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Books > Yoga > Meditation as Spiritual Culmination Yoga Aphorism of Patanjali (Two Big Volumes)
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Meditation as Spiritual Culmination Yoga Aphorism of Patanjali (Two Big Volumes)
Meditation as Spiritual Culmination Yoga Aphorism of Patanjali (Two Big Volumes)
Description

From the Jacket

This book is a transcription of Swami Sarvagatananda's classes on the Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali recorded between September 1977 and June 1981.

Here the reader is taken on a fascinating spiritual journey in which he encounters the deep intricacies and mysteries of the mind, and learns about the methods of concentration and its culmination in meditation. The Swami's intimate and first-hand knowledge of this difficult subject is evident in each of his talks. What distinguishes this book from others on the same subject is its extremely exhaustive treatment of each aphorism and its intensely practical approach. It will be immensely helpful to all spiritual aspirants in their quest for control of the mind, which, in the words of the Swami, will help them to make their lives more happy, sublime, peaceful, and integrated.

The question and answer sessions held at the end of each class are a valuable wonderful addition to the book.

Preface

Swami Sarvagatananda conducted Thursday evening Raja Yoga classes at the Rama-krishna Vedanta Society of Massachusetts, in Boston, between September 1977 and June 1981. There were one hundred and thirty two lectures in all. About thirty of us, college students, professor, office workers and retirees, had the good fortune to participate in these classes. It was a character transforming experience for us. We learned that Raja Yoga deals primarily with the mind and its control. But this control cannot be attained without leading a pure life, full of loving concern for all, and reflecting rather than reacting to negative thoughts or circumstances. As the classes progressed their intensity increased. We listened in fascination as the Swami went deeper into the intricacies of the mind, the method of concentration and its culmination in meditation. The Swami's intimate knowledge of this difficult subject enabled him to clear up all our doubts in simple yet convincing language in a question and answer session at the end of each class.

These two volumes contain the transcripts of all of Swami's 132 Raja Yoga lectures, inclusive of the question and answer sessions. They are a gift to us from George Mraz, Swami's devoted personal attendant, who has lived with him and served him in innumerable ways for over 35 years. Those of us who have made the attempt, know how difficult it is to transcribe even a single one-hour lecture from a tape. The task can easily consume several hours of concentrated effort. Nevertheless George painstakingly transcribed all 132 lectures, each lasting almost two hours, with a typewriter. Much later, when the technology became available, George converted the typewritten manuscript into electronic form. This was a crucial step, for it enabled us to re-format the text into its present form with appropriate type-setting tools. But for George's labor of love, extending over more than ten years, them two volumes would never have come out. We owe him a tremendous debt of gratitude.

WE thank Christine Reynolds for designing the attractive style in which this book is for matted, Amy Hendrickson for implementing Christine's design in LaTex (the typesetting language used for the formatting) and Bijoy Misra for transliterating the Sanskrit. Because of its complexity, it will be helpful to describe the manner in which this book is organized. The primary organizational structure is built around the Yoga Aphorisms Spiritual Uses, Concentration: Its Practice, Powers, and Independence, respectively. Volume One contains an Introduction, followed by Chapters One and Two. Volume Two in the Table of Contents Chapters Three and Four, followed by a detailed Index. Each aphorism is listed in the Table of Contents in both transliterated Sanskrit and English. For added convenience, each aphorism number is displayed as a page header on the odd numbered pages of Chapters One through Four. All Sanskrit words that occur in the interior of a page are displayed in italics. This book also has a secondary organizational structure based on the 132 individual lectures. The lectures are listed in a separate Lecture Table of Contents and the lecture number is displayed as a footer at the bottom of each page.

As the book goes to press we thank many devotees for their generous financial contributions towards the production costs.

Finally, our loving pranams to Revered Swami Sarvagatananda.

Introduction

The Kingly Path

Raja Yoga is a science because its entire approach is very scientific. It has been worked out very thoroughly. One can verify every step. One can demonstrate, experience, and explain it in terms of the human psyche. Raja Yoga means the Kingly Path. Why is it called so? Here nothing is based on imagination, or any kind of belief, or faith or conviction or authority. This is one discipline which helps us to grow, to evolve and to gain depth, not from the outside but from within. The mandate is from within. The satisfaction that you get is based on your own experience. It is a great challenge because the whole thing is based on the instrument of experience called the mind. This mind of ours is so mysterious, so valuable, and so precious in our day to day life. Raja Yoga deals with this mind. It is the science of the mind. You need not go anywhere, you can feel every step of its progress. In many of the Upanishads the Rishis indirectly mention the mental discipline and how it helps us in all spiritual struggles. But in Raja Yoga the whole stress is one the mind, not only from the point of the ultimate realization but also from the point of our day to day experience - how you can make your life more sublime, more fruitful, more happy, more peaceful, more integrated. This is one uniqueness that you find in Raja Yoga.

You do not have to wait until ultimate realization comes before results come - every step that you move in this discipline gives you joy in living, makes you feel more harmonious with yourself, with the rest of the world. That is why it has more appeal to the human mind in the East and the West, ancient and modern. Particularly nowadays there is more of an urge in the human mind to study this yoga discipline. Many psychologists, philosophers, and social scientists have now discovered how this discipline helps us to lead a good life, a life which is in tune with our being inside, the society outside, and nature outside. That is why the study of Raja Yoga is a must from the point of every living soul. We should know it, we should have discipline. Every effort that you put into it, every step that you take, to that extent you reap the benefit. Not that the ultimate result must come before you benefit. Even a little bit of this practice of yoga helps you to gain some depth which automatically gives you the joy of living. You can say, "I know now, I can live in peace and I can give that peace to others" - because the word "yoga" means to unite, to yoke this union is the ultimate goal of Raja Yoga. There are many other yogas no doubt; such as Bhakti Yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga. These different disciplines deal with a practical aspect of our personality. Jnana Yoga deals with the thinking faculty, the philosophical aspect of our being, the intellectual side. It helps us to develop. Karma Yoga deals with every action that we perform. At the functioning level Karma Yoga helps us to work in this world, to derive joy and peace in this world, keeping our being active, unconcerned. From the point of the being, Karma Yoga helps our functioning. Bhakti Yoga deals with the devotional, the emotional aspect of our being, deals with the heart; how I feel. The feeling part of the human personality is highly emphasized in Bhakti Yoga.

Every human being is a beautiful blending of thinking, feeling, functioning and restraining. Raja Yoga deals with restraining, the mental aspect of our being, the central aspect of the whole personality, the mind. When our mind is alert, awake, mindful with regard to the situation here, and when we move about, we find in that movement the restraining power and bring into our life the aspect of control. In Raja Yoga the central instrument is the mind, we need Raja Yoga because without this mind control we are lost. Raja Yoga is a very essential discipline. This we all have to develop. Fortunately, in all the four yogas there is no exclusive application of any particular faculty, all these are blended, but in each the emphasis is made on a particular aspect. In Karma Yoga there is Bhakti Yoga, there is Raja Yoga, and there is Jnana Yoga. The more you develop yourself, the more you evolve, the more you gain progress, and the more you come closer to the other faculties, You cannot avoid this because the human being is a blending of all these four. But the emphasis here is on the mind - how to make it strong, harmonious, how to keep it under control, how to apply it in day to day life from the point of my individual personality and from the point of society outside. In this union what will you be? You will be united with yourself, nothing else. In the end, you will discover to your surprise that by following any of the disciplines you are what you are.

A devotee says that this union is God, a Jnani says that it is Brahman, a Karma yogi says that it is a Cosmic Being existing as human beings, and the Raja yogi says that he is with his own Self' his lower self has become one with the higher Self. At present if you ask me who I am, I say I am a swami, I give all my qualifications, the work I do here - Am I confined to these alone? Nothing else? Was I born with all these when I came into this world? no. when I die, do I retain all these? No. Then who am I? I start with this present existential personality - a functioning being. I start from there, gradually I evolve, I gain depth, and I discover my Ground, even the Ultimate Ground of my being. I realize that I am one with it, only I did not know it previously, now I do. I know what I am in reality. That knowledge, that experience, that awareness gives me the clue from the point of my behavior with all of you. When I know what I am then I can relate myself with all of you properly. Suppose I do not know what I am - take for instance, I came from India and I say an Indian citizen, or perhaps you call me a Hindu. Then what do I do? My relationship with you will be on that level: as an Indian or a Hindu. But when I get to this part of my being, the Ground of my being, I discover that I am none of these things. I am more than these. No, I am one with all. From the point of your Ground, from the point of my own Ground, I discover to my surprise that the Ground is the same in all.

This is what Raja Yoga says about gaining that union: first union within. I am united with my own being, with my own real self - and then I discover my union with you also. Then I am in union with the Ultimate Ground, transcendental - and mind that, all the great prophets, great saints and sages, when they realized the ultimate, called this Ground God, or Brahman, or Father in Heaven, or Allah. Let them call it by any name, all have this experience, they are yogis. Sri Krishna tells in the Bhagavad Gita: "I am existing in all beings, I am in the heart of every being." What did Jesus say?" "I am the life, I am one with the Kingdom of Heaven, and that Kingdom of Heaven is within you all." Is that imagination? It is realization, he saw his own being in everyone. Mohammed had that perception of Allah in everyone. He said: "The spirit of Allah is in all of us." Therefore he preached universal brotherhood. So also Sri Ramakrishna, when he came back from the Samadhi state, when somebody asked him: "When you open your eyes now sir, what do you see? When you closed your eyes you must have enjoyed the presence of the divine." "I see the same spark of God in all of you," he said. He went on bowing down to everyone Therefore union within first, union outside second, union with the Ultimate Ground third. Yoga helps you to gain the three levels of union. Then what happens? Then I know to conduct myself in the world, how to relate myself with all of you at your own level, without a comment, without any critics, no condemnation, but accepting everyone as he is. Yoga helps you to gain that perception, that depth, that awareness, no, that oneness with everything. That is the beauty of Raja Yoga. It is a very important discipline, it deals with the total personality, the whole being: the physical, the moral, the mental, and the spiritual aspect. All these aspects are contained in Raja Yoga because the whole being is made to evolve, made to progress. Every aspect of your personality is taken into account.

In Raja Yoga the first consideration is ethical values, moral principles, because in the Ultimate Ground you discover your oneness with all. If that is the end, the means must also be the same. You must conduct yourself in such a way that you are a brother or sister to all. That means the moral values that I put before my being are of the highest type. When I equate myself with all mankind, my conduct must be such as to not to create any discord, resentment, any harsh note. It must be in tune with all because all are part of the whole. If any one of the five fingers is hurt, I am hurt. If they are functioning properly, I feel happy. The whole of society is like that. Therefore moral excellence is the ground of Raja Yoga, and that is also the first principle for human life. We all follow it but we do not know it. Take for instance; a child is born in your house. Before you send the child to school, what do you do? You teach the child how to behave. A child is restless everywhere, it says all sorts of things. We control it, saying "don't do that, don't say that." A bundle of don'ts, don'ts, don'ts, and the child becomes disgusted. Before you say "no", the child says "no." Children themselves repeat the world "no" because that is what they get. With these "no's", with these "do not's, the child gets education: learns how to behave, how to conduct itself, what to avoid, what to follow. If my mother did not use the word "no", I would be in jail today. Fortunately she used the words "no" and "don't". These words straightened my being, now I know how to conduct myself properly.

Before you go out in the world you are taught how to behave at home, what to say, how to behave with your own friends, relatives and strangers. All these things we observe from our parents. When we fail, they correct us and straighten our personality. That is the moral ground yoga deals with this. First moral principles, next physical fitness: how to be healthy physically, how to be strong, how to be free from all ailments, how to avoid physical limitations. In Raja Yoga you find wonderful asanas. Everyone should practice yoga to keep in good physical health. The asana helps to keep us strong There are many asanas, one need not go through them all; some are just for exhibition's sake, for gymnastics - but there are many that are very useful, they teach one how to sit, how to walk, how to breathe, how to avoid certain unfortunate conditions. Physical fitness is an important factor in our human life. We don't us every part of our body in our day to day functioning. The yoga asana help one to deal with the entire body. The golden rule is: "What you do not use you lose." When you don't exercise your body, you lose the benefit of it. It becomes stiff, you end up with many diseases. Not that in our modern society yoga will absolutely keep you in good health; there are unfortunate environmental difficulties. You have pollutions that you have to suffer - but still, physically speaking, it keeps you strong. Physical fitness is a very important factor in yoga. Why? You many ask. If the physical being is not well set, you cannot study your mind. Raja Yoga is based on the science of the mind. If you want to study your mind, you have to gain entrance to it, you have to held to this mind, to catch the mind.

