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Books > Ayurveda > Madhava Nidanam (Roga Vinisaya) Of Madhavakara (A treatise on Ayurveda)
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Madhava Nidanam (Roga Vinisaya) Of Madhavakara (A treatise on Ayurveda)
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Introduction

This treatise-Roga Viniscaya-is more popularly known as Madhava Nidana after the name of its author. It is counted as the first among the Laghu Trayi (the lesser triad) of Ayurvedic literature. It is considered as the ideals book dealing with Nosology (knowledge of diseases) and has earned a praise for its author as "Madhava is best for Nidana". It has retained its importance as a text-book on the subject since the last thirteen centuries. It enjoyed great reputation as an authoritative text not only in India but even in other countries as can be judged by its translation into other languages and many commentaries.

Date of the Treatise
Scholars entitled for authoritative opinion have fixed 700 A. D., or near about as the date of Madhava Nidana based on the following points.

1. Madhava Nidana contains a large number of verses borrowed from Astanga Hrdaya of Vagbhata, which was complete by 600 A. D. So Madhava Nidana is later than 600 A. D.

2. Vrnda, the author of Siddhayoga whose date is 800 A. D., or near about is the first person to have adopted the order of sequence of diseases as found in Madhava Nidana. Hence, Madhava Nidana should be earlier to 800 A. D.

3. Harun-al-Rashid, the Abbasid caliph of Persia (768-809 A. D.) got many Indian Medical works translated into Arabic language by the scholars of his court. Ali-bin-Sahl-Rabban-al-Tabari, a Persian physician in his book 'firdaus-al-Hikma (Paradise of Wisdom) written in 849-850 A. D., mentions some such Indian Medical works Viz, Jrk, Ssrd, Ndan, Astanqhrdy which stand for Caraka, Susruta, Nidana and Astanga Hrdaya respectively. Tabari had made use of these books. Al-Razi (who died in 925 A. D.) in his, Kitab-al-Hawi mentions as Indian book by name Badan.

Ibn-abi Usaybia (who died in 1270 A. D.) in his book 'Uyun-al-anba. Fi-tabaqat-al-attibba (History of Physicians) mentions the book Badan and states that it describes 404 diseases.

Al-Yaqubi, "Bdan or Badan" has been taken as equivalent to the Sanskrit term 'Nidan'.

Based on the above, majority of the scholars agree that Ndan known to Arabs is none other than Madhava Nidana. Considering the time needed for an Indian work to get translated into Arabic in Persia and to be taken as a chief source by an eminent author in 849/850 A. D., it is very well justified to fix the date of Madhava Nidana as 700 A. D., or near about.

 

