Chapter 43: Bowel disorder (grahani)
clinical features – classification – treatments of different types
formulations – role of fate in enhancing digestive power

 

397
Chapter 44: Polyrias (prameha)
Twenty types – clinical features – complications – treatments
evacuative measures – medicinal formulations

 

408
Chapter 45: Abscess (vidradhi)
Six types – clinical feature – complications – prognosis -
treatment – medical procedures – local measures – formulations
internal abscesses of treatment

 

418
Chapter 46: Disease of pallor (panduroga)
five types and clinical features – jaundice – treatment – medicinal
formulations – treatments of jaundice

 

425
Chapter 47: Vata disorders (vatayadhi)
clinical features according to the location of vata – general
treatment for vata excess- specific treatment for different
condition – important formulations

 

433
Chapter 48: Vata induced blood disorders gout like
Disorders (vatasonita, vatarakta)

Clinical features according to the vitiation of dosas- vata
perturbations alone or with other dosas dhauts and malas
interference of ate by other dosas and among its divisions
- general treatment and specific treatments for individual
condition – medicinal formulations

 

446
Chapter 49: Swelling (sopha)
Causes – clinical features – treatment – dietary regimen-
evacuative measures – formulations – local treatments

 

461
Chapter 50: Cellulitis (visarpa)
Clinical features – different types – treatment – general and local
formulations

 

469
Chapter 51: Diseases caused by suppression of physical
urges (vega)

Clinical features and treatment of each – general guidelines

 

476
Section IX: Health and disease of children
(kaumarabhrtya)
 
Chapter 52:Case of the Newborn (balopacarniya)

Attendance at birth – breast feeding – naming ceremony – care
of the infant – piercing the ear- waning – medicated ghess

 

481
Chapter 53: Diseases of children (balamayas)
Breast Milk, healthy and unhealthy – recognition of pain
in children – diseases caused by dosas – vitiated breast milk
diseases caused by eruption of teeth – treatment in general
phthisis in children – rectal ulcers

 

487
Chapter 54: Diseases in children caused by evil spirits (balagrahas)
twelve balagrahas – clinical features on seizure by each – purpose
of seizure – treatment – medicinal formulations - fumigation
sacrificial rituals

 

495
Section X
 
Chapter 55: Superhuman power in humans (bhutacijnaniya)
vulnerable moments – timing of seizure by sprits – traits
following seizure – treatment – formulations – sacred rituals

 

502
Section XIII: Poisoning (Visa)
 
Chapter 56: Insanity (unmade)
Causes and types – treatment – medicinal formulations -
miscellaneous measures

 

513
Section XII
 
Chapter 57: Seizure disorder ( apasmara)
Causes and types – treatment – medicinal formulations

 

519
Section XIII : Poisoning (Visa)
 
Chapter 58: Poisons : Fixed and Mobile (Visa; Sthavara
and jangama)

Properties of poisons – stages of poisoning – medicinal
formulation as antidotes – delayed poisons – artificial poisons
potentiation of poisons – treatment

 

523
Chapter 59: Snake Bites (sarpavisa)
Types and morphological features of poisonous snakes – varieties
of bites –stages of poisoning – bites defying cure – treatment
- vensection protection of the heart – medicinal formulations

 

530
Chapter 60: Bites by insects spiders (kitalutadi visa)
Bites bu insects including scorpion – clinical features – treatment -
spider bites with clinical feature – clinical course and
treatment

 

540
Chapter 61: Poisoning by bites of rats dogs
(musika –alarkavisa)

Types of rats – rabid dog- treatment of rat bite and dog bite

 

551
Section XIV Regional Disorders
 
Chapter 62: Piles (arsas)
Classification of types – promontory signs and clinical
– features – piles in any rectal and other locations – treatment
- cauterization – local and general measures – bloodletting
- medical formulations and diet – enemas – management of
bleeding piles

 

556
Chapter 63: Urinary obstruction (metrakrcchra)
Twenty types – clinical feature of stone in the
bladder

 

579
Chapter 64: Scrotal swelling (vrddhi)
Seven types – clinical features – treatment – formulation -
cautery

 

591
Chapter 65: Gaseous lumps of the abdomen (gulma)
Causes – clinical features – blood included lump in women
treatment of different types – evacuative measures – formulations
surgical treatment – cauterization with alkali – diet- treatment
of blood induced lumps

 

595
Chapter 66: Abdominal swelling (Udara)
Types and clinical features – treatment – evacuative measures
- specific formulations for each type – surgical measures

 

612
Chapter 67: leprosy (kustha)
Seven types and clinical feature – location and clinical feature
– treatment – evacuative measure – formulation – local measures
venesection

 

630
Chapter 68: Leucoderma (svitra)
Types based on dosas and clinical features – treatment

 

644
Chapter 69: Worm infestation (krmi)
External and internal types – four kinds based on origin – species
of worms – clinical features – treatment – evacuative measure
- formulations

 

645
Chapter 70: Ulcers (Vrana)
Externally and internally caused ulcers- fifteen types -
prognosis – treatment – early and ripening stage – burst abscess
- formulations – thermal cautery – traumatic wounds –local
and general measures – ulcers in specific locations and treatment
visceral injuries and treatment

 