You cannot catch the mind when the mind is moving. If there is pain present in a part of the body, the mind goes there, the mind is so constituted. It is like a watchdog and runs over the whole body. If there is any trouble anywhere - suppose an ant bites you, immediately the mind goes there: "Hey, there is something there," it goes to look at it. It is a big watchdog, it tells you everything. The mind is wonderful for functioning at the physical level. If you want to catch hold of the mind, you have to keep the mind at rest. The first condition is: do not allow the mind to run all over the body. Otherwise you cannot catch it once it goes where there are aches and pains. Therefore keep the body in a good healthy condition. That is why in meditation, when you want to observe your mind, you keep the body at rest, in a steady comfortable posture. That comes from exercising, from practice. When the body is at rest, you can observe the mind, watch the mind, hold on to the mind. Then you can observe how the mind functions. When the mind is moving about, you cannot observe it. To hold the mind, to bring it to your attention, you have to keep it at rest. That is why the first condition in Raja Yoga is to keep the body in good condition, at rest. Then a little of pranayama (control of breath) helps you to bring the internal being under control, from the point of the nervous system and blood circulation; because the body gets not only external troubles but also internal difficulties, and the mind goes there. To avoid this, breathing exercises really help.

Pranayama helps you to keep the entire system, the internal being of the body, in perfect condition, in a still, harmonious condition. Pranayama helps you to control the lungs; it controls the heart, controls all the nerves. Gradually not only the external physical body but also the internal functioning of the body is in tune, is at rest. Then the watchdog keeps silent. There is no need to go anywhere, there is no one coming from outside, no one creating trouble inside, therefore the watch dog keeps quiet. That is the time you are to observe the mind. The third step is mental equilibrium, first: moral excellence, second: physical fitness, third: mental equilibrium. Then the mind is calm and quiet, you can hold the mind, you can observe the mind. You can know how to mind is functioning, where it is set. The mind's ambitions, urges, modifications, likes and dislikes, prejudices, loves and hate, attractions, aversions - all these make the mind move about. They all come to your surface consciousness. You become aware, you know what you are thinking, you know what is troubling you, you become aware of your problems. That is the time when you have a good look at the mind. Observe your own mind, examine, analyze your own mind. Don't be frightened. Raja Yoga says: do not be frightened when worse things come. Many times in your life you say: I wish I could kill that fellow, the mind tells you - when something happens, something he or she did to me, I can get this urge. It is natural to all of us, mind that, so do not be frightened. But now when the thought comes, I know it. Why has it come? Eliminate the cause. Now I don't feel like that, now I know how to conduct myself without hurting anybody. It helps you to observe your mind, actually that is the beginning of Raja Yoga. Observe your own mind, examine your own mind, analyze your own mind to know your own intentions and ambitions and urges. Gradually you are to silence them all.

This is an art: how to silence all these urges, modifications, tendencies. Here is the big struggle, the real struggle of Raja Yoga is at this level: to silence these, because you want to see what is behind these thoughts, what is behind these ambitions and urges, what it gives light to this mind. Behind this mind is me, I am there, my real Self is there behind that mind. I want to silence everything completely, to bring all urges under control. In the language of Jesus Christ this is called purifying your heart - purifying your heart and purifying your consciousness are not two different things, they are exactly the same. How does one purify this mind? Raja Yoga tells you very beautifully what are the obstacles, how these urges come, how the modifications arise, how they tip you off, and, when they come to surface consciousness, what is to be done. When they do not come to surface consciousness they can upset you. Many times you do not know the cause but you know the effect when you say: "I don't know why I don't feel well today; I can't work, I can't think, my mind is disturbed, why I don't know." You know the effect but not the cause. Raja Yoga tells you how to find out the cause, and, if you cannot find the cause, tells you what steps you should take to silence it. Not always is the cause know, many times you don't know it. "I hate so and so, I do not know why, but the moment I see that face I get such a terrible feeling, I can't explain it." No, anybody resembling that face I also hate, anybody bearing that name I hate also. Why it is so, I don't know. The cause is unknown, it is deep inside, but the effect I know. I'm disturbed, I can't help it. Raja Yoga tells you how to manage the situation, what you should do.

Mental equilibrium is the most important factor that you gain when you study Raja Yoga and practice it. What a joy it is! Just imagine, here are the worst types of people in the world and you are in their midst, and you say: "I can live with them. I will accept them, not just tolerate them. I accept them because once I was like that." You will discover to your surprise that once you were just like them, only you have forgotten it. Raja Yoga reveals to you the beauty of your own evolution, what you went through in all your previous lives and in this life. If you see something wrong outside, you will say: "I was like that, all the devils are in me, I don't blame anybody, I have overcome them, I have conquered them and they also will conquer them." Then what do you do? You accept them, you try to help them, you don't condemn anybody. Yoga disciplines give you that kind of insight, that kind of strength. Raja Yoga integrates your entire personality, the whole mind is balanced. What a joy it is. The joy of a Yogi cannot be compared with anything. He has nothing from the point of his possessions, but he has one thing: an integrated mind, harmonized mind, balanced mind, purified mind. That mind gives the individual immense joy. Now, it does not stop there. From this mental equilibrium, in that state you go beyond, transcend the mind. When you silence this mind, the mind has the capacity to go beyond this base level. Just as a plane moving down the runway, gaining speed, goes beyond the runway. So also this mind, going along the track, at the existential level, the human level, the mundane level, has the power to take off. That is called transcendence. When you come to the level of transcendence then you see a great wonder: the real source of the mind, the real Ground of the mind, the real nature of the mind, set in the spirit.

The mind actually is well set in the spirit but it comes down and then we see the mind at the existential level, sensate level, psychophysical level. When it transcends this level, then it gets into the spiritual realm. That is what is called God Consciousness, or Atman, or Brahman - call it by any name. This mind has the power to enter into that realm, then you discover to your surprise your true nature. You take a good look at whatever happened to you in the previous lives or in this life. I am a traveler in this world. I am a citizen of heaven. I am traveling this psychophysical complex. It is mine. Its abode is in the spirit. Gaining that spiritual awareness, that pure Consciousness, one's experience is called Samadhi. That is, you are one with yourself. Then you have the right to say: "I know what I am." It does not mean that you forget everything; it does not mean that you ignore everything. No, it is just natural, normal. As somebody said: "You don't grow two horns, no wings, you are just the same human being." The mind is changed, that's all. Your attitude on life is changed, your whole personality is different, and you accept everyone as your own. As Holy Mother used to say: "They are all mine, what can I do?" You don't want to lose a single soul. Every soul is your own. Therefore your work hard to make everyone your own. You go down to any level to lift them up to make them your own. You don't say: "Oh, I don't care." Never use the words: "I don't care". I do care for everyone, because we are all one at that transcendental level; there we discover the oneness of the spirit.

We are all just like pins in the same pincushion. At the human level, the psychophysical level, we are all separate, but we make this discovery when we realize the goal of Raja Yoga. In the Samadhi state we discover our unity. We are all one with the Ultimate Ground, with the whole of humanity. You are integrated within yourself. The goal of Raja Yoga is to attain to that oneness - union within, without, with the Ultimate Ground, with Godhead. Raja Yoga does not ask you to believe in anything. It asks you only one things: "Do you know that you have a mind?" But never mind if you don't have it now. Start and you will get it, that is the beauty of Raja Yoga, the scientific way of approaching reality. In the ultimate realization you are one with a devotee, a Jnani, a philosopher, a practical man. You identify with everyone because there you discover to your surprise that thinking, feeling, functioning, and restraining are all one there is no separateness in the goal. At the base they are all separate, but in the ultimate, in the center, they are all one therefore a real yogi, whether a Jnana yogi, a Bhakti yogi, Raja yogi, is one with all at the top. They discover to their surprise that they all meet there. Just as when you come to Providence through route #95, route #1A, they all meet in the center of the city. Though all the routes are different, you all meet there, it can't be helped, the goal is the same. That is why Swami Vivekananda beautifully presented that ideal: "all is one". There are different roads, not only from the point of beliefs and faiths, but also from the point of personalities and their aspects. Raja Yoga deals with this discipline. It is called the Royal Road, it is straight, and every step is worked out.

No doubt the Raja Yoga of Patanjali is nothing but a systematizing of the mental disciplines already mentioned in our Upanishads and in the Bhagavad Gita. He has taken the essential aspects, worked out this wonderful system, and placed it before us. In the Gita you get all of these yogas. In the 6th chapter Sri Krishna mentions about meditation. In short, the sum and substance of Raja Yoga is the 6th chapter of the Bhagavad Gita in the aphorisms of Patanjali they are systematized, worked out step by step, from the point of experience. Mind that, over all these 5000 years people have experienced, verified and demonstrated it, and said that it is true. When Swami Vivekananda wrote his Raja Yoga, he gave it a thorough introduction. Read it carefully, how well he explains it. Is a science. You can challenge all these explanations, and you can get the answers. Raja Yoga is a subject which we all have to study, but not from the point of ultimate realization, but rather from the point of our living process in this world, now and here: how to live in peace, give that peace to others, either in your family, among your friends, in national and International affairs. No, most importantly: how to conduct yourself properly, how to hehave as a decent human being. That is what Henry David Thoreau, when he studied yoga, said: "What a book it is, it really makes me a man, it gives me joy to discover that I have these faculties, I can develop them and I can be a decent gentleman." That is why he said "that makes us to be in tune with nature outside, God within." There is no contradiction. Likewise, all the great scholars, when they studied Raja Yoga, discovered wonderful things there.

Raja Yoga is the great science of the mind; no, it is the science of life: how to live here and now. Because we are all so many minds (no two minds are alike), it is very difficult to accept them all, to understand them, to be in tune with them. how many times we have found in our own homes, the father says: "I don't know my son;" the mother says: "I don't know my daughter, what she is;" and children say: "I don't know my father." Living in the same house, moving in day to day life, we don't know each other. Why? There is a big obstacle, something is standing in between. Raja Yoga removes these obstacles, makes one see through them and accept them. It makes you feel one with the whole family. We need that discipline, we need that contemplative process, we need that control of the mind - and that is what Raja Yoga is going to teach us.

 

Contents

 

  VOLUME ONE  
  CHAPTERS ONE AND TWO  
  PREFACE  
  INTRODUCTION  
  The Kingly Path 1
  The Mind 9
  Summary 16
  Samadhi 17
  Summary 23
  CHAPTER ONE
CONCENTRATION: ITS SPIRITUAL USES
 
1.1 Atha Yoganusasanam 29
  Now yoga is explained  
1.2 Yogah Cittavrttinirodhah 30
  Yoga is the control of the urges, modifications or tendencies that arise out of the mind-stuff.  
1.3 Tada Drastuh Svarupe Avasthanam 38
  At that time the seer - that is, the perceiver, the one who
experiences, the individual - rests in his own state.
 
1.4 Vrttisarupyam Itaratra 47
  At other times - other than that of the true state, when the
mind is not resolved, silenced, purified - the seer is identified with the modifications.
 
1.5 Vrttayah Panchatayyah Klistaklistah 49
  There are five classes of modifications, some are painful and some are not.  
1.6 Pramanaviparyayavikalpanidrasmrtayah 50
  These are right knowledge, indiscrimination, verbal delusion,
sleep and memory - anything that comes from the subconscious mind.
 