Contents
  Introduction-Part I. Historical notes. iii
  Part II. Note on evolution of diseases. xvii
1 Panca Nidana Laksanam 3
2 Jwara Nidanam (Fevers) 6
3 Atisara Nidanam (Diarrhoeas) 16
4 Grahani Nidanam (Disease of the duodenum) 20
5 Arsas Nidanam (Haemorrhoids) 23
6 Agnimandya-Ajirna-Visucika-Alasaka-Vilambika Nidanam (Dyspepsia, Indigestion etc.) 29
7 Krimiroga Nidanam (Parasitic diseases) 33
8 Panduroga-Kamala-Kumbhakamala-Halimaka Nidanam (Anaemia, Jaundice, Hepatitis) 35
9 Raktapitta Nidanam (Haemorrhagic diseases) 39
10 Rajayaksma-Ksataksina Nidanam (Pulmonary tuberculosis, Wasting diseases. Etc.) 42
11 Kasa Nidanam (Caughs) 46
12 Hikka, Swasa Nidanam (Hiccups, Dyspnoeas) 48
13 Swara bheda Nidanam (Hoarseness) 53
14 Arocaka Nidanam (Anorexia) 55
15 Chardi Nidanam (Vomitting) 56
16 Trsna Nidanam (Thirst) 59
17 Murcha-Bhrama Nidra, Tandra, Sannyasa Nidanam (Fainting, Giddiness, Stupor and loss of consciousness) 61
18 Panatyaya-Paramada-Panajirna-Panavibhrama Nidanam (Alcoholic intoxication) 65
19 Daha Nidanam (Burning sensation of the body) 69
20 Unmada Nidanam (Insanity) 71
21 Apasmara Nidanam (Epilepsy) 77
22 Vatavyadhi Nidanam (Diseases of nervous system) 79
23 Vatarakta Nidanam (Gout) 90
24 Urusthambha Nidanam (Stiffness of the legs) 93
25 Amavata Nidanam (Rheumatism) 95
26 Sula-Parinama sula-Annadrava sula Nidanam (Colic, Peptic ulcers) 97
27 Udavarta-Anaha Nidanam (Reverse peristalisis-flatulence etc.) 101
28 Gulma Nidanam (Abdominal tumors) 104
29 Hrdroga Nidanam (Diseases of the heart) 107
30 Mutrakrchra Nidanam (Dysurea, Strangury) 108
31 Mutraghata Nidanam (Suppression of urine) 110
32 Asmari Nidanam (Vesical calculus) 113
33 Prameha, Prameha Pidaka Nidanam (Diabetes, Corbuncles) 116
34 Medo roga Nidanam (Obesity) 121
35 Udara roga Nidanam (Enlargement of the abdomen ) 122
36 Sotha roga Nidanam (Oedema, Anasarca) 126
37 Vrddhi roga Nidanam (Swelling of the scrotum) 129
38 Galaganda, Ganda mala, Apaci, Granthi, Arbuda Nidanam (Cervical lymphadenoma, Scrofula, Goitre, Tumors and Cancer) 131
39 Slipada Nidanam (Filariasis) 135
40 Vidradhi Nidanam (Abscesses) 136
41 Vranasotha Nidanam (Inflammatory swelling) 139
42 Sariravrana Nidanam (Organic ulcers) 141
43 Sadyovrana Nidanam (Traumatic ulcer) 144
44 Bhagna Nidanam (Fractures of bones) 148
45 Nadivrana Nidanam (Sinus ulcers) 150
46 Bhagandara Nidanam (Festula-in-ano) 152
47 Upadamsa Nidanam (Veneral diseases) 154
48 Suka dosa Nidanam (Diseases of the penis) 156
49 Kustha Nidanam (Leprosy, skin diseases) 159
50 Sitapitta, Udarda, Kotha Nidanam (Skin rashes, Allergy etc.) 165
51 Alapitta Nidanam (Hyperchlorhydria, Gastritis) 166
52 Visarpa Nidanam (Erysepelas) 168
53 Visphota Nidanam (Small pox) 171
54 Masurika Nidanam (Chicken pox, Measles) 173
55 Ksudra roga Nidanam (Minor diseases) 177
56 Mukha roga Nidanam (Diseases of the mouth) 184
57 Karna roga Nidanam (Diseases of the ear) 193
58 Nasa roga Nidanam (Diseases of the nose) 197
59 Netra roga Nidanam (Diseases of the eye) 202
60 Siro roga Nidanam (Diseases of the head) 217
61 Asrgdara Nidanam (Menorrhagia) 220
62 Yonivyapat Nidanam (Diseases of vagina) 222
63 Yoni kanda Nidanam (Vaginal tumors) 224
64 Mudha garbha Nidanam (Abnormal pregnancy, foetal presentation etc.) 225
65 Sutika roga Nidanam (Diseases of peurperum) 227
66 Stana roga Nidanam (Diseases of the breast) 228
67 Stanya dusti Nidanam (Disorders of breast milk) 229
68 Bala roga Nidanam (Diseases of children) 230
69 Visa roga Nidanam (Diseases due to poison) 234
70 Visayanukramanika (Contents of the treatise) 245
  Appendix I Salient points from Madhukosa commentary 245
  Appendix II Mithyahara vihara 264
  Appendix III Comparisons of leisons 281
  Appendix IV Modern equivalents of diseases 292
  Index 315