651
Chapter 71: Fracture and dislocations (bhanga,
sandhimukta)

Fracture resistant to treatment – outline of treatment – reduction
immobilization bandaging – fracture at specific sites

 

664
Chapter 72: Rectal fistula (bhangandara)
Abscesses preceding fistula – different types of fistulae -
Treatment – local measures including alkaline thermal cautery,
sugery – medicinal formulations for internal and local use

 

669
Chapter 73: Glandular swellings tumours, filarial
swelling, cervical glandular swellings
sinus ulcer (grandhi, arbuda slipada
apcat, nadi)

Glandular swelling – nine types – treatment in the unripe
and ripe stages – surgery
Tumours – six years – treatment similar to glandular swellings
filarial swelling – clinical features – treatment according to dosa
dominance
Cervical glandular swellings – clinical features – treatment
evacuative measures formulations bloodletting – surgical excision
Sinus ulcer-ulcer with sinus tracks- caused by dosas or foreign
body – clinical features – treatment – fermentation – surgery
including removal of foreign body – local applications

 

675
Chapter 74: Diseases of the genital organs (guhyaroga)
Causes – twenty three types – clinical features – treatment
– formulations – fermentation bloodletting – surgical
measures – disease of the vagina – twenty types – clinical
features – treatment – evacuative measures – medicated tampon
formulation

 

685
Chapter 75: Minor diseases (ksudraroga)
Thirty six types – clinical features – treatment – formulation
bloodletting – evacuative therapy- surgical measures

 

698
Section XV: Diseases of Head Neck (salakya)
 
Chapter 76: Disease of the year (karnaroga)
twenty five types – clinical features – treatment of each type
- evacuative and local measure – formulation – surgical repair
of defects of ear nose and lips

 

706
Chapter 77: Disease of the Nose (Nasaroga)
Thirteen types – clinical features – treatment of each type-
evacuative measures and local applications – formulations

 

716
Chapter 78: Oral Disease (mukharoga)
Disease of lips (11) – teeth (10)- gums (13) – tongue (6)
palate (8) – throat (18) – clinical features – treatment for each
condition – general measures such as evacuative therapy and
blood letting – local measures such as fomentation gargle and
application of pastes – formulations

 

722
Chapter 79: Disease of the Head (siroroga)
Eleven types – clinical features – treatment – general measures
including evacuative therapy and bloodletting – local measures
such as fomentation application of pasts medicated smoking
and application of head pouch – formulation

 

742
Section XVI: Diseases of the Eye (Netraroga)
 
Chapter 80: Disease of the Eyelids (vartma)
Disease of different parts of the eye – twenty four types of
diseases of eyelids – clinical features – prognosis – treatment
local application – surgical measures

 

752
Chapter 81: Disease of the fornix, sclera and cornea
(sandhi –sita- asitaroga)

Nine types affecting fornix – thirteen types affecting sclera-
five types affecting cornea- guidelines to medical and surgical
treatment – fermentation and techniques for each of three
groups

 

760
Chapter 82: Vision Defect (drsti)
Seven types – clinical features – treatment – medicinal
formalities – preparations for animal sources – treatment fo
timira based on dosa dominance – general conduct

 

771
Chapter 83: Blindness due to the disorders of lens
(linganasa)

Six types – clinical features – couching of lens – postoperative
care – complications and management

 

787
Chapter 84: Global diseases of the eye (sarvaksiroga)
Sixteen types – clinical features – specific treatment
of each – formulation – general measures – prophylaxis

 

791
Section XVII: Fatal Signs (ristas)
 
Chapter 85: Signs of imminent death (rista)
Varieties fo signs – signs related to appearance sense organs,
voice shadow, activates clinical features in different diseases - other signs

 

803
Chapter 86: Messengers omens dreams (duta nimitta,
svapna)

Inauspicious messengers – omens – auspicious inauspicious
and mixed – dreams and their effects – auspicious dreams

 

814
Section XVIII
 
Chapter 87: Rejuvenant therapy (rasayana)
types of therapy – formulations – benefits – various drugs
including lasuna and silajatu

 

823
Section XIX
 
Chapter 88: Virilising therapy (vajikarana)
Benefits – formulation – erotics

 

841
Chapter 89: Epilogue
List if major disease and remedies – efficacy of treatment
about Astangahrdaya

 

846
Botanical Names

 

852
Glossary

 

885
Index

 

907
Sample Pages





























The Legacy of Vagbhata

Item Code:
IHJ006
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2011
ISBN:
9788173716683
Size:
8.9 Inch X 5.8 Inch
Pages:
945
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weight of book 1.200 kg
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Back of the Book

Vagbhata completes the Great three (Brhatrayi) of Ayurveda with his predecessor, Caraka and Susruta. His identify and period are controversial but a major section of the scholarly community believes that he was a native of Sindh, who lived in the sixth century and wrote Astangadrdayam and Astangasangrah. The two texts frankly acknowledge the authority of the Samhitas of Caraka and Susruta and closely follow in the footsteps of the earlier masters.

The legacy of Vagbhata is based on a study of Astangahrdayam and employs a thematic approach with the plentiful of tables. As in the earlier volumes on Caraka and Susruta great care has been taken in this volume on Vagbhata to maintain fidelity to the original text while ensuring easy readability for the students of Ayurvedic medicine and the sciences.

 

About the Author

A native of Kerala Dr. M S Valiathan received his medical education in Indian and training in surgery and cardiac sugary in the UK and USA. During a career a panning three decades as a surgeon and investigator his major interests were cardiac surgery in children studies on a tropical heart muscle disease and the development of cardiovascular devices. His contributors are embodied in a monograph many scientific papers and a family of medical devices including a tilting disc heart valve which are used widely in India.

Dr. Valiathan is a National Research Professor of the government of India. He is married to Ashima an orthodontist. They have a daughter Manna and a son Manish.

 

Preface

This volume is the third in my Legacy series the two previous ones on Caraka and Susruta having appeared in print during the last five years. The welcome received by the earlier books from a growing readership and their positive appraisal by scholarly persuaded me to undertake a similar exercise on Vagbhata and complete the series on the Great Trinity (Brhattrayi) of Ayurveda.

In writing the Legacy series, I had adopted from the start a format which I hoped would make them readily accessible to the students who opt for Ayurveda and medicine after twelve years of school while maintaining utmost fidelity to the original texts. In The Legacy of Vagbhata, I have therefore refrains form lengthy and inconclusive discussion on non medical topics such as the identity of Vagbhata his date place and so on. Apart form the fact that our ancestors who shaped India’s cultural inheritance were loath to talk about themselves the results of scholarly debates on the historical and personal data of Vagbhata seemed to me to be of limited inters tot benefit to students who are impatient to get on with medical studies. I read many reference to Vagbhata in the books on Ayurvedic history by reputed authors such as Heinrich Zimmer PV Sharma and NVK Varier and also held discussions with senior Ayurvedic colleagues before settling on two editions of Astangahrdaya as the basic texts for my study. These were Asrangahrdayam (three volumes) text and English commentary by Professor Srinath Murthy and Astangahradayam text with Malayalam translation by PM Govindan Vaidyar Astangahrdayam (text with Sarvangasundare commentary of Arunadatta and Ayurvedarasayana tika of Hemadari) edited by harisastry. Once again I followed the thematic approach on the lines of my books on Caraka and Susruta, which seems to have been well accepted by the readers. I must acknowledge that the work on Vagbhata made less demands on my time and effort than the study of the two Samhitas and often became a joyful experience.

Though I had opted to study Astangahrdaya as it represented the essence of Vagbhata’s legacy I had to consider Astangasangraha regardless of whether it was authored by the same Vagbhata. However on going through Sangraha with its extensive commentary by my mentor Shri Ragahvan Thirumulpad I soon realized that neither time nor my training would permit me to write on Vagbhata’s legacy based on a critical and exhaustive study of Sangraha and Hrdaya. Nevertheless as Astangahrdaya proudly claimed that its sprang from the churning of the ocean of Astangasangraha I have attempters a limited comparative analysis of three identical subjects drawn from the Carakasamhita Astangasangraha and Astangahrdaya in the Introduction. The analysis confirmed the general impression that the core of Ayurvedic doctrines profile of diseases and procedures remained unchanged over centuries whereas changes which did over were more or less confined to the domain of medical formulations. The limited exercise also suggested the appropriateness of doing a well planned comparative study on the evolution of Ayurvedic concepts and practice based on classical texts form Caraka to Vagbhata because the five or six centuries which separated them were marked by foreign incisions and major social upheavals in India.

Dr. Ramankutty of the Arya Vaidya Sala Kottakkal a brilliant Ayurvedic scholar and authority on medicinal plants has been a friend philosopher and guide during my Ayurvedic studies for the last few years. He not only encouraged scanned my entire manuscript and made numerous suggestions for corrections and improvements. Additionally he gave valuable assistance by listing the botanical names of plants mentioned in this book preparing an index and reading the proofs. I have no words to thank him for his untiring support and assistance. As Astangahrdaya is a distillate of earlier texts. I have taken the liberty of reproducing some of the figures drawn by MR. joy for my books on Caraka and Susruta in the present volume for the permission of which I express my thanks to Orient Blackswan. The inimitable picture of Vagbhata on the cover which has allusions to his legendary connection with Kerala was drawn specially for this volume by the renowned artist Nabudiri of Keral to whom I am much beholden.

I am grateful to the Ministry of Human Resources Development Governments of India for the award of a National Research Professorship which has supported me during my years of labor in the Ayurvedic vineyard. I am equally grateful to DR. Ramdas Pai President of the Manipal University for continuing to provide me excellent facilities and a congenial environment to follow my academic pursuit in Manipal. It is a pleasure to acknowledge with thanks the assistance of Ms Usha Kamath who typed and retyped my bulky manuscript untiringly and oversaw the smooth movement of papers in the Manipal Kottakkal Chennai triangle. I am grateful to Ms Ramaa kishore for reading the proofs. Ms Padmaja Anant or Orient Blackswan has been unfailingly supportive fore which I am grateful to her.

I can do no better than conclude by quoting Goethe Nowhere would anyone grant that science and poetry can be united. People forgot that science had developed from poetry and they failed to take into consideration that a swing of the pendulum might beneficently reunite the two at a higher level and to mutual advantage Vagbhata represents Goethe’s beneficent reunion of science and poetry at a higher level.

 

Introduction

Caraka Susruta and Vagbhata are the Great (Brhatrayi) of Ayurveda. In line with his predecessors Vagbhata cared to say little about himself or the times he lived in and let his works speak for himself. In the Astangahrdaya (AH) he stated explicitly that Astangasangraha (AS) grew out of the boundless and immaculate knowledge of ancient sages and AH was no more than its distillate which would benefit even the less industrious. He affirmed that AH fulfilled the 18 requirements for an authoritative text which was at the same time free from 15 defects which bedevil inferior works. His confidence in AH was so great that he threw a challenge to his contemporaries and posterity on the inescapability of studying masterly texts such as AH regardless of whether they had been composed by ancient sages in the line of Caraka and Susruta. For him the heart of the massive literature of Ayurveda throbbed in AH which he believed would radiate beneficence for the whole world. One would therefore do no injustice to Vagbhata if a twenty first century study on his legacy were to be based on AH.

Astangahrdaya is one of the authorities’ texts of Ayurveda which continues to be equally popular among students practitioners and scholars. It is medically oriented work with principal emphasis on internal medicine(kayacikitsa) and only brief references o surgical obstruct that of the Samhitas of Caraka and Susruta whose names are revered but whose works are not widely read. The descriptions of medical concepts procedures and herbal formulations in AH can be traced to the Samhitas of Caraka and Susruta which were to the source for as well as. AH owned its great appeal over earlier texts to the beauty of its verses its masterly style of condensation logical arrangement of topics clarity of description another merits. No wonder it was translated into foreign languages such as Arabic Persian Tibetan many centuries ago and more recently into European languages.

Uttaratantra constitutes a large part of AH and deals with diseases of children disease caused by evil spirits disease of the head and neck surgical treatment poisoning rejuvenant and virilising therapies. The existence of Uttarasthana in CS is controversial but many of the subjects discussed in AH under Uttaratantra are conversed in the Cikitsa and other Sthanas of CS. Unlike CS and AS which contain a mixture of prose and poetry AH is composed in verse barring a few prose lines at the beginning and end of each chapter. A summary of the subjects dealt with in AH is indicated below.

Sutra: Wish for long life code of daily and seasonal conduct food and drinks ensuring safety of food substance and properties tastes dosas in health and disease principles of treatment procedures in treatments instruments and their use in surgery.

Sarira: Development of the embryo; pregnancy and disorders associated with it; parts of the body; vital spots; significance of messengers; omens and dreams.

Nidana: Diagnosis based on clinical features; fever pitta-induced bleeding, cough, hiccup shortness of breath hoarseness of voice phthisis alcoholic intoxication, piles, diarrhea and bowel disorders, loss of appetite, vomiting, heart disease, morbid thirst scrotal enlargements, gaseous lumps of abdomen urinary obstruction, polyurias including diabetes, abscesses, abdominal enlargement pallor swelling cellulites skin disease including leprosy, leucoderma, worm infestation vata disorders blood disorders.

Cikitsa:Fever, Pitta-induced bleeding, cough, shortness of breath, hiccup, hoarseness of voice, phthisis vomiting loss of appetite heart disease urinary obstruction intoxication, piles, diarrhea, bowel disorders urinary obstruction polyurias including diabetes abscess abdominal enlargement scrotal swelling worm infestation, gaseous lumps of the abdomen, pallor, swelling, celluttuis, skin disorders including leprosy leucoderma vata-induced blood disorders.

Kalpa: Siddhi : Emesis purgation and complication enemas and complications drugs employed in the procedures.

Uttara: children’s diseases, disease caused by evil spirits insanity epilepsy, eye diseases; diseases of the car, nose, mouth, head; ulcers, fracture, ano-rectal fistula, tumors, filarial, swelling, glandular swellings and sinuses; minor diseases; poisoning bites by snakes spiders rats insects rejuvenent therapy virilising therapy.

The immense popularity of AH is testified by the many commentaries on it numbering over thirty excluding commentaries partly regional only in manuscript form and only six are said to be available in print form. Among these Arunadatta’s Savangasundara which reaches back to the twelfth century has received the highest critical acclaim. Among the commentaries in regional languages, PM Govindan Vaidyan’s Arunodaya century and chapped Achutha varier’s commentary in Malayalam have been popular in Kerala where AH became a great favorite among the intelligentsia centuries ago.

Vagbhata identity place of birth date and religious affiliation are far form certain. Scholars are equally divided on the question whether AS and AH were composed by an identical Vagbhata or whether Vagbhata Senior authored AS and Vagbhata Junior summarized it later as AH. There is a scholarly view that another Vagbhata (Madhya Vagbhata) intervened between the senior and junior Vagbhata and wrote Astangavatara. The Vagbhata who wrote AS stated in the concluding verse there lived a great physician named Vagbhata who was my grandfather whose name I bear. His son was Simhagupta who was my father. I was born I Sindhudesa. After learning the science form Avalokita my teacher and more form my father and devoting myself to a large number of books in this science. I have composed this text. He also claimed that the text was written to suit his times (yanagupta). The scholars who claim that the Vagbhata of AS is the same individual who composed AH point to the statement at the end of AH that it is a distillate of AS which is an ocean of medical science; and a large number of verses from AS reproduced without changes in AH etc., as evidence of the identify of the authors. On the other hand other s noted that ancient commentators distinguished Vrddha Vagbhata who wrote AS from Vagbhata who authored AH and the dissonance between the two texts in relation to style observation on faith and sociology scientific principles etc. (PV Sharma). In the present state of learned ignorance the identity of Vagbhata cannot be established with certainly nor can the question in AH antedating AS be answered on the basis of irrefutable evidence.

Vagbhata’s date: As AH contains several verses form the CS which was revised and completed by Drdhabala, Vagbhata probably lived after Drdhabala whose date has been fixed by general agreement around 500 A.D Professor Srikantha Murhty has pointed to a verse closely similar to one form AH or probably taken from it in the Brhatsamhita of Varhamihira who is known to have lived between 500-580 AD. This would support the view the Vagbhata lived in the sixth century when Gupta rules was beginning to decline in north India.

Legendary Vagbhata : Reputed commentators such as Jejjata and Niscalakara have described Vagbhata as a raja or Rajarsi. Professor PV Sharma was of the opinion that Vagbhata might have left his small kingdom in Shindh and moved to Ujjain Following the invasion by sakas. Vagbhata’s connection with Kerala is also legendry. He is the patron saint of Ayurveda and Astangahrdaya the principal text for the traditional learning of Ayurveda in Kerala. According to popular belief, Vagbhata a Brahmana masters Ayurveda under the guidance of a Buddhist teacher in Sindhiseas when Buddhism was a dominant religion and Buddhist physicians the leaders of Ayurvedic practice and training. On the completion of training Vagbhata found himself ostracized by Brahmans whereupon he left Sichudesa on a long journey which ended in Kerala. There he found intelligent and admiring pupils among the Namputiris who were hungry for Ayurvedic knowledge. According to this belief he establish the Astavaidya families each specializing in one branch of Ayurveda and all depending on AH as their therapeutic manual. Unfortunately no evidence of Ayurveda and Astangahrdaya in Sri Lanka believe that Vagbhata lived in the island after his departure form Sind.

 

Contents

 

Transliteration Chart  
Preface  
Quotes form Vagbhata  
Introduction  
Section I
 
Chapter 1: Ayurveda an Overview
Divine origin of Ayurveda – eight divisions – dosas and
properties – dhatus and malas – tastes – substances (dravya) and
qualities (guna) – health and disease – principles of treatment - prognosis
1
Section II: Healthy Living (Svastavrtta)
 
Chapter 2: A Code for Healthy conduct (Svastavrtta)
A day in Healthy living – sleep – sexual intercourse – general and
personal conduct – unacceptable conduct
8
Chapter 3: Life in Harmony with seasons (rtucarya)
Six seasons – lifestyle changes to suit the seasons
15
Section III: Drinks and Food (Dravadravya)
 
Chapter 4: Liquids as food (dravadravya)
Water for different sources – milk and Milk products-
sugarcane juice and products – oils- wines- urines
21
Chapter 5: Food (annasvarupa)
Classification – awned cereals – pulses – prepared foods – meats-
greens – fruit – medication – salts- alkalis - plants
33
Chapter 6: Food Safety (annaraksa)
Signs of positioned food and drinks – signs of poison giver – tests
for poisoned food – disease caused by poisons – incompatible food
adaptation and de adaptation to food
54
Chapter 7: Measure of food for health (matrasitiya)
adequate quantity of food – alasaka, ajirna – code for dining
– unacceptable and acceptable food for regular use – after drinks
60
Section IV: Human Body (Sarira)
 
Chapter 8: Pancabhutas as the stuff of existence(dravyavijnana)
Pancabhutas – properties – taste – potency, post digestive taste,
specific effective action (prabhava)
66
Chapter 9: Tastes (rasas)
Six primary tastes- properties – actions of tastes- classification
of substances according to taste- combination of tastes
70
Chapter 10: Dosas, tissues (dhatus) wastes(malas)
Basic components of the body

Three Dosas and their actions – tissues – manifestations of
excess in tissues malas – deficiency of dosas tissues and malas
treatments of increase in dosas – fires (agnis) in the body – ojas
76
Chapter 11: Dosas, (dosabhediya)
Locations and divisions of three dosas- accumulations and
perturbation of dosas- general features of dosa perturbation
- classification of diseases based on the origin –guidelines for
the physician in examining patients.

 

83
Section V: Developments, Structure and Function
of the Body (sarira)
 
Chapter 12: Procreation Pregnancy and fetal development
(garbhotpatti, garbhavakrantiya)

Menstruation – semen and Menstrual blood-rituals associated
with conception –antenatal care – congenital anomalies- fetal
development –delivery –postnatal care

 

91
Chapter 13:Disorders of pregnancy (garbhavyapat)
Abortion- fetal anomalies- fetal death – extraction of placenta-
abdominal delivery –protection of pregnancy – false pregnancy

 

100
Chapter 14: Body parts and function (angavibhaga)
Major and accessory parts – maternal and paternal contribution
to body composition –skin membranes (kalas), hollow and
other viscera- tendons muscles none’s – veins suitable and
unsuitable for vensection – sirasand dhamanis –digestive
fire – digestion of food –medical triads –measure of body
tissues – body constitution (dehapraktri) and dosa prakrti – ideal physique

 

106
Chapter 15: Vital Spots (marmas)
Location in the body – consequences of injury – vital sports
in relation to tissues and structure – clinical features of injury
prognosis – measure of vital spots – sequelae of injury

 

122
Section VI: Outline of Medical Measures (Cikitsa)
 
Chapter 16: Management of perturbed dosas ((dosopakrama)
Disease induced by vata, pitta and kapha – principles of
treatment – dosas lodged in other than native locations- dosas
mixed with poorly digested food – management of dosas during
change of seasons – time for ingestion of drugs

 

131
Chapter 17: Increasing (brmhana, santarpana)
and reducing (langhana, apatarpana)
the body mass

Reducing the body mass and persons requiring it – increasing
body mass and persons requiring it – therapy for increasing and
decreasing body mass – complication of over treatment

 

136
Chapter 18: Groups of drugs for evacuative
and other measures (sodhanadi group)

thirty three groups and functions in therapeutics

 

141
Chapter 19: Herbal drugs (bhesajakalpa)
Five decoctions –features – dosage – cooking procedure
- weights and measures –geographical influences on drugs

 

147
Chapter 20: Lubricant therapy (snehana)
four lubricants – persons requiring bared form lubricant
therapy – time for therapy – aftercare – signs of satisfactory
lubrication – emergency lubricant therapy

 

152
Chapter 21: Fomentation (svedana)
Four methods- principles of application procedure – excess
treatment – person appropriate and inappropriate for receiving
treatment – fermentation without fire

 

159
Chapter 22: Emesis and purgation (vamana,virecana)
Appropriate and inappropriate condition for emesis- procedure
for emesis – aftercare – appropriate and inappropriate condition
for purgation – poor results – aftercare

 

164
Chapter 23:Emetics and purgative; medical formulations;
complications (vamankalpa, virencankalpa)

Emetics – madana jimuta, iksvaku dhamargava ksveda, kutaja
- medical formulations –purgatives –trivrt rajavrksa tilvaka,
sudha snakhini – saptala, danti dravanti haritaki – medicinal
formulations – complications due to inadequate or excess use

 

171
Chapter 24: Enemas (Vasti)
Non-lubricant enema – condition and persons appropriate/
inappropriate for the procedure –lubricant enemas – condition
and persons appropriate/ inappropriate for the procedure
– equipment for enema – technique – enemas for dosa disorders
special enemas –urethral and vaginal enema

 

187
Chapter 25: More on enemas ( vastikalpa)
Non-lubricant enemas – applications in dosa – dominant diseases
- idea enemas; lubricant enemas – classified compilation of
enemas – post enemas, management

 

197
Chapter 26: Nasal Purging (nasya)
Three methods – persons and conditions – inappropriate and
appropriate for the procedure – technique – time for the
procedure – aftercare

 

211
Chapter 27: Others procedures smoking
(dhumapana) gargling (kabaja)

Three grades of medicate smoking – persons and conditions
barred form smoking – gargles – equipment – procedure – drugs for
medicinal smoke – gargles – local application inside the mouth
and on the face – application of oil pouch in the head

 

217
Chapter 28:Produres for eye care (ascyotana, anjana)
Eye drops; collyrium – conditions inappropriate for the use
of collyrium – time of application – technique tarpana and
putapaka – procedure

 

225
Section VII: Outline of Surgical Measures (Salya)
 
Chapter 29: Blunt instruments (yantras)
Uses- classification into cruciform, forceps, tubular rod-like
hooks with subtypes – animal horn and gourd – accessory
instruments

 

231
Chapter 30: Sharp instruments (sastras)
Twenty-six types – description and surgical applications -
application of leeches –procedure

 

239
Chapter 31: Vensection (siravyadh)
Condition appropriate and inappropriate for consecution
- choice of location – procedure – special sites- aftercare

 

248
Chapter 32: Removal of foreign bodies (salyaharana)
Sings of foreign bodies in different locations – treatments and
guidelines

 

254
Chapter 33: Surgical operations (sastrakarma)
Draining abscesses – pre and post operative care – management
of traumatic wounds- bandaging – chronic ulcers

 

260
Chapter 34: Cauterization (ksaragnikarma)
alkaline cautery – inappropriate conditions for use – preparation
and durable qualities alkalis –cauterization procedure- thermal
cattery –appropriate and inappropriate use of cauterization

 

268
Section VIII: Systemic Diseases
 
Chapter 35: causation and clinical course of diseases
(nidana, purvarupa, rupa, upasaya, samprapti)

Cause – premonitory sign and clinical features – causes for
increase in dosas

 

275
Chapter 36: Fevers (jvara)
fevers caused by vata pitta and kapha singly or jointly – caused
by external agents- other classification of fevers – treatment
-evacuative procedures – diet role of ghee milk – medicinal
formulation – treatment of complex fevers

 

279
Chapter 37: Pitta included bleeding disease (raktapitta)
Premonitory signs- clinical features – treatments – pacificatory
and evacuative measures – dietary preparations- medicinal
formulation

 

305
Chapter 38: Cough (kasa)
Different types of cough – treatment of cough due to vata, pitta,
kapha excess- diet-medicinal formulations – cough following
chest injury and treatment – cough in phthisis

 

312
Chapter 39: Shortness of breath hiccup (svasa; hikka)
Five years of shortness of breath and hiccup – treatments
- evacuative measures – medicinal formulation – other measures

 

332
Chapter 40: Phthisis and allied conditions (sosa)
Causes – Premonitory signs and clinical features – treatment
- evacuative and building up procedures – diet- formulations
hoarseness – features – loss of appetite treatment
excessive salivation and treatment vomiting and treatment –heart
disease treatments morbid thirst and treatment

 

342
Chapter 41: Alcoholic intoxication (madatyaya)
Stages of intoxication – clinical features- fainting – coma
– treatment – wine as antidote – formulation – role of milk – in
praise of wine – treatment of non alcoholic intoxication

 

368
Chapter 42: Diarrhea (arisara)
Clinical features – different classification – treatments of unripe
and ripe diarrheas- dysentery – rectal prolapsed- enemas puttapaka
etc. in treatment – diarrhea induced by dosas and treatment

 

383
Chapter 43: Bowel disorder (grahani)
clinical features – classification – treatments of different types
formulations – role of fate in enhancing digestive power

 

397
Chapter 44: Polyrias (prameha)
Twenty types – clinical features – complications – treatments
evacuative measures – medicinal formulations

 

408
Chapter 45: Abscess (vidradhi)
Six types – clinical feature – complications – prognosis -
treatment – medical procedures – local measures – formulations
internal abscesses of treatment

 

418
Chapter 46: Disease of pallor (panduroga)
five types and clinical features – jaundice – treatment – medicinal
formulations – treatments of jaundice

 

425
Chapter 47: Vata disorders (vatayadhi)
clinical features according to the location of vata – general
treatment for vata excess- specific treatment for different
condition – important formulations

 

433
Chapter 48: Vata induced blood disorders gout like
Disorders (vatasonita, vatarakta)

Clinical features according to the vitiation of dosas- vata
perturbations alone or with other dosas dhauts and malas
interference of ate by other dosas and among its divisions
- general treatment and specific treatments for individual
condition – medicinal formulations

 

446
Chapter 49: Swelling (sopha)
Causes – clinical features – treatment – dietary regimen-
evacuative measures – formulations – local treatments

 

461
Chapter 50: Cellulitis (visarpa)
Clinical features – different types – treatment – general and local
formulations

 

469
Chapter 51: Diseases caused by suppression of physical
urges (vega)

Clinical features and treatment of each – general guidelines

 

476
Section IX: Health and disease of children
(kaumarabhrtya)
 
Chapter 52:Case of the Newborn (balopacarniya)

Attendance at birth – breast feeding – naming ceremony – care
of the infant – piercing the ear- waning – medicated ghess

 

481
Chapter 53: Diseases of children (balamayas)
Breast Milk, healthy and unhealthy – recognition of pain
in children – diseases caused by dosas – vitiated breast milk
diseases caused by eruption of teeth – treatment in general
phthisis in children – rectal ulcers

 

487
Chapter 54: Diseases in children caused by evil spirits (balagrahas)
twelve balagrahas – clinical features on seizure by each – purpose
of seizure – treatment – medicinal formulations - fumigation
sacrificial rituals

 

495
Section X
 
Chapter 55: Superhuman power in humans (bhutacijnaniya)
vulnerable moments – timing of seizure by sprits – traits
following seizure – treatment – formulations – sacred rituals

 

502
Section XIII: Poisoning (Visa)
 
Chapter 56: Insanity (unmade)
Causes and types – treatment – medicinal formulations -
miscellaneous measures

 

513
Section XII
 
Chapter 57: Seizure disorder ( apasmara)
Causes and types – treatment – medicinal formulations

 

519
Section XIII : Poisoning (Visa)
 
Chapter 58: Poisons : Fixed and Mobile (Visa; Sthavara
and jangama)

Properties of poisons – stages of poisoning – medicinal
formulation as antidotes – delayed poisons – artificial poisons
potentiation of poisons – treatment

 

523
Chapter 59: Snake Bites (sarpavisa)
Types and morphological features of poisonous snakes – varieties
of bites –stages of poisoning – bites defying cure – treatment
- vensection protection of the heart – medicinal formulations

 

530
Chapter 60: Bites by insects spiders (kitalutadi visa)
Bites bu insects including scorpion – clinical features – treatment -
spider bites with clinical feature – clinical course and
treatment

 

540
Chapter 61: Poisoning by bites of rats dogs
(musika –alarkavisa)

Types of rats – rabid dog- treatment of rat bite and dog bite

 

551
Section XIV Regional Disorders
 
Chapter 62: Piles (arsas)
Classification of types – promontory signs and clinical
– features – piles in any rectal and other locations – treatment
- cauterization – local and general measures – bloodletting
- medical formulations and diet – enemas – management of
bleeding piles

 

556
Chapter 63: Urinary obstruction (metrakrcchra)
Twenty types – clinical feature of stone in the
bladder

 

579
Chapter 64: Scrotal swelling (vrddhi)
Seven types – clinical features – treatment – formulation -
cautery

 

591
Chapter 65: Gaseous lumps of the abdomen (gulma)
Causes – clinical features – blood included lump in women
treatment of different types – evacuative measures – formulations
surgical treatment – cauterization with alkali – diet- treatment
of blood induced lumps

 

595
Chapter 66: Abdominal swelling (Udara)
Types and clinical features – treatment – evacuative measures
- specific formulations for each type – surgical measures

 

612
Chapter 67: leprosy (kustha)
Seven types and clinical feature – location and clinical feature
– treatment – evacuative measure – formulation – local measures
venesection

 

630
Chapter 68: Leucoderma (svitra)
Types based on dosas and clinical features – treatment

 

644
Chapter 69: Worm infestation (krmi)
External and internal types – four kinds based on origin – species
of worms – clinical features – treatment – evacuative measure
- formulations

 

645
Chapter 70: Ulcers (Vrana)
Externally and internally caused ulcers- fifteen types -
prognosis – treatment – early and ripening stage – burst abscess
- formulations – thermal cautery – traumatic wounds –local
and general measures – ulcers in specific locations and treatment
visceral injuries and treatment

 

651
Chapter 71: Fracture and dislocations (bhanga,
sandhimukta)

Fracture resistant to treatment – outline of treatment – reduction
immobilization bandaging – fracture at specific sites

 

664
Chapter 72: Rectal fistula (bhangandara)
Abscesses preceding fistula – different types of fistulae -
Treatment – local measures including alkaline thermal cautery,
sugery – medicinal formulations for internal and local use

 

669
Chapter 73: Glandular swellings tumours, filarial
swelling, cervical glandular swellings
sinus ulcer (grandhi, arbuda slipada
apcat, nadi)

Glandular swelling – nine types – treatment in the unripe
and ripe stages – surgery
Tumours – six years – treatment similar to glandular swellings
filarial swelling – clinical features – treatment according to dosa
dominance
Cervical glandular swellings – clinical features – treatment
evacuative measures formulations bloodletting – surgical excision
Sinus ulcer-ulcer with sinus tracks- caused by dosas or foreign
body – clinical features – treatment – fermentation – surgery
including removal of foreign body – local applications

 

675
Chapter 74: Diseases of the genital organs (guhyaroga)
Causes – twenty three types – clinical features – treatment
– formulations – fermentation bloodletting – surgical
measures – disease of the vagina – twenty types – clinical
features – treatment – evacuative measures – medicated tampon
formulation

 

685
Chapter 75: Minor diseases (ksudraroga)
Thirty six types – clinical features – treatment – formulation
bloodletting – evacuative therapy- surgical measures

 

698
Section XV: Diseases of Head Neck (salakya)
 
Chapter 76: Disease of the year (karnaroga)
twenty five types – clinical features – treatment of each type
- evacuative and local measure – formulation – surgical repair
of defects of ear nose and lips

 

706
Chapter 77: Disease of the Nose (Nasaroga)
Thirteen types – clinical features – treatment of each type-
evacuative measures and local applications – formulations

 

716
Chapter 78: Oral Disease (mukharoga)
Disease of lips (11) – teeth (10)- gums (13) – tongue (6)
palate (8) – throat (18) – clinical features – treatment for each
condition – general measures such as evacuative therapy and
blood letting – local measures such as fomentation gargle and
application of pastes – formulations

 

722
Chapter 79: Disease of the Head (siroroga)
Eleven types – clinical features – treatment – general measures
including evacuative therapy and bloodletting – local measures
such as fomentation application of pasts medicated smoking
and application of head pouch – formulation

 

742
Section XVI: Diseases of the Eye (Netraroga)
 
Chapter 80: Disease of the Eyelids (vartma)
Disease of different parts of the eye – twenty four types of
diseases of eyelids – clinical features – prognosis – treatment
local application – surgical measures

 

752
Chapter 81: Disease of the fornix, sclera and cornea
(sandhi –sita- asitaroga)

Nine types affecting fornix – thirteen types affecting sclera-
five types affecting cornea- guidelines to medical and surgical
treatment – fermentation and techniques for each of three
groups

 

760
Chapter 82: Vision Defect (drsti)
Seven types – clinical features – treatment – medicinal
formalities – preparations for animal sources – treatment fo
timira based on dosa dominance – general conduct

 

771
Chapter 83: Blindness due to the disorders of lens
(linganasa)

Six types – clinical features – couching of lens – postoperative
care – complications and management

 

787
Chapter 84: Global diseases of the eye (sarvaksiroga)
Sixteen types – clinical features – specific treatment
of each – formulation – general measures – prophylaxis

 

791
Section XVII: Fatal Signs (ristas)
 
Chapter 85: Signs of imminent death (rista)
Varieties fo signs – signs related to appearance sense organs,
voice shadow, activates clinical features in different diseases - other signs

 

803
Chapter 86: Messengers omens dreams (duta nimitta,
svapna)

Inauspicious messengers – omens – auspicious inauspicious
and mixed – dreams and their effects – auspicious dreams

 

814
Section XVIII
 
Chapter 87: Rejuvenant therapy (rasayana)
types of therapy – formulations – benefits – various drugs
including lasuna and silajatu

 

823
Section XIX
 
Chapter 88: Virilising therapy (vajikarana)
Benefits – formulation – erotics

 

841
Chapter 89: Epilogue
List if major disease and remedies – efficacy of treatment
about Astangahrdaya

 

846
Botanical Names

 

852
Glossary

 

885
Index

 

907
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