1.7 Pratyaksanumanagamah Pramanani 58
  Direct perception, inference and competent evidence, are proofs.  
1.8 Viparyayo Mithyajnanam Atadrupapratistham 69
  Indiscrimination is false knowledge not established in real nature.  
1.9 Sabdajnananupati Vastusunyo Vikalpah. 71
  Verbal delusion follows from words having no corresponding reality.  
1.10 Abhava-pratyayalambana Vrttirnidra 72
  Sleep is a vrtti which embraces the feeling of voidness.  
1.11 Anubhutavisayasampramosah Smrtih 74
  Memory is when vrttis of perceived subjects do not slip away
and through impressions come back to consciousness.
 
1.12 Abhyasavairagyabhyam Tannirodhah 75
  Their control is by practice and non-attachment  
1.13 Tatra Sthitau Yatno-abhyasah 83
  Continuous struggle to keep the vrttis, the tendencies, perfectly restrained is practice.  
1.14 Sa Tu Dirghakalanairantaryasatkarasevito Drdhabhumih 89
  It becomes firmly grounded by long constant efforts with great
love and devotion for the end to be attained.
 
1.15 Drstanusravikavisayavitrsnasya Vasikarasamjna Vairagyam 91
  That effect which comes to those who have given up their thirst after objects either seen or heard, and which wills to control the objects, is non-attachment.  
1.16 Tatparam Purusakhyatergunavaitrsnyam 97
  That is extreme non-attachment which gives up even the
qualities, and comes from the knowledge of the Purusa.
 
1.17 Vitarkavicaraanandasmitanugamat Samprajnatah 110
  The concentration called right knowledge is that which is
followed by reasoning, discrimination, bliss, unqualified egoism.
 
1.18 Vramapratyayabhyasapurvah Samskaraseso Anyah 124
  There is another Samadhi which is attained by the constant
practice of cessation of all mental activity, in which the citta
(mind-stuff) retains only the unmanifested impressions.
 
1.19 Bhava-Pratyayo Videha-Prakrtilayanam 153
  This Samadhi when not followed by extreme non-attachment
becomes the cause of the re-manifestation of the gods and of
those that become merged in nature - not gods actually - these are enlightened souls who still have some attachment,
hence have not reached perfection though highly evolved.
 
1.20 Sraddha-Virya-Smrti-Samadhi-Prajna-Purvaka Itaresam 158
  To others this Samadhi comes through faith, energy, memory,
concentration, and discrimination
 
1.21 Tivra-Samveganam-Asannah 164
  Success of Yogis differs according as the means they adopt are mild, medium or intense.  
1.23 Isvara-Pranidhanad-Va 168
  Or by devotion to Isvara  
1.24 Klesa-Karma-Vipakasayair-Aparamrstah Purusavisesah Isvarah 170
  Isvara (the Supreme Ruler) is a special Purusa, untouched by
misery, actions, their results, and desires
 
1.25 Tatra Niratisayam Sarvajnatvabijam 177
  In Him becomes infinite that all-knowingness which in others is (only) a germ.  
1.26 Sa Purvesamapi Guruh Kalena-Anavacchedat 180
  He is the teacher of even the ancient teachers, being not limited by time.  
1.27 Tasya Vacakah Pranavah 187
  His manifested word is 'Om'. Pranavah is a sound symbol
representing Isvara, the Ground
 
1.28 Tajjapas-Tad-Arthabhavanam 190
  The repetition of this and meditating on its meaning is the way  
1.29 Tatah Pratyaka-Cetanadhigamo-Api-Antaraya-Abhavasca. 200
  From that (repetition) is gained introspection, and the destruction (removal) of obstacles.  
1.30 Vyadhi-Styana-Samsaya-Pramada-Alasya-Avirati-Bhranti-Darsana-Alabdhabhumikatva - Anavasthitatvani Cittaviksepah-Te-Antarayah 206
  Disease, mental laziness, doubt, lack of enthusiasm, lethargy, clinging to sense enjoyments, false perception non-attaining concentration, and falling away from the state when obtained, are the obstructing distractions.  
1.31 Dukha-Daurmanasya-Angamejayatva-Svasa-Prasvasa-Viksepasahabhuvah  
  Grief, mental distress, tremor of the body, irregular breathing accompany non-retention of concentration.  
1.32 Tat-Pratisedhartham-Ekatattvabhyasah 220
  To remedy this, the practice of one subject should be made - if you want to avoid tremors, grief, mental distress, constant practice is necessary  
1.33 Maitri-Karuna-Muditopeksanam Sukha-Duhkha-Punyapunya-Visayanam Bhavanatas-Cittaprasadanam 224
  Friendship, mercy, gladness and indifference, being thought of in regard to subjects, happy, unhappy, good and evil respectively, pacify the mind-stuff.  
1.34 Pracchardana-Vidharanabhyam Va Pranasya 231
  By throwing out and restraining the Breath (prana).  
1.35 Visayavati Va Pravrttirutpanna Manasah Sthitinibandhini 251
  Those forms of concentration that bring extraordinary sense perceptions cause perseverance of the mind.  
1.36 Visoka Va Jyotismati 259
  Or (by meditating on) the Effulgent Light, which is beyond all sorrow.  
1.37 Vitaragavisayam Va Cittam 264
  Or (by meditating on the knowledge that comes in dream or sleep)  
1.38 Svapna-Nidra-Jnanalambanam Va 272
  Or by meditating on the knowledge that comes in dream or sleep.  
1.39 Yathabhimata-Dhyanad-Va 276
  Or by meditation on anything that appeals to one as good.  
1.40 Paramanu-paramamahattvantosya Vasikarah 278
  The Yogi's mind thus meditating, becomes unobstructed from the atomic to the infinite. When the mind is one-pointed, it gains purity, even obstacles small or big, do not disturb.  
1.41 Ksina-Vrtter-Abhijatasya-Iva-Maner Grahitr Grahana Grahyesu Tatstha Tad-Anjanata Samapattih 287
  The Yogi whose vrttis (modifications, urges of the mind, or mind-stuff) have thus become powerless (become very faint, the mind waves become fainter, they don't influence you, they don't disturb you) obtains in the receiver (the instrument of) receiving, and the received, concentratedness and sameness, like the crystal.  
1.42 Tatra Sabda-Artha-Jnana-Vikalpaih Samkirna Savitarka Samapattih 300
  The sound, meaning, and resulting knowledge, being mixed up, is called Samadhi with question.  
1.43 Smrti-Parisuddhau Svarupasunya-Iva-Arthamatranirbhasa Nirvitarka 327
  The Samadhi called 'without question' comes when the memory is purified. In this Samadhi, without reasoning, the memory being completely purified, all forms vanish, leaving only the meaning.  
1.44 Etaya-Eva-Savicara Nirvicara Cha Suksma - Visaya Vyakhyata 337
  By this process the concentrations with discrimination and without discrimination, whose objects are finer, are explained.  
1.45 Suksmavisayatvam-Ca-Alinga-Paryavasanam 338
  The finer objects end with Nature, Cosmic wholeness, pradhana.  
1.46 Ta Eva Sabijah Samadhih 345
  These concentrations (or meditations) are with seed  
1.47 Nirvicara-Vaisaradye-Adhyatmaprasadah 347
  The concentration 'without discrimination' being purified, the citta becomes firmly fixed.  
1.48 Rtambhara Tatra Prajna 348
  The knowledge in that is called "filled with Truth."  
1.49 Srutanumanaprajnabhyam-Anyavisaya Visesarthatvat 350
  The knowledge that is gained from testimony and inference is about (other objects or) common objects. That from the Samadhi just mentioned is of a much higher order, being able to penetrate where inference and testimony cannot go.  
1.50 Taj-Jah Samskaro-Anyasamskara-Pratibandhi 369
  The resulting impression from this Samadhi obstructs all other impressions.  
1.51 Tasyapi Nirodhe Sarvanirodhat-Nirbijah Samadhih 374
  By the restraint of even this (impression, which obstructs all other impressions. 374
  CHAPTER TWO
CONCENTRATION: ITS PRACTICE
 
2.1 Tapah-Svadhyaya-Isvarapranidhanini Kriya-Yogah 396
  Mortification, study and the surrendering of the fruits of work are called Kriya yoga.  
2.2 Samadhi-Bhavanarthah Klesatanukaranarthasca 418
  (It is for the) practice of Samadhi and minimizing the pain-bearing obstructions.  
2.3 Avidya-Asmita-Raga-Dvesa-Abhinivesah Klesah 423
  The five pain-bearing obstacles in your life are ignorance and its effects: which are egoism, attachment. Aversion, clinging to life  
2.4 Avidyaksetram-Uttaresam Prasupta-Tanu-Vicchinno daranam 428
  Ignorance is the productive field of all these that follow." (First ignorance, then all other things come) whether they are dormant, attenuated, overpowered, or expanded.  
2.5 Anitya-Asuci-Dukha-Anatmasu Nitya Suci-Sukhatmakhyatir-Avidya 431
  Ignorance is taking that which is non-eternal, impure, painful, and non-Self for the eternal, pure, happy, Atman (Self)  
2.6 Drga-Darsana-Saktyor-Ekatmata-Eva-Asmita 438
  Egoism is the identification of the seer with the instrument of seeing.  
2.7 Sukhanusayi Ragah 444
  Attachment is that which dwells on pleasure  
2.8 Duhkhanusayi Dvesah 449
  Aversion is that which dwells on pain (or dislike, or some other cause of which I do not know).  
2.9 Svarasavahi Viduso-Api Tatharudho-Abhinivesah 453
  Flowing through its own nature, and established even in the learned, is the clinging to life  
2.10 Te Pratiprasavaheyah Suksmah 461
  The fine samskaras are to be conquered by resolving them into their causal state (or eternal state)  
2.11 Dhyanaheyas Tad-Vrttayah 468
  By meditation their (gross) modifications are to be rejected.  
2.12 Klesamulah Karmasayo Drstadrsta-Janmavedaniyah 476
  The 'receptacle of work's has its root in these pain-bearing obstructions (not pain-bearing, klesamulah means anguish, the cause of anguish), and their experience is in this visible life, or in the unseen life.  
2.13 Sati Mule Tad-Vipako Jati-Ayur-Bhogah 488
  The root being there, the fruition comes (in the form of) species, life, and experience of pleasure and pain.  
2.14 Te Hladaparitapaphalah Punyapunya-Hetutvat 499
  They bear fruit as pleasure or pain, caused by virtue or vice.  
2.15 Parinama-Tapa-samskara-Duhkhair-Guna-Vrtti-Virodhat cha Duhkham-Eva Sarvam Vivekinah 504
  To the discriminating, all is, as it were, painful on account of  
2.16 Heyam Duhkham-Anagatam  
  The misery which is not yet come is to be avoided.  
2.17 Drastr-Drsyayoh Samyogo Heyahetuh 516
  The cause of that which is to be avoided is the junction of the seer and the seen.  
2.18 Prakasakriyasthitisilam Bhutaindriyatmakam-Bhogapavargartham Drsyam 528
  The experienced is composed of elements and organs, is of the nature of illumination, action, and inertia, and is for the purpose of experience and release (of the experiencer).  
2.19 Visesavisesa Lingamatra-Alingani Gunaparvani 548
  The states of the qualities are the defined, the undefined, the indicated only, and the singles.  
2.20 Drsta Drsimatrah Suddho-Api Pratyaya-Anupasyah 580
  The seer is intelligence only, and though pure, sees through the coloring of the intellect.  
2.21 Tat-Artha Eva Drsyasya-Atma 596
  The nature of the experienced is for him  
2.22 Krtartham Prati-Nastam-Api-Anastam Tat-Anya-Sadharanatvat 604
2.23 Sva-Svami-Saktyoh Svarupa-Upalabdhihetuh Samyogah 608
  Junction is the cause of the realization of the nature of the powers, the experienced and its Lord.  
2.24 Tasya Hetur-Avidya 617
  Ignorance is its cause.  
2.25 Tad-Abhavat Samyoga-Abhavo Hanam Tad-Drseh Kaivalyam 621
  There being absence of that (ignorance) there is absence of junction, which is the things-to-be-avoided; that is the independence of the seer  
2.26 Viveka-Khyatir-Aviplava Hanopayah 630
  The means of destruction of ignorance is unbroken practice of discrimination.  
2.27 Tasya Saptadha Prantabhumih Prajna 640
  His knowledge is of the sevenfold highest ground  
2.28 Yoganganusthanad-Asuddhiksaye Jnanadiptir-Avivekakhyateh 647
  By the practice of the different parts of Yoga the impurities being destroyed, knowledge becomes effulgent up to discrimination  
2.29 Yama-Niyama-Asana-Pranayama-Pratyahara-Dharana-Dhyana-Samadhayo-Astavangani 658
  Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, and Samadhi are the eight limbs of Yoga.  
2.30 Ahimsa-Satya-Asteya-Brahmacharya-Aparigraha Yamah 668
  Non-hurting, truthfulness, non-stealing, continence, and non-receiving are called yama.  
2.31 Ete Jati-Desa-Kala-Samaya-Anavacchinnah Sarvabhauma Mahavratam 675
  These, unbroken by time, place, purpose and caste rules, are (universal) great vows.  
2.32 Sauca-Santosa-Tapah-Svadhyaya-Isvarapranidhanani Niyamah 679
  Internal and external purification, contentment, mortification, study, and worship of God are the niyamas  
2.33 Vitarka-Badhane Pratipaksabhavanam 668
  To obstruct thoughts which are inimical to Yoga, contrary thoughts should be brought.  
2.34 Vitarka Himsadayah Krta-Karita-Anumodita Lobha-Krodha-Moha-Purvaka Mrdu-Madhya-Adhimatra Duhkha-Ajnana-Anantaphala Iti Pratipaksabhavanam  
  The obstructions to Yoga are killing, falsehood, and the rest, whether committed, caused, or approved; either through avarice, or anger, or ignorance; whether slight, middling, or great; and they result in infinite ignorance and misery. This is (the method of) thinking the contrary.  
2.35 Ahimsapratisthayam Tatsannidhau Vairatyagah 703
  Non-hurting being established, in his presence all enmities cease  
2.36 Satya-Pratisthayam Kriyaphalasrayatvam 710
  By the establishment of truthfulness the Yogi's words become effective. If a man is truthful, by thought, word, or deed, whatever he says happens. The Yogi gets the power of attaining for himself and others the fruits of work without the works  
2.37 Asteya-Pratisthayam Sarvaratnopasthanam 713
  By the establishment of non-stealing all wealth comes to the Yogi  
2.38 Brahmacharya-Pratisthayam Viryalabhah 715
  By the establishment of continence, energy is gained.  
2.39 Aparigrahasthairye Janma Kathanta Sambodhah 717
  When he is fixed in non-receiving, he gets the memory of past life.  
2.40 Saucat-Svanga-Jugupsa Parair-Asamsargah 736
  Internal and external cleanliness being established, arises disgust for one's own body, and (non-contact) with others. "By cleanliness one gets protection of one's body and the cessation of external contacts.  
2.41 Sattva-Suddhi-Saumanasya-Ekagrya-Indriyajaya-Atmadarsana-Yogyatvani Ca 738
  There also arises purification of the sattva, cheerfulness of the mind, concentration, conquest of the senses, and fitness for the realization of the Self  
2.42 Santosad-Anuttamah Sukhalabhah 746
  From contentment comes supreme happiness  
2.43 Kaya-Indriya-Siddhir-Asuddhiksayat Tapah 747
  The result of mortification is bringing powers to the organs and the body, by destroying the impurity.  
2.44 Svadhyayad-Istadevata-Samprayogah 750
  The the repetition of the Mantra comes the realization of the intended deity.  
2.45 Samadhi-Siddhir Isvara-Pranidhanat 752
  By sacrificing all to Isvara comes Samadhi.  
2.46 Sthirasukham-Asanam 759
  Posture is that which is firm and pleasant  
2.47 Prayatna-Saithilya Anantasamapattibhyam 762
  When first sitting for meditation effort and laxity is experienced, there being a constant encountering of these two; make an effort and when it breaks keep on trying.  
2.48 Tato Dvandva-Anabhighatah 763
  Conquering the duality of effort and laxity one gains effortless, easy posture.  
2.49 Tasmin Sati Svasa-Prasvasayor-Gativichchhedah Pranayamah 770
  After taking up posture is the controlling of the motion of exhalation and inhalation.  
2.50 Bahya-Abhyantara-Stambhavrttih Desa-Kala-Samkhyabhih Paridrsto Dirgha Suksmah 776
  Its modifications are either external or internal, or motionless, regulated by place, time and number, either long or short.  
2.51 Bahya-Abhyantara-Visayaksepi Chaturthah 781
  The fourth is restraining the prana, reflecting on external or internal objects.  
2.52 Tatah Ksiyate Prakasavaranam 784
  From that, the covering to the Light of the citta is attenuated.  
2.53 Dharanasu Ca Yogyata Manasah 787
  Therefore when one practices like this, the mind becomes fit for concentration.  
2.54 Sva-Visaya-Asamprayoge Cittasvarupanukara Iva-Indriyanam Pratyaharah 790
  The drawing in of the sense organs is by their giving up their own objects and taking the form of the mind-stuff, as it were.  
2.55 Tatah Parama Vasyata-Indriyanam 810
  Thence arises supreme control of the sense organs.  
  SECOND VOLUME  
  CHAPTERS THREE AND FOUR  
  Chapter Three Powers  
3.1 Desa-Bandhas-Cittasya Dharana 843
  Dharana is holding the mind on the some particular phase, point, object, idea, symbol, thought.  
3.2 Tatra Pratyayaikatanata Dhyanam 852
  An unbroken flow of that concentration in that object is called dhyana.  
3.3 Tad-Eva-Arthamatra-Nirbhasam Svarupasunyam-Iva Samadhih 887
  When that, giving up all forms, reflects only the meaning, it is Samadhi: culmination, one with the highest.  
3.4 Trayam-Ekatra Samyamah 918
  These three put together is called samyama  
3.5 Taj-Jayat Prajnalokah 932
  By the conquest of that comes the light of knowledge (pure Consciousness)  
3.6 Tasya Bhumisu Viniyogah 944
  That should be employed in stages.  
3.7 Trayam-Antarangam Purvebhyah 951
  These three are more internal than those that precede  
3.8 Tad-Api Bahirangam Nirbijasya 957
  Concentration, meditation, culmination, these three also become external from the point of pure Consciousness  
3.9 Vyutthana-Nirodha-Samskarayor-Abhibhava-Pradurbhavau Nirodha-Ksana-Cittanvayo Nirodha-Parinamah 967
  By the control of the disturbed impressions of the mind, and by the rise of impressions of control, the mind, which persists in that moment of control is said to attain the controlling modifications.  
3.10 Tasya Prasantavahita Samskarat 972
  Its flow becomes steady (or calm and serene) by habit.  
3.11 Sarvarthataikagratayoh Ksayodayau Chittasya Samadhi-Parinamah 977
  Taking in all sorts of objects, and concentrating upon one object, these two powers being destroyed and manifested respectively the mind-stuff gets the transformation called Samadhi.  
3.12 Santoditau Tulyapratyayau Cittasyaikagrata-Parinamah  
  When the past and the present look similar, when you observe the mind, when the flow is constant, you don't hold any thought.  
3.13 Etena Bhutendriyesu Dharma-Laksana-Avastha-Parinama Vyakhyatah 993
  By this is explained the threefold transformation of form, time and state, in fine or gross matter, and in the senses (or organs).  
3.14 Santoditavyapadesya-Dharmanupati Dharmi 1009
  That which is acted upon by transformations, either past, present or yet to be manifested, is the qualified.  
3.15 Kramanyatvam Parinamanyatve Hetuh 1011
  The succession of changes is the cause of manifold evolution  
3.16 Parinama-Trayasamyamad-Atitanangatajnanam 1015
  By making samyama on the three sorts of changes comes the knowledge of past and future.  
3.17 Sabda-Artha-Pratyayanam-Itaretara-Adhyasat-Sankara-Tat-Pravibhagasamyamat-Sarvabhutarutajnanam 1023
  By making samyama on word, meaning, and knowledge, which are ordinarily confused, comes the knowledge of animal sounds.  
3.18 Samskara-Saksat-Karanat-Purvajatijnanam 1027
  By perceiving the mental impressions - by making samyama on the impressions you can find out your past life.  
3.19 Pratyayasya Parachittajnanam 1039
  By making samyama on associations of beings, one becomes aware of the knowledge or the mind-stuff of that person.  
3.20 Na Ca Tat Salambanam Tasya-Avisavi-Bhutatvat 1043
  But not its contents - you know the attitude of the mind but not its contents - that not being the object of the samyama.  
3.21 Kaya-Rupa-Samyamat-Tat-Grahya-Sakti-Stambhe Caksuh-Prakasa-Asamyoge-Antardhanam 1047
  By making samyama on the form of the body, the perceptibility of the form being obstructed and the power of manifestation in the eye being separated, the Yogi's body becomes unseen. (Here is concentration on form, continue it, the form disappears. To whom? To the one who concentrates. It is not his body disappearing.)  
3.22 Etena Sabdadi-Antardhanam-Uktam 1058
  The disappearance of or concealment of words which are being spoken and such other things, are also explained.  
3.23 Sopakramam Nirupakramam Cha Karma Tat-Samyamad-Aparantajnanam-Aristebhyo Va 1070
  Karma is of two kinds: soon to be fructified, and later to be fructified. By making samyama the Yogis know the exact time of separation from their bodies.  
3.24 Maitryadisu Balani 1082
  By making samyama on friendship, mercy, etc., the Yogi excels in the respective qualities.  
3.25 Balesu Hastibaladini 1086
  By making samyama on the strength of the elephant and others, their respective strength comes to the Yogi.  
3.26 Pravrttyalokanyasat Suksma Vyavahitaviprakrstajnanam 1088
  By making samyama on the Effulgent Light, comes the knowledge of the fine, the obstructed, and the remote.  
3.27 Bhuvanajnanam Surye Samyamat 1092
  By making samyama on the sun, comes the knowledge of the world - not knowledge of the world, but knowledge of the planets.  
3.28 Candre Taravyuhajnanam 1094
  By making samyama on the moon comes the knowledge of the cluster of stars  
3.29 Dhruve Tad-Gatijnanam 1097
  On the polestar, when you make samyama, comes the knowledge of the motions of the stars.  
3.30 Nabhi Cakre Kayavyuhajnanam 1105
  By making samyama on the navel circle comes the knowledge of the constitution of the body.  
3.31 Kanthakupe Ksutpipasanivrttih 1107
  If you make samyama on the hollow of the throat, you can control your hunger and thirst.  
3.32 Kurma-Nadyam Sthairyam 1110
  On the nerve called kurma comes fixity of the body.  
3.33 Murdha-Jyotisi Siddha-Darsanam 1116
  When you make samyama on the upward Light, upward consciousness, then you become aware of the higher levels of consciousness.  
3.34 Pratibhad-Va Sarvam 1122
  Or by the power of pratibha, all knowledge - vivid imagination - ending in intuition, a kind of genius.  
3.35 Hrdaye Citta-Samvit 1130
  If you make samyama in the heart, comes knowledge of minds, total perception, illumination.  
3.36 Sattva-Purusayor-Atyantasamkirnayoh Pratyayavisesad Bhogah Pararthatvat Svarthasamyamat Purusajnanam 1134
  All enjoyment or experience is due to the false identification of the mind and the soul or Self, which are completely unmixed. Mind is for the sake of Self, and not independent, samyama on the Self-existing One gives the knowledge of the Being.  
3.37 Tatah Pratibha-Sravana-Vedana-Adarsa-Asvada-Varta Jayante 1143
  From that arises the knowledge belonging to the pratibha, (that is: intuition, illumination; no supernatural perception) and hearing, touching, seeing, tasting, and smelling.  
3.38 Te Samadhavupasarga Vyutthane Siddhayah 1146
  These are obstacles to Samadhi, but they are powers in their worldly state  
3.39 Bandha-Karana-Saithilyat Pracara-Samvedanat Ca Cittasya Para-sariravesah 1148
  When the cause of the bondage of the mind-stuff, psycho-physical complex, becomes loosened, the Yogi, by his knowledge of its channels of activity has the power to influence other bodies.  
3.40 Udanajayat-Jala-Panka-Kantakadisu-Asanga Utkrantisca 1169
  By conquering the current called udana the Yogi does not sink in water, on in swamps, he can walk on thorns, etc., and can die at will.  
3.41 Samanajayat Prajvalanam 1174
  By the conquest of the current samana he is surrounded by a blaze of light.  
3.42 Srotrakasayoh Sambandhasamyamad-Divyam Srotram 1177
  By making samyama on the relation between the ear and the akasa comes divine hearing.  
3.43 Kaya Akasayoh Sambandhasamyamat Laghutula Samapattesca-Akasagamanam 1183
  By making samyama on the relation between this body and the space, this relationship, this contact between the body and the space, and becoming light as cotton - by that samyama on this space and body you make the body very light.  
3.44 Bahir-Akalpita Vrttir-Mahavideha tatah Prakasa-Avarana-Ksayah 1185
  By making samyama on the "real modifications" of the mind, outside of the body, called great disembodiedness comes disappearance  
3.45 Sthula-Svarupa-Suksma-Anvaya-Arthavatva-Samyamad-Bhutajayah 1195
  If you make samyama on matter, that is what you gain.  
3.46 Tato-Animadi-Pradurbhavah Kaya-Sampad-Tad-Dharma-Anabhi-ghatasca 1197
  From that comes minuteness and the rest of the powers, "glorification of the body," and indestructibleness of the bodily qualities.  
3.47 Rupa-Lavanya-Bala-Vajra-Samhananatvani Kayasampat 1199
  The "glorification of the body" is beauty, complexion, strength, adamantine hardness.  
3.48 Grahana-Svarupa-Asmitanvayarthavatva-Samyamadi-Indriyajayah 1205
  By making samyama on perception, the nature of sensation, their association with the ego consciousness, and their purposiveness, one gains mastery over the senses.  
3.49 Tato Manojavitvam Vikaranabhavah Pradhanajayasca 1210
  From that comes to the body the power of rapid movement like the mind, power of the organs independently of the body, and conquest of nature. Then the mind instantaneously, effortlessly, and completely conquers the nature.  
3.50 Sattva-Purusanyata-Khyatimatrasya Sarvabhavadhisthatrtvam Sar-vajnatrtvam-Ca 1215
  By making samyama on the discrimination between Sattva and the purusa come omnipotence and omniscience. By making samyama on pure Being and discriminative knowledge, one gains transcendence from this relative world.  
3.51 Tad-Vairagyad Api Dosa-Bija-Ksaye Kaivalyam 1220
  By giving up even these powers comes the destruction of the very seed of limitation, this leads to kaivlalya.  
3.52 Sthanyupanimantrane Sanga-Smayakaranam Punaranista Prasangat 1228
  The yogi should not feel allured or flattered by the overtures of celestial, or higher, beings for fear of evil, or temptations, again.  
3.53 Ksana-Tat-Kramayoh Samyamad-Vivekajam Jnanam 1237
  By making samyama on a particle of time and its precession and succession comes discrimination  
3.54 Jati-Laksana-Deshair-Anyatanavacchedat-Tulyayos-Tatah-Pratipattih 1242
  Those things which cannot be differentiated by species, sings and place, even they will be discriminated by the above samyama.

 

 
3.55 Tarakam Sarva-Visayam Sarvatha-Visayam Akramam-Ceti-Vivekajam-Jnanam 1249
  By the similarity of the purity between the sattva and the purusa, comes kaivalya. Liberation is attained when the mind becomes as pure as the Self.  
3.56 Sattva-Purusayoh Suddhi-Samye Kaivalyam-Iti 1253
  By the similarity of the purity between the sattva and the purusa, comes kaivalya. Liberation is attained when the mind becomes as pure as the Self  
  CHAPTER FOUR
INDEPENDENCE
 
4.1 Janmausadhi-Mantra-Tapah-Samadhijah Siddhayah 1262
  Success in Samadhi or success in liberation or attainment is due to birth, food, mantra (or initiation) or self-control.  
4.2 Jatyantara-Parinamah Prakrtyapurat 1267
  The change into another species is by the filling in of nature  
4.3 Nimittam-Aprayojakam Prakrtinam Varanabhedastu Tatah Ksetrika Vat 1275
  Good and bad deeds are not the direct causes in the transformations of nature, but they act as breakers of obstacles.  
4.4 Nirmanachittani-Asmitamatrat 1282
  From egoism alone proceeds the created mind.  
4.5 Pravrttibhede Prayojakam Cittam-Ekam-Anekesam 1287
  Though the activities of the different created minds are various, the one original mind is the controller of them all.  
4.6 Tatra Dhyanajam-Anasayam 1290
  The mind that comes out of Samadhi or meditation alone is free from karma.  
4.7 Karmasuklakrsnam Yoginas-Trividham-Itaresam 1300
  Karma is neither good nor bad for the yogis; for others they are threefold - good, bad and indifferent.  
4.8 Tatas-Tad-Vipakanugunanam-Eva-Abhivyaktir-Vasananam 1309
  From these threefold works are manifested in each state only those desires fitting to that state alone.  
4.9 Jati-Desa-Kala-Vyavahitanam-Api-Anantaryam Smrti-Samskarayor-Ekarupatvat 1321
  There is consecutiveness in desires or subconscious contents even though separated by species, space, and time, there being identification of memory and impressions.  
4.10 Tasam-Anaditvam Cha Asiso Nityatvat 1325
  Thirst for happiness being eternal, desires are without beginning.  
4.11 Hetu-Phalasrayalambanair Samgrhitatvad-Esam-Abhave-Tadabhavah 1330
  Being held together by cause and effect, support, and objects, in the absence of these is its absence.  
4.12 Atitanagatam Svarupato-Asti Adhvabhedad-Dharmanam 1334
  The past and the future, exist in their own nature, qualities having different ways.  
4.13 Te Vyaktasuksma Gunatmanah 1342
  These urges or karmas are manifested or unmanifested according to the nature of the gunas  
4.14 Parinamaikatvad-Vastutattvam 1345
  The unity of things is from the unity in changes  
4.15 Vastusamye Cittabhedat-Tayor-Vibhaktah Panthah 1353
  Though the object is the same, the projection is different because of the different nature of the mindstuff.  
4.16 Na Caikacittatantram Vastu Tadapramanakam Tada Kim Syat 1358
  The object cannot be said to be dependent on the perception of a single mind. There being no proof of its existence. It would then become non-existent.  
4.17 Tad-Uparagapeksitvat-Cittasya Vastu Jnatajnatam 1366
  Objects are known or unknown to the mind by virtue of their affecting or no affecting the mind itself.  
4.18 Sada Jnatas-Cittavrttayas-Tat-Prabhoh Purusasyaparinamitvat 1369
  The states of the mind are always known because the master of the mind, the purusa, is unchangeable.  
4.19 Na Tat-Svabhasam Drsyatvat 1378
  The mind is not self-luminous, being an object.  
4.20 Ekasamaye Ca-Ubhaya-Anavadharanam 1318
  From its being unable to cognize both at the same time.  
4.21 Cittantara-Drsye Buddhi-Buddher-Ati-Prasangah Smrti-Sankarascha 1385
  Another cognizing mind being assumed, there will be no end to such assumptions, and confusion of memory will be the result.  
4.22 Citer-apratisakramayas-Tadakarapattau Svabuddhi-Samvedanam 1388
  The essence of knowledge (the purusa) being unchangeable when the mind takes its form, it becomes conscious.  
4.23 Drastr-Drsyoparaktam Cittam Sarvartham 1396
  Colored by the seer and the seen, the mind is able to understand everything.  
4.24 Tad-Asamkhyeya-Vasanabhis-Citram-Api Parartham Samhatyakaritvat 1405
  This mind, though variegated by innumerable desires, acts for another, because it acts in combination.  
4.25 Visesa-Darsina Atmabhava-Bhavananivrttih 1409
  For the discriminating, the perception of the mind as Atman ceases.  
4.26 Tada Vivekanimnam Kaivalya-Pragbhava Cittam 1418
  Then, bent on discriminating, the mind attains the previous state of kaivalya (isolation or freedom).  
4.27 Tat-Chidresu Pratyayantarani Samskarebhyah 1422
  The thoughts that arise as obstacles, or obstructions, to that are from the former impressions.  
4.28 Hanam-Esam Klesavad-Uktam 1413
  Their destruction is in the same manner as of ignorance, egoism and the rest, as said before.  
4.29 Prasamkhyane-Api-Akusidasya Sarvatha Viveka-Khyater-Dharmameghah-Samadhih 1434
  No selfish desire or attachment of any kind is what is needed for the highest illumination. Have desirelessness to the highest degree, nothing stays with you, nothing is yours  
4.30 Tatah Klesa-Karma-Nivrttih 1443
  From that comes cessation of pain and works.  
4.31 Tada Sarvavaranamalapetasya Jnanasyanantyaj- Jneyam-Alpam 1446
  The knowledge, bereft of covering and impurities, becoming infinite, the knowable becomes small.  
4.32 Tatah Krtarthanam Parinama-Krama-Samaptir-Gunanam 1455
  Then are finished the successive-Nirgrahyah Kramah 1459
4.33 Ksana-Pratiyogi Parinamaparanta-Nirgrahyah Kramah 1459
  The changes that exist in relation to moments and which are perceived at the other end are succession.  
4.34 Purusartha-Sunyanam Gunanam Prati-Prasavah Kaivalyam Svarupa-Pratistha Va Citi-Shakter-Iti 1467
  The resolution in the inverse order of the qualities, bereft of any motive of action for the purusa, the being, is kaivalya, freedom, or it is the establishment of the power of knowledge in its own nature.  
4.35 Kaivalya-Nirvanayoh Purnaikyam 1474
  Kaivalya and nirvana are completely identical; nirvana the cessation of the existential being.  
4.36 Kaivalyam Dharma Dharminah Purusasya 1481
  The freedom or liberation is the very state of this substance or the Being. It is not to be attained, not that you experience something new, that liberation is the very nature of the Being.  
4.37 Kaivalye Visve Purusa-Darsanam Puruse Ca Akhila-Visva- Darsanam 1484
  In that state of liberation there is vision of the Being and in the Being there is the vision of the entire universe.  
4.38 Sagunam Satcidanandam Nirgunam Ca tatah Param Tatvam Iti 1489
  Being with attributes is the truth, consciousness and bliss, then, the attributeless Being is transcendental and the thing in itself, tatvataha.  
  INDEX  

Meditation as Spiritual Culmination Yoga Aphorism of Patanjali (Two Big Volumes)

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2008
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8175053097
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From the Jacket

This book is a transcription of Swami Sarvagatananda's classes on the Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali recorded between September 1977 and June 1981.

Here the reader is taken on a fascinating spiritual journey in which he encounters the deep intricacies and mysteries of the mind, and learns about the methods of concentration and its culmination in meditation. The Swami's intimate and first-hand knowledge of this difficult subject is evident in each of his talks. What distinguishes this book from others on the same subject is its extremely exhaustive treatment of each aphorism and its intensely practical approach. It will be immensely helpful to all spiritual aspirants in their quest for control of the mind, which, in the words of the Swami, will help them to make their lives more happy, sublime, peaceful, and integrated.

The question and answer sessions held at the end of each class are a valuable wonderful addition to the book.

Preface

Swami Sarvagatananda conducted Thursday evening Raja Yoga classes at the Rama-krishna Vedanta Society of Massachusetts, in Boston, between September 1977 and June 1981. There were one hundred and thirty two lectures in all. About thirty of us, college students, professor, office workers and retirees, had the good fortune to participate in these classes. It was a character transforming experience for us. We learned that Raja Yoga deals primarily with the mind and its control. But this control cannot be attained without leading a pure life, full of loving concern for all, and reflecting rather than reacting to negative thoughts or circumstances. As the classes progressed their intensity increased. We listened in fascination as the Swami went deeper into the intricacies of the mind, the method of concentration and its culmination in meditation. The Swami's intimate knowledge of this difficult subject enabled him to clear up all our doubts in simple yet convincing language in a question and answer session at the end of each class.

These two volumes contain the transcripts of all of Swami's 132 Raja Yoga lectures, inclusive of the question and answer sessions. They are a gift to us from George Mraz, Swami's devoted personal attendant, who has lived with him and served him in innumerable ways for over 35 years. Those of us who have made the attempt, know how difficult it is to transcribe even a single one-hour lecture from a tape. The task can easily consume several hours of concentrated effort. Nevertheless George painstakingly transcribed all 132 lectures, each lasting almost two hours, with a typewriter. Much later, when the technology became available, George converted the typewritten manuscript into electronic form. This was a crucial step, for it enabled us to re-format the text into its present form with appropriate type-setting tools. But for George's labor of love, extending over more than ten years, them two volumes would never have come out. We owe him a tremendous debt of gratitude.

WE thank Christine Reynolds for designing the attractive style in which this book is for matted, Amy Hendrickson for implementing Christine's design in LaTex (the typesetting language used for the formatting) and Bijoy Misra for transliterating the Sanskrit. Because of its complexity, it will be helpful to describe the manner in which this book is organized. The primary organizational structure is built around the Yoga Aphorisms Spiritual Uses, Concentration: Its Practice, Powers, and Independence, respectively. Volume One contains an Introduction, followed by Chapters One and Two. Volume Two in the Table of Contents Chapters Three and Four, followed by a detailed Index. Each aphorism is listed in the Table of Contents in both transliterated Sanskrit and English. For added convenience, each aphorism number is displayed as a page header on the odd numbered pages of Chapters One through Four. All Sanskrit words that occur in the interior of a page are displayed in italics. This book also has a secondary organizational structure based on the 132 individual lectures. The lectures are listed in a separate Lecture Table of Contents and the lecture number is displayed as a footer at the bottom of each page.

As the book goes to press we thank many devotees for their generous financial contributions towards the production costs.

Finally, our loving pranams to Revered Swami Sarvagatananda.

Introduction

The Kingly Path

Raja Yoga is a science because its entire approach is very scientific. It has been worked out very thoroughly. One can verify every step. One can demonstrate, experience, and explain it in terms of the human psyche. Raja Yoga means the Kingly Path. Why is it called so? Here nothing is based on imagination, or any kind of belief, or faith or conviction or authority. This is one discipline which helps us to grow, to evolve and to gain depth, not from the outside but from within. The mandate is from within. The satisfaction that you get is based on your own experience. It is a great challenge because the whole thing is based on the instrument of experience called the mind. This mind of ours is so mysterious, so valuable, and so precious in our day to day life. Raja Yoga deals with this mind. It is the science of the mind. You need not go anywhere, you can feel every step of its progress. In many of the Upanishads the Rishis indirectly mention the mental discipline and how it helps us in all spiritual struggles. But in Raja Yoga the whole stress is one the mind, not only from the point of the ultimate realization but also from the point of our day to day experience - how you can make your life more sublime, more fruitful, more happy, more peaceful, more integrated. This is one uniqueness that you find in Raja Yoga.

You do not have to wait until ultimate realization comes before results come - every step that you move in this discipline gives you joy in living, makes you feel more harmonious with yourself, with the rest of the world. That is why it has more appeal to the human mind in the East and the West, ancient and modern. Particularly nowadays there is more of an urge in the human mind to study this yoga discipline. Many psychologists, philosophers, and social scientists have now discovered how this discipline helps us to lead a good life, a life which is in tune with our being inside, the society outside, and nature outside. That is why the study of Raja Yoga is a must from the point of every living soul. We should know it, we should have discipline. Every effort that you put into it, every step that you take, to that extent you reap the benefit. Not that the ultimate result must come before you benefit. Even a little bit of this practice of yoga helps you to gain some depth which automatically gives you the joy of living. You can say, "I know now, I can live in peace and I can give that peace to others" - because the word "yoga" means to unite, to yoke this union is the ultimate goal of Raja Yoga. There are many other yogas no doubt; such as Bhakti Yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga. These different disciplines deal with a practical aspect of our personality. Jnana Yoga deals with the thinking faculty, the philosophical aspect of our being, the intellectual side. It helps us to develop. Karma Yoga deals with every action that we perform. At the functioning level Karma Yoga helps us to work in this world, to derive joy and peace in this world, keeping our being active, unconcerned. From the point of the being, Karma Yoga helps our functioning. Bhakti Yoga deals with the devotional, the emotional aspect of our being, deals with the heart; how I feel. The feeling part of the human personality is highly emphasized in Bhakti Yoga.

Every human being is a beautiful blending of thinking, feeling, functioning and restraining. Raja Yoga deals with restraining, the mental aspect of our being, the central aspect of the whole personality, the mind. When our mind is alert, awake, mindful with regard to the situation here, and when we move about, we find in that movement the restraining power and bring into our life the aspect of control. In Raja Yoga the central instrument is the mind, we need Raja Yoga because without this mind control we are lost. Raja Yoga is a very essential discipline. This we all have to develop. Fortunately, in all the four yogas there is no exclusive application of any particular faculty, all these are blended, but in each the emphasis is made on a particular aspect. In Karma Yoga there is Bhakti Yoga, there is Raja Yoga, and there is Jnana Yoga. The more you develop yourself, the more you evolve, the more you gain progress, and the more you come closer to the other faculties, You cannot avoid this because the human being is a blending of all these four. But the emphasis here is on the mind - how to make it strong, harmonious, how to keep it under control, how to apply it in day to day life from the point of my individual personality and from the point of society outside. In this union what will you be? You will be united with yourself, nothing else. In the end, you will discover to your surprise that by following any of the disciplines you are what you are.

A devotee says that this union is God, a Jnani says that it is Brahman, a Karma yogi says that it is a Cosmic Being existing as human beings, and the Raja yogi says that he is with his own Self' his lower self has become one with the higher Self. At present if you ask me who I am, I say I am a swami, I give all my qualifications, the work I do here - Am I confined to these alone? Nothing else? Was I born with all these when I came into this world? no. when I die, do I retain all these? No. Then who am I? I start with this present existential personality - a functioning being. I start from there, gradually I evolve, I gain depth, and I discover my Ground, even the Ultimate Ground of my being. I realize that I am one with it, only I did not know it previously, now I do. I know what I am in reality. That knowledge, that experience, that awareness gives me the clue from the point of my behavior with all of you. When I know what I am then I can relate myself with all of you properly. Suppose I do not know what I am - take for instance, I came from India and I say an Indian citizen, or perhaps you call me a Hindu. Then what do I do? My relationship with you will be on that level: as an Indian or a Hindu. But when I get to this part of my being, the Ground of my being, I discover that I am none of these things. I am more than these. No, I am one with all. From the point of your Ground, from the point of my own Ground, I discover to my surprise that the Ground is the same in all.

This is what Raja Yoga says about gaining that union: first union within. I am united with my own being, with my own real self - and then I discover my union with you also. Then I am in union with the Ultimate Ground, transcendental - and mind that, all the great prophets, great saints and sages, when they realized the ultimate, called this Ground God, or Brahman, or Father in Heaven, or Allah. Let them call it by any name, all have this experience, they are yogis. Sri Krishna tells in the Bhagavad Gita: "I am existing in all beings, I am in the heart of every being." What did Jesus say?" "I am the life, I am one with the Kingdom of Heaven, and that Kingdom of Heaven is within you all." Is that imagination? It is realization, he saw his own being in everyone. Mohammed had that perception of Allah in everyone. He said: "The spirit of Allah is in all of us." Therefore he preached universal brotherhood. So also Sri Ramakrishna, when he came back from the Samadhi state, when somebody asked him: "When you open your eyes now sir, what do you see? When you closed your eyes you must have enjoyed the presence of the divine." "I see the same spark of God in all of you," he said. He went on bowing down to everyone Therefore union within first, union outside second, union with the Ultimate Ground third. Yoga helps you to gain the three levels of union. Then what happens? Then I know to conduct myself in the world, how to relate myself with all of you at your own level, without a comment, without any critics, no condemnation, but accepting everyone as he is. Yoga helps you to gain that perception, that depth, that awareness, no, that oneness with everything. That is the beauty of Raja Yoga. It is a very important discipline, it deals with the total personality, the whole being: the physical, the moral, the mental, and the spiritual aspect. All these aspects are contained in Raja Yoga because the whole being is made to evolve, made to progress. Every aspect of your personality is taken into account.

In Raja Yoga the first consideration is ethical values, moral principles, because in the Ultimate Ground you discover your oneness with all. If that is the end, the means must also be the same. You must conduct yourself in such a way that you are a brother or sister to all. That means the moral values that I put before my being are of the highest type. When I equate myself with all mankind, my conduct must be such as to not to create any discord, resentment, any harsh note. It must be in tune with all because all are part of the whole. If any one of the five fingers is hurt, I am hurt. If they are functioning properly, I feel happy. The whole of society is like that. Therefore moral excellence is the ground of Raja Yoga, and that is also the first principle for human life. We all follow it but we do not know it. Take for instance; a child is born in your house. Before you send the child to school, what do you do? You teach the child how to behave. A child is restless everywhere, it says all sorts of things. We control it, saying "don't do that, don't say that." A bundle of don'ts, don'ts, don'ts, and the child becomes disgusted. Before you say "no", the child says "no." Children themselves repeat the world "no" because that is what they get. With these "no's", with these "do not's, the child gets education: learns how to behave, how to conduct itself, what to avoid, what to follow. If my mother did not use the word "no", I would be in jail today. Fortunately she used the words "no" and "don't". These words straightened my being, now I know how to conduct myself properly.

Before you go out in the world you are taught how to behave at home, what to say, how to behave with your own friends, relatives and strangers. All these things we observe from our parents. When we fail, they correct us and straighten our personality. That is the moral ground yoga deals with this. First moral principles, next physical fitness: how to be healthy physically, how to be strong, how to be free from all ailments, how to avoid physical limitations. In Raja Yoga you find wonderful asanas. Everyone should practice yoga to keep in good physical health. The asana helps to keep us strong There are many asanas, one need not go through them all; some are just for exhibition's sake, for gymnastics - but there are many that are very useful, they teach one how to sit, how to walk, how to breathe, how to avoid certain unfortunate conditions. Physical fitness is an important factor in our human life. We don't us every part of our body in our day to day functioning. The yoga asana help one to deal with the entire body. The golden rule is: "What you do not use you lose." When you don't exercise your body, you lose the benefit of it. It becomes stiff, you end up with many diseases. Not that in our modern society yoga will absolutely keep you in good health; there are unfortunate environmental difficulties. You have pollutions that you have to suffer - but still, physically speaking, it keeps you strong. Physical fitness is a very important factor in yoga. Why? You many ask. If the physical being is not well set, you cannot study your mind. Raja Yoga is based on the science of the mind. If you want to study your mind, you have to gain entrance to it, you have to held to this mind, to catch the mind.

You cannot catch the mind when the mind is moving. If there is pain present in a part of the body, the mind goes there, the mind is so constituted. It is like a watchdog and runs over the whole body. If there is any trouble anywhere - suppose an ant bites you, immediately the mind goes there: "Hey, there is something there," it goes to look at it. It is a big watchdog, it tells you everything. The mind is wonderful for functioning at the physical level. If you want to catch hold of the mind, you have to keep the mind at rest. The first condition is: do not allow the mind to run all over the body. Otherwise you cannot catch it once it goes where there are aches and pains. Therefore keep the body in a good healthy condition. That is why in meditation, when you want to observe your mind, you keep the body at rest, in a steady comfortable posture. That comes from exercising, from practice. When the body is at rest, you can observe the mind, watch the mind, hold on to the mind. Then you can observe how the mind functions. When the mind is moving about, you cannot observe it. To hold the mind, to bring it to your attention, you have to keep it at rest. That is why the first condition in Raja Yoga is to keep the body in good condition, at rest. Then a little of pranayama (control of breath) helps you to bring the internal being under control, from the point of the nervous system and blood circulation; because the body gets not only external troubles but also internal difficulties, and the mind goes there. To avoid this, breathing exercises really help.

Pranayama helps you to keep the entire system, the internal being of the body, in perfect condition, in a still, harmonious condition. Pranayama helps you to control the lungs; it controls the heart, controls all the nerves. Gradually not only the external physical body but also the internal functioning of the body is in tune, is at rest. Then the watchdog keeps silent. There is no need to go anywhere, there is no one coming from outside, no one creating trouble inside, therefore the watch dog keeps quiet. That is the time you are to observe the mind. The third step is mental equilibrium, first: moral excellence, second: physical fitness, third: mental equilibrium. Then the mind is calm and quiet, you can hold the mind, you can observe the mind. You can know how to mind is functioning, where it is set. The mind's ambitions, urges, modifications, likes and dislikes, prejudices, loves and hate, attractions, aversions - all these make the mind move about. They all come to your surface consciousness. You become aware, you know what you are thinking, you know what is troubling you, you become aware of your problems. That is the time when you have a good look at the mind. Observe your own mind, examine, analyze your own mind. Don't be frightened. Raja Yoga says: do not be frightened when worse things come. Many times in your life you say: I wish I could kill that fellow, the mind tells you - when something happens, something he or she did to me, I can get this urge. It is natural to all of us, mind that, so do not be frightened. But now when the thought comes, I know it. Why has it come? Eliminate the cause. Now I don't feel like that, now I know how to conduct myself without hurting anybody. It helps you to observe your mind, actually that is the beginning of Raja Yoga. Observe your own mind, examine your own mind, analyze your own mind to know your own intentions and ambitions and urges. Gradually you are to silence them all.

This is an art: how to silence all these urges, modifications, tendencies. Here is the big struggle, the real struggle of Raja Yoga is at this level: to silence these, because you want to see what is behind these thoughts, what is behind these ambitions and urges, what it gives light to this mind. Behind this mind is me, I am there, my real Self is there behind that mind. I want to silence everything completely, to bring all urges under control. In the language of Jesus Christ this is called purifying your heart - purifying your heart and purifying your consciousness are not two different things, they are exactly the same. How does one purify this mind? Raja Yoga tells you very beautifully what are the obstacles, how these urges come, how the modifications arise, how they tip you off, and, when they come to surface consciousness, what is to be done. When they do not come to surface consciousness they can upset you. Many times you do not know the cause but you know the effect when you say: "I don't know why I don't feel well today; I can't work, I can't think, my mind is disturbed, why I don't know." You know the effect but not the cause. Raja Yoga tells you how to find out the cause, and, if you cannot find the cause, tells you what steps you should take to silence it. Not always is the cause know, many times you don't know it. "I hate so and so, I do not know why, but the moment I see that face I get such a terrible feeling, I can't explain it." No, anybody resembling that face I also hate, anybody bearing that name I hate also. Why it is so, I don't know. The cause is unknown, it is deep inside, but the effect I know. I'm disturbed, I can't help it. Raja Yoga tells you how to manage the situation, what you should do.

Mental equilibrium is the most important factor that you gain when you study Raja Yoga and practice it. What a joy it is! Just imagine, here are the worst types of people in the world and you are in their midst, and you say: "I can live with them. I will accept them, not just tolerate them. I accept them because once I was like that." You will discover to your surprise that once you were just like them, only you have forgotten it. Raja Yoga reveals to you the beauty of your own evolution, what you went through in all your previous lives and in this life. If you see something wrong outside, you will say: "I was like that, all the devils are in me, I don't blame anybody, I have overcome them, I have conquered them and they also will conquer them." Then what do you do? You accept them, you try to help them, you don't condemn anybody. Yoga disciplines give you that kind of insight, that kind of strength. Raja Yoga integrates your entire personality, the whole mind is balanced. What a joy it is. The joy of a Yogi cannot be compared with anything. He has nothing from the point of his possessions, but he has one thing: an integrated mind, harmonized mind, balanced mind, purified mind. That mind gives the individual immense joy. Now, it does not stop there. From this mental equilibrium, in that state you go beyond, transcend the mind. When you silence this mind, the mind has the capacity to go beyond this base level. Just as a plane moving down the runway, gaining speed, goes beyond the runway. So also this mind, going along the track, at the existential level, the human level, the mundane level, has the power to take off. That is called transcendence. When you come to the level of transcendence then you see a great wonder: the real source of the mind, the real Ground of the mind, the real nature of the mind, set in the spirit.

The mind actually is well set in the spirit but it comes down and then we see the mind at the existential level, sensate level, psychophysical level. When it transcends this level, then it gets into the spiritual realm. That is what is called God Consciousness, or Atman, or Brahman - call it by any name. This mind has the power to enter into that realm, then you discover to your surprise your true nature. You take a good look at whatever happened to you in the previous lives or in this life. I am a traveler in this world. I am a citizen of heaven. I am traveling this psychophysical complex. It is mine. Its abode is in the spirit. Gaining that spiritual awareness, that pure Consciousness, one's experience is called Samadhi. That is, you are one with yourself. Then you have the right to say: "I know what I am." It does not mean that you forget everything; it does not mean that you ignore everything. No, it is just natural, normal. As somebody said: "You don't grow two horns, no wings, you are just the same human being." The mind is changed, that's all. Your attitude on life is changed, your whole personality is different, and you accept everyone as your own. As Holy Mother used to say: "They are all mine, what can I do?" You don't want to lose a single soul. Every soul is your own. Therefore your work hard to make everyone your own. You go down to any level to lift them up to make them your own. You don't say: "Oh, I don't care." Never use the words: "I don't care". I do care for everyone, because we are all one at that transcendental level; there we discover the oneness of the spirit.

We are all just like pins in the same pincushion. At the human level, the psychophysical level, we are all separate, but we make this discovery when we realize the goal of Raja Yoga. In the Samadhi state we discover our unity. We are all one with the Ultimate Ground, with the whole of humanity. You are integrated within yourself. The goal of Raja Yoga is to attain to that oneness - union within, without, with the Ultimate Ground, with Godhead. Raja Yoga does not ask you to believe in anything. It asks you only one things: "Do you know that you have a mind?" But never mind if you don't have it now. Start and you will get it, that is the beauty of Raja Yoga, the scientific way of approaching reality. In the ultimate realization you are one with a devotee, a Jnani, a philosopher, a practical man. You identify with everyone because there you discover to your surprise that thinking, feeling, functioning, and restraining are all one there is no separateness in the goal. At the base they are all separate, but in the ultimate, in the center, they are all one therefore a real yogi, whether a Jnana yogi, a Bhakti yogi, Raja yogi, is one with all at the top. They discover to their surprise that they all meet there. Just as when you come to Providence through route #95, route #1A, they all meet in the center of the city. Though all the routes are different, you all meet there, it can't be helped, the goal is the same. That is why Swami Vivekananda beautifully presented that ideal: "all is one". There are different roads, not only from the point of beliefs and faiths, but also from the point of personalities and their aspects. Raja Yoga deals with this discipline. It is called the Royal Road, it is straight, and every step is worked out.

No doubt the Raja Yoga of Patanjali is nothing but a systematizing of the mental disciplines already mentioned in our Upanishads and in the Bhagavad Gita. He has taken the essential aspects, worked out this wonderful system, and placed it before us. In the Gita you get all of these yogas. In the 6th chapter Sri Krishna mentions about meditation. In short, the sum and substance of Raja Yoga is the 6th chapter of the Bhagavad Gita in the aphorisms of Patanjali they are systematized, worked out step by step, from the point of experience. Mind that, over all these 5000 years people have experienced, verified and demonstrated it, and said that it is true. When Swami Vivekananda wrote his Raja Yoga, he gave it a thorough introduction. Read it carefully, how well he explains it. Is a science. You can challenge all these explanations, and you can get the answers. Raja Yoga is a subject which we all have to study, but not from the point of ultimate realization, but rather from the point of our living process in this world, now and here: how to live in peace, give that peace to others, either in your family, among your friends, in national and International affairs. No, most importantly: how to conduct yourself properly, how to hehave as a decent human being. That is what Henry David Thoreau, when he studied yoga, said: "What a book it is, it really makes me a man, it gives me joy to discover that I have these faculties, I can develop them and I can be a decent gentleman." That is why he said "that makes us to be in tune with nature outside, God within." There is no contradiction. Likewise, all the great scholars, when they studied Raja Yoga, discovered wonderful things there.

Raja Yoga is the great science of the mind; no, it is the science of life: how to live here and now. Because we are all so many minds (no two minds are alike), it is very difficult to accept them all, to understand them, to be in tune with them. how many times we have found in our own homes, the father says: "I don't know my son;" the mother says: "I don't know my daughter, what she is;" and children say: "I don't know my father." Living in the same house, moving in day to day life, we don't know each other. Why? There is a big obstacle, something is standing in between. Raja Yoga removes these obstacles, makes one see through them and accept them. It makes you feel one with the whole family. We need that discipline, we need that contemplative process, we need that control of the mind - and that is what Raja Yoga is going to teach us.

 

Contents

 

  VOLUME ONE  
  CHAPTERS ONE AND TWO  
  PREFACE  
  INTRODUCTION  
  The Kingly Path 1
  The Mind 9
  Summary 16
  Samadhi 17
  Summary 23
  CHAPTER ONE
CONCENTRATION: ITS SPIRITUAL USES
 
1.1 Atha Yoganusasanam 29
  Now yoga is explained  
1.2 Yogah Cittavrttinirodhah 30
  Yoga is the control of the urges, modifications or tendencies that arise out of the mind-stuff.  
1.3 Tada Drastuh Svarupe Avasthanam 38
  At that time the seer - that is, the perceiver, the one who
experiences, the individual - rests in his own state.
 
1.4 Vrttisarupyam Itaratra 47
  At other times - other than that of the true state, when the
mind is not resolved, silenced, purified - the seer is identified with the modifications.
 
1.5 Vrttayah Panchatayyah Klistaklistah 49
  There are five classes of modifications, some are painful and some are not.  
1.6 Pramanaviparyayavikalpanidrasmrtayah 50
  These are right knowledge, indiscrimination, verbal delusion,
sleep and memory - anything that comes from the subconscious mind.
 
1.7 Pratyaksanumanagamah Pramanani 58
  Direct perception, inference and competent evidence, are proofs.  
1.8 Viparyayo Mithyajnanam Atadrupapratistham 69
  Indiscrimination is false knowledge not established in real nature.  
1.9 Sabdajnananupati Vastusunyo Vikalpah. 71
  Verbal delusion follows from words having no corresponding reality.  
1.10 Abhava-pratyayalambana Vrttirnidra 72
  Sleep is a vrtti which embraces the feeling of voidness.  
1.11 Anubhutavisayasampramosah Smrtih 74
  Memory is when vrttis of perceived subjects do not slip away
and through impressions come back to consciousness.
 
1.12 Abhyasavairagyabhyam Tannirodhah 75
  Their control is by practice and non-attachment  
1.13 Tatra Sthitau Yatno-abhyasah 83
  Continuous struggle to keep the vrttis, the tendencies, perfectly restrained is practice.  
1.14 Sa Tu Dirghakalanairantaryasatkarasevito Drdhabhumih 89
  It becomes firmly grounded by long constant efforts with great
love and devotion for the end to be attained.
 
1.15 Drstanusravikavisayavitrsnasya Vasikarasamjna Vairagyam 91
  That effect which comes to those who have given up their thirst after objects either seen or heard, and which wills to control the objects, is non-attachment.  
1.16 Tatparam Purusakhyatergunavaitrsnyam 97
  That is extreme non-attachment which gives up even the
qualities, and comes from the knowledge of the Purusa.
 
1.17 Vitarkavicaraanandasmitanugamat Samprajnatah 110
  The concentration called right knowledge is that which is
followed by reasoning, discrimination, bliss, unqualified egoism.
 
1.18 Vramapratyayabhyasapurvah Samskaraseso Anyah 124
  There is another Samadhi which is attained by the constant
practice of cessation of all mental activity, in which the citta
(mind-stuff) retains only the unmanifested impressions.
 
1.19 Bhava-Pratyayo Videha-Prakrtilayanam 153
  This Samadhi when not followed by extreme non-attachment
becomes the cause of the re-manifestation of the gods and of
those that become merged in nature - not gods actually - these are enlightened souls who still have some attachment,
hence have not reached perfection though highly evolved.
 
1.20 Sraddha-Virya-Smrti-Samadhi-Prajna-Purvaka Itaresam 158
  To others this Samadhi comes through faith, energy, memory,
concentration, and discrimination
 
1.21 Tivra-Samveganam-Asannah 164
  Success of Yogis differs according as the means they adopt are mild, medium or intense.  
1.23 Isvara-Pranidhanad-Va 168
  Or by devotion to Isvara  
1.24 Klesa-Karma-Vipakasayair-Aparamrstah Purusavisesah Isvarah 170
  Isvara (the Supreme Ruler) is a special Purusa, untouched by
misery, actions, their results, and desires
 
1.25 Tatra Niratisayam Sarvajnatvabijam 177
  In Him becomes infinite that all-knowingness which in others is (only) a germ.  
1.26 Sa Purvesamapi Guruh Kalena-Anavacchedat 180
  He is the teacher of even the ancient teachers, being not limited by time.  
1.27 Tasya Vacakah Pranavah 187
  His manifested word is 'Om'. Pranavah is a sound symbol
representing Isvara, the Ground
 
1.28 Tajjapas-Tad-Arthabhavanam 190
  The repetition of this and meditating on its meaning is the way  
1.29 Tatah Pratyaka-Cetanadhigamo-Api-Antaraya-Abhavasca. 200
  From that (repetition) is gained introspection, and the destruction (removal) of obstacles.  
1.30 Vyadhi-Styana-Samsaya-Pramada-Alasya-Avirati-Bhranti-Darsana-Alabdhabhumikatva - Anavasthitatvani Cittaviksepah-Te-Antarayah 206
  Disease, mental laziness, doubt, lack of enthusiasm, lethargy, clinging to sense enjoyments, false perception non-attaining concentration, and falling away from the state when obtained, are the obstructing distractions.  
1.31 Dukha-Daurmanasya-Angamejayatva-Svasa-Prasvasa-Viksepasahabhuvah  
  Grief, mental distress, tremor of the body, irregular breathing accompany non-retention of concentration.  
1.32 Tat-Pratisedhartham-Ekatattvabhyasah 220
  To remedy this, the practice of one subject should be made - if you want to avoid tremors, grief, mental distress, constant practice is necessary  
1.33 Maitri-Karuna-Muditopeksanam Sukha-Duhkha-Punyapunya-Visayanam Bhavanatas-Cittaprasadanam 224
  Friendship, mercy, gladness and indifference, being thought of in regard to subjects, happy, unhappy, good and evil respectively, pacify the mind-stuff.  
1.34 Pracchardana-Vidharanabhyam Va Pranasya 231
  By throwing out and restraining the Breath (prana).  
1.35 Visayavati Va Pravrttirutpanna Manasah Sthitinibandhini 251
  Those forms of concentration that bring extraordinary sense perceptions cause perseverance of the mind.  
1.36 Visoka Va Jyotismati 259
  Or (by meditating on) the Effulgent Light, which is beyond all sorrow.  
1.37 Vitaragavisayam Va Cittam 264
  Or (by meditating on the knowledge that comes in dream or sleep)  
1.38 Svapna-Nidra-Jnanalambanam Va 272
  Or by meditating on the knowledge that comes in dream or sleep.  
1.39 Yathabhimata-Dhyanad-Va 276
  Or by meditation on anything that appeals to one as good.  
1.40 Paramanu-paramamahattvantosya Vasikarah 278
  The Yogi's mind thus meditating, becomes unobstructed from the atomic to the infinite. When the mind is one-pointed, it gains purity, even obstacles small or big, do not disturb.  
1.41 Ksina-Vrtter-Abhijatasya-Iva-Maner Grahitr Grahana Grahyesu Tatstha Tad-Anjanata Samapattih 287
  The Yogi whose vrttis (modifications, urges of the mind, or mind-stuff) have thus become powerless (become very faint, the mind waves become fainter, they don't influence you, they don't disturb you) obtains in the receiver (the instrument of) receiving, and the received, concentratedness and sameness, like the crystal.  
1.42 Tatra Sabda-Artha-Jnana-Vikalpaih Samkirna Savitarka Samapattih 300
  The sound, meaning, and resulting knowledge, being mixed up, is called Samadhi with question.  
1.43 Smrti-Parisuddhau Svarupasunya-Iva-Arthamatranirbhasa Nirvitarka 327
  The Samadhi called 'without question' comes when the memory is purified. In this Samadhi, without reasoning, the memory being completely purified, all forms vanish, leaving only the meaning.  
1.44 Etaya-Eva-Savicara Nirvicara Cha Suksma - Visaya Vyakhyata 337
  By this process the concentrations with discrimination and without discrimination, whose objects are finer, are explained.  
1.45 Suksmavisayatvam-Ca-Alinga-Paryavasanam 338
  The finer objects end with Nature, Cosmic wholeness, pradhana.  
1.46 Ta Eva Sabijah Samadhih 345
  These concentrations (or meditations) are with seed  
1.47 Nirvicara-Vaisaradye-Adhyatmaprasadah 347
  The concentration 'without discrimination' being purified, the citta becomes firmly fixed.  
1.48 Rtambhara Tatra Prajna 348
  The knowledge in that is called "filled with Truth."  
1.49 Srutanumanaprajnabhyam-Anyavisaya Visesarthatvat 350
  The knowledge that is gained from testimony and inference is about (other objects or) common objects. That from the Samadhi just mentioned is of a much higher order, being able to penetrate where inference and testimony cannot go.  
1.50 Taj-Jah Samskaro-Anyasamskara-Pratibandhi 369
  The resulting impression from this Samadhi obstructs all other impressions.  
1.51 Tasyapi Nirodhe Sarvanirodhat-Nirbijah Samadhih 374
  By the restraint of even this (impression, which obstructs all other impressions. 374
  CHAPTER TWO
CONCENTRATION: ITS PRACTICE
 
2.1 Tapah-Svadhyaya-Isvarapranidhanini Kriya-Yogah 396
  Mortification, study and the surrendering of the fruits of work are called Kriya yoga.  
2.2 Samadhi-Bhavanarthah Klesatanukaranarthasca 418
  (It is for the) practice of Samadhi and minimizing the pain-bearing obstructions.  
2.3 Avidya-Asmita-Raga-Dvesa-Abhinivesah Klesah 423
  The five pain-bearing obstacles in your life are ignorance and its effects: which are egoism, attachment. Aversion, clinging to life  
2.4 Avidyaksetram-Uttaresam Prasupta-Tanu-Vicchinno daranam 428
  Ignorance is the productive field of all these that follow." (First ignorance, then all other things come) whether they are dormant, attenuated, overpowered, or expanded.  
2.5 Anitya-Asuci-Dukha-Anatmasu Nitya Suci-Sukhatmakhyatir-Avidya 431
  Ignorance is taking that which is non-eternal, impure, painful, and non-Self for the eternal, pure, happy, Atman (Self)  
2.6 Drga-Darsana-Saktyor-Ekatmata-Eva-Asmita 438
  Egoism is the identification of the seer with the instrument of seeing.  
2.7 Sukhanusayi Ragah 444
  Attachment is that which dwells on pleasure  
2.8 Duhkhanusayi Dvesah 449
  Aversion is that which dwells on pain (or dislike, or some other cause of which I do not know).  
2.9 Svarasavahi Viduso-Api Tatharudho-Abhinivesah 453
  Flowing through its own nature, and established even in the learned, is the clinging to life  
2.10 Te Pratiprasavaheyah Suksmah 461
  The fine samskaras are to be conquered by resolving them into their causal state (or eternal state)  
2.11 Dhyanaheyas Tad-Vrttayah 468
  By meditation their (gross) modifications are to be rejected.  
2.12 Klesamulah Karmasayo Drstadrsta-Janmavedaniyah 476
  The 'receptacle of work's has its root in these pain-bearing obstructions (not pain-bearing, klesamulah means anguish, the cause of anguish), and their experience is in this visible life, or in the unseen life.  
2.13 Sati Mule Tad-Vipako Jati-Ayur-Bhogah 488
  The root being there, the fruition comes (in the form of) species, life, and experience of pleasure and pain.  
2.14 Te Hladaparitapaphalah Punyapunya-Hetutvat 499
  They bear fruit as pleasure or pain, caused by virtue or vice.  
2.15 Parinama-Tapa-samskara-Duhkhair-Guna-Vrtti-Virodhat cha Duhkham-Eva Sarvam Vivekinah 504
  To the discriminating, all is, as it were, painful on account of  
2.16 Heyam Duhkham-Anagatam  
  The misery which is not yet come is to be avoided.  
2.17 Drastr-Drsyayoh Samyogo Heyahetuh 516
  The cause of that which is to be avoided is the junction of the seer and the seen.  
2.18 Prakasakriyasthitisilam Bhutaindriyatmakam-Bhogapavargartham Drsyam 528
  The experienced is composed of elements and organs, is of the nature of illumination, action, and inertia, and is for the purpose of experience and release (of the experiencer).  
2.19 Visesavisesa Lingamatra-Alingani Gunaparvani 548
  The states of the qualities are the defined, the undefined, the indicated only, and the singles.  
2.20 Drsta Drsimatrah Suddho-Api Pratyaya-Anupasyah 580
  The seer is intelligence only, and though pure, sees through the coloring of the intellect.  
2.21 Tat-Artha Eva Drsyasya-Atma 596
  The nature of the experienced is for him  
2.22 Krtartham Prati-Nastam-Api-Anastam Tat-Anya-Sadharanatvat 604
2.23 Sva-Svami-Saktyoh Svarupa-Upalabdhihetuh Samyogah 608
  Junction is the cause of the realization of the nature of the powers, the experienced and its Lord.  
2.24 Tasya Hetur-Avidya 617
  Ignorance is its cause.  
2.25 Tad-Abhavat Samyoga-Abhavo Hanam Tad-Drseh Kaivalyam 621
  There being absence of that (ignorance) there is absence of junction, which is the things-to-be-avoided; that is the independence of the seer  
2.26 Viveka-Khyatir-Aviplava Hanopayah 630
  The means of destruction of ignorance is unbroken practice of discrimination.  
2.27 Tasya Saptadha Prantabhumih Prajna 640
  His knowledge is of the sevenfold highest ground  
2.28 Yoganganusthanad-Asuddhiksaye Jnanadiptir-Avivekakhyateh 647
  By the practice of the different parts of Yoga the impurities being destroyed, knowledge becomes effulgent up to discrimination  
2.29 Yama-Niyama-Asana-Pranayama-Pratyahara-Dharana-Dhyana-Samadhayo-Astavangani 658
  Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, and Samadhi are the eight limbs of Yoga.  
2.30 Ahimsa-Satya-Asteya-Brahmacharya-Aparigraha Yamah 668
  Non-hurting, truthfulness, non-stealing, continence, and non-receiving are called yama.  
2.31 Ete Jati-Desa-Kala-Samaya-Anavacchinnah Sarvabhauma Mahavratam 675
  These, unbroken by time, place, purpose and caste rules, are (universal) great vows.  
2.32 Sauca-Santosa-Tapah-Svadhyaya-Isvarapranidhanani Niyamah 679
  Internal and external purification, contentment, mortification, study, and worship of God are the niyamas  
2.33 Vitarka-Badhane Pratipaksabhavanam 668
  To obstruct thoughts which are inimical to Yoga, contrary thoughts should be brought.  
2.34 Vitarka Himsadayah Krta-Karita-Anumodita Lobha-Krodha-Moha-Purvaka Mrdu-Madhya-Adhimatra Duhkha-Ajnana-Anantaphala Iti Pratipaksabhavanam  
  The obstructions to Yoga are killing, falsehