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Living Liberation In Hindu Thought

Living Liberation In Hindu Thought


Item Code: IDI684

by Andrew O. Fort And Patricia Y. Mumme

Paperback (Edition: 2002)

Sri Satguru Publications
ISBN 8170307686

Size: 8.0" X 5.3
Pages: 278
Price: $27.50   Shipping Free
Viewed times since 2nd Oct, 2008



The genesis for this book was Andrew Fort's interest in tracing the development of the concept of jivanmukti in Advaita Vedanta, and his concomitant desire to understand better how other thinkers and schools of thought looked at living liberation. He organized a panel on living liberation in Hindu thought for the American Academy of Religion (AAR) meetings in 1989, where Christopher Chapple, Paul Muller-Ortega, Lance Nelson, Kim Skoog, and he presented earlier versions of their essays, to which patricia Mumme responded. The chapters from Mackenzie Brown, Daniel Sheridan, and Chacko Valiaveetil resulted from discussions with Fort and Mumme at those and other AAR meetings. Both Fort and Mumme have read the evolving drafts of all the chapters and deeply appreciate all the work and reworking our authors put into their essays, even if the editing sometimes seemed like "textual harassment." Both editors have learned a great deal in this process. We would like to thank Mackenzie Brown and Lance Nelson for reading and commenting on drafts of some of these chapters. Fort would also like to thank both the Religion department at Texas Christain University and his family for supportive environments at work and at home. He like many contributors, remains in awe of Trish Mumme's editorial efforts and prowess.

We have used standard transliteration for Sanskrit and Tamil. Translations of original texts are those of each author, unless otherwise indicated.

Back of The Book

This book is about the state of embodied perfection often called enlightenment, self-realization, liberation, or jivanmukti. It examines the types, degrees, and stages of liberation that are possible, with and without a body.

"In asking 'what is the nature of jivanmukti,' with all the ramifications that this entails (how does it occur, when does it occur, where does it occur, what part does karma play, and so on,) the authors not only provide the reader with a clear conceptual handle of each school's position but also their strengths and weaknesses."_John Grimes

"This is a challenging and informative collection of essays that addresses a fundamental problem in the history of South Asian religions: granted the possibility of some kind of ultimate perfection or liberation, is it also possible to achieve this final state while embodied? If one can achieve transcendence, what then happens to the body and situation of the liberated one? In answering these questions the authors also raise numerous fascinating issues pertaining to soteriology, cosmology, ethics, theology, and philosophy."_Glen Hayes.

Andrew O. Fort is Associate Professor in the Department of Religion at Texas Christian University. Patricia Y. Mumme is Assistant Professor of Religion at Capital University.

Introduction: Living Liberation in Hindu Thought Andrew 0. Fort1
Chapter Summaries4
Part I: Living Liberation in Vedanta Traditions
Chapter 1: Living Liberation in Sankara and Classical Advaita: Sharing the Holy Waiting of God17
Lance E. Nelson
Liberation in Sankara's Thought19
Living Liberation19
Jivanmukti: Difficult to Justify but Necessary for Salvation24
Sankara's Justifications of Living Liberation25
Is Jivanmukti Complete Liberation?27
Justifications of Jivanmukti in Post-Sankara Advaita31
Reservations about Jivanmukti in Post-Sankara Advaita34
Isvara as a Paradigm for Living Liberation38
Even Isvara Suffers Limitation42
Chapter 2. Is the Jivanmukti State Possible?63
Ramanuja's Perspective
Kim Skoog
Introduction: Ramanuja's Three Arguments63
Ramanuja's First Argument64
Ramanuja's Second Argument65
Ramanuja's Third Argument66
Analysis of the First Argument: Jivanmukti as Self-Contradiction68
Analysis of the Second Argument: The Jivanmukti-Videhamukti Dispute Is Verbal in Nature70
Analysis of the Third Argument: False Analogy in the Two-Moons Analogy71
Basis for the Jivanmukti and Videhamukti-Only Positions 74
Scriptural Basis for Jivanmukti74
Empirical Evidence for Jivanmukti75
Doctrinal Considerations Regarding the Videhamukti and Jivanmukti-Positions76
View of the Self76
Performance of Actions78
Fructifying Karma80
Theological Considerations80
Chapter 3. Direct Knowledge of God and Living Liberation in the Religious Thought of Madhva91
Daniel P. Sheridan
Madhva in the Context of Thirteenth-and Fourteenth-Century Advaita95
Bondage and Liberation in Madhva's Teaching98
The Practical Means to Liberation According to Madhva101
The Direct Knowledge of God While Living103
Part II: Yoga and Renunciation in Living Liberation
Chapter 4. Living Liberation in Samkhya and Yoga115
Christopher Key Chapple
Knowledge and Non-Attachment in Samkhya118
Later Vedantic Interpretations of Samkhya120
Distinctions between Samkhya and Yoga123
Yogic Liberation as the End of afflicted Action124
A Comparative Analysis of Living Liberation in Samkhya and Yoga126
Possible Jaina Elements in the Yoga System127
Chapter 5. Liberation While Living in the Jivanmuktiviveka: Vidyaranya's "Yogic Advaita"135
Andrew O. Fort
The Nature of Jivanmukti136
The Jivanmukta as One with Firm Wisdom (Sthita-Prajna)138
The Threefold means to Obtain Jivanmukti139
Jivanmukti and Videhamukti in the Jivanmuktiviveka142
The Purposes of Attaining Liberation While Living144
Renunciation and Jivanmukti146
Chapter 6. Modes of Perfected Living in the Mahabharata and the Puranas: The Different Faces of Suka the Renouncer 157
C. Mackenzie Brown
The "Empty Form" of Suka in the Mahabharata:
The Revelation of Inscrutable Indifference160
Suka and His Models in the Bhagavata Purana:
Enlightened Idiots of Dazzle and Dirt164
Suka in the Devi-Bhagavata Purana: The Reluctant Householder170
Part III: Living Liberation in Saiva Traditions
Part 7. Aspects of Jivanmukti in the Tantric Saivism of Kashmir187
Paul E. Muller-Ortega
Introduction: Placing the Tradition187
The Problem of Jivanmukti190
Jivanmukti in Early Texts193
Kashmiri Constructions of Bondage and Liberation195
The Seven Experiencers200
Embodied Enlightenment204
Chapter 8. Living Liberation in Saiva Siddhanta219
Chacko Valiaveetil, S. J.
Chacko Valiaveetil. S. J.
Saiva Siddhanta Literature220
The Advaita of Saiva Siddhanta and the Jivanmukti Ideal221
Toward Jivanmukti223
The Odyssey of the Soul223
Continuity of Bondage (Samsara) and Liberation (Moksa)224
God's Quest for the Soul224
The Spiritual Sadhana225
The Descent of Divine Grace (Saktinipata)225
Growth in the State of Jivanmukti226
Freedom from the Bonds (Pasavitu)227
Removal of the Root Impurity (Anavamala)227
Removal of Karma and Maya228
Attaining the Feet of the Lord230
Union in Knowledge230
Union in Love231
Means to Persevere and Grow in God-Experience232
The Conduct of the Jivanmukta234
Detachment from Creatures234
Life of Service of the Jivanmukta235
Is the Jivanmukta Beyond Ethical Norms?235
Love as the Ultimate Criterion236
Injunctions for the Jivanmukta237
Respect for the Sacred Emblems238
Worship of God in the Temple238
Conclusion Living Liberation in Comparative Perspective247
Paricia Y. Mumme
Jivanmukti: The Concept and the Term247
Strong, Medium, and Weak Positions on Living Liberation 248
Jivanmukti and Scholastic Metaphysics254
The Lord and Liberation255
Karma and Conscious Experience in the Penultimate State256
The Need for Enlightened Teachers263
The Behaviour of the Jivanmukta: Dharma, Karma, and Freedom264
Conclusion: Prospects for Future Study267
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