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Madhava Nidanam (Roga Vinisaya) Of Madhavakara (A treatise on Ayurveda)

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2004
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(Text With English Translation, Critical Introduction And Appendix)
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Introduction

This treatise-Roga Viniscaya-is more popularly known as Madhava Nidana after the name of its author. It is counted as the first among the Laghu Trayi (the lesser triad) of Ayurvedic literature. It is considered as the ideals book dealing with Nosology (knowledge of diseases) and has earned a praise for its author as "Madhava is best for Nidana". It has retained its importance as a text-book on the subject since the last thirteen centuries. It enjoyed great reputation as an authoritative text not only in India but even in other countries as can be judged by its translation into other languages and many commentaries.

Date of the Treatise
Scholars entitled for authoritative opinion have fixed 700 A. D., or near about as the date of Madhava Nidana based on the following points.

1. Madhava Nidana contains a large number of verses borrowed from Astanga Hrdaya of Vagbhata, which was complete by 600 A. D. So Madhava Nidana is later than 600 A. D.

2. Vrnda, the author of Siddhayoga whose date is 800 A. D., or near about is the first person to have adopted the order of sequence of diseases as found in Madhava Nidana. Hence, Madhava Nidana should be earlier to 800 A. D.

3. Harun-al-Rashid, the Abbasid caliph of Persia (768-809 A. D.) got many Indian Medical works translated into Arabic language by the scholars of his court. Ali-bin-Sahl-Rabban-al-Tabari, a Persian physician in his book 'firdaus-al-Hikma (Paradise of Wisdom) written in 849-850 A. D., mentions some such Indian Medical works Viz, Jrk, Ssrd, Ndan, Astanqhrdy which stand for Caraka, Susruta, Nidana and Astanga Hrdaya respectively. Tabari had made use of these books. Al-Razi (who died in 925 A. D.) in his, Kitab-al-Hawi mentions as Indian book by name Badan.

Ibn-abi Usaybia (who died in 1270 A. D.) in his book 'Uyun-al-anba. Fi-tabaqat-al-attibba (History of Physicians) mentions the book Badan and states that it describes 404 diseases.

Al-Yaqubi, "Bdan or Badan" has been taken as equivalent to the Sanskrit term 'Nidan'.

Based on the above, majority of the scholars agree that Ndan known to Arabs is none other than Madhava Nidana. Considering the time needed for an Indian work to get translated into Arabic in Persia and to be taken as a chief source by an eminent author in 849/850 A. D., it is very well justified to fix the date of Madhava Nidana as 700 A. D., or near about.

 

Contents
  Introduction-Part I. Historical notes. iii
  Part II. Note on evolution of diseases. xvii
1 Panca Nidana Laksanam 3
2 Jwara Nidanam (Fevers) 6
3 Atisara Nidanam (Diarrhoeas) 16
4 Grahani Nidanam (Disease of the duodenum) 20
5 Arsas Nidanam (Haemorrhoids) 23
6 Agnimandya-Ajirna-Visucika-Alasaka-Vilambika Nidanam (Dyspepsia, Indigestion etc.) 29
7 Krimiroga Nidanam (Parasitic diseases) 33
8 Panduroga-Kamala-Kumbhakamala-Halimaka Nidanam (Anaemia, Jaundice, Hepatitis) 35
9 Raktapitta Nidanam (Haemorrhagic diseases) 39
10 Rajayaksma-Ksataksina Nidanam (Pulmonary tuberculosis, Wasting diseases. Etc.) 42
11 Kasa Nidanam (Caughs) 46
12 Hikka, Swasa Nidanam (Hiccups, Dyspnoeas) 48
13 Swara bheda Nidanam (Hoarseness) 53
14 Arocaka Nidanam (Anorexia) 55
15 Chardi Nidanam (Vomitting) 56
16 Trsna Nidanam (Thirst) 59
17 Murcha-Bhrama Nidra, Tandra, Sannyasa Nidanam (Fainting, Giddiness, Stupor and loss of consciousness) 61
18 Panatyaya-Paramada-Panajirna-Panavibhrama Nidanam (Alcoholic intoxication) 65
19 Daha Nidanam (Burning sensation of the body) 69
20 Unmada Nidanam (Insanity) 71
21 Apasmara Nidanam (Epilepsy) 77
22 Vatavyadhi Nidanam (Diseases of nervous system) 79
23 Vatarakta Nidanam (Gout) 90
24 Urusthambha Nidanam (Stiffness of the legs) 93
25 Amavata Nidanam (Rheumatism) 95
26 Sula-Parinama sula-Annadrava sula Nidanam (Colic, Peptic ulcers) 97
27 Udavarta-Anaha Nidanam (Reverse peristalisis-flatulence etc.) 101
28 Gulma Nidanam (Abdominal tumors) 104
29 Hrdroga Nidanam (Diseases of the heart) 107
30 Mutrakrchra Nidanam (Dysurea, Strangury) 108
31 Mutraghata Nidanam (Suppression of urine) 110
32 Asmari Nidanam (Vesical calculus) 113
33 Prameha, Prameha Pidaka Nidanam (Diabetes, Corbuncles) 116
34 Medo roga Nidanam (Obesity) 121
35 Udara roga Nidanam (Enlargement of the abdomen ) 122
36 Sotha roga Nidanam (Oedema, Anasarca) 126
37 Vrddhi roga Nidanam (Swelling of the scrotum) 129
38 Galaganda, Ganda mala, Apaci, Granthi, Arbuda Nidanam (Cervical lymphadenoma, Scrofula, Goitre, Tumors and Cancer) 131
39 Slipada Nidanam (Filariasis) 135
40 Vidradhi Nidanam (Abscesses) 136
41 Vranasotha Nidanam (Inflammatory swelling) 139
42 Sariravrana Nidanam (Organic ulcers) 141
43 Sadyovrana Nidanam (Traumatic ulcer) 144
44 Bhagna Nidanam (Fractures of bones) 148
45 Nadivrana Nidanam (Sinus ulcers) 150
46 Bhagandara Nidanam (Festula-in-ano) 152
47 Upadamsa Nidanam (Veneral diseases) 154
48 Suka dosa Nidanam (Diseases of the penis) 156
49 Kustha Nidanam (Leprosy, skin diseases) 159
50 Sitapitta, Udarda, Kotha Nidanam (Skin rashes, Allergy etc.) 165
51 Alapitta Nidanam (Hyperchlorhydria, Gastritis) 166
52 Visarpa Nidanam (Erysepelas) 168
53 Visphota Nidanam (Small pox) 171
54 Masurika Nidanam (Chicken pox, Measles) 173
55 Ksudra roga Nidanam (Minor diseases) 177
56 Mukha roga Nidanam (Diseases of the mouth) 184
57 Karna roga Nidanam (Diseases of the ear) 193
58 Nasa roga Nidanam (Diseases of the nose) 197
59 Netra roga Nidanam (Diseases of the eye) 202
60 Siro roga Nidanam (Diseases of the head) 217
61 Asrgdara Nidanam (Menorrhagia) 220
62 Yonivyapat Nidanam (Diseases of vagina) 222
63 Yoni kanda Nidanam (Vaginal tumors) 224
64 Mudha garbha Nidanam (Abnormal pregnancy, foetal presentation etc.) 225
65 Sutika roga Nidanam (Diseases of peurperum) 227
66 Stana roga Nidanam (Diseases of the breast) 228
67 Stanya dusti Nidanam (Disorders of breast milk) 229
68 Bala roga Nidanam (Diseases of children) 230
69 Visa roga Nidanam (Diseases due to poison) 234
70 Visayanukramanika (Contents of the treatise) 245
  Appendix I Salient points from Madhukosa commentary 245
  Appendix II Mithyahara vihara 264
  Appendix III Comparisons of leisons 281
  Appendix IV Modern equivalents of diseases 292
  Index 315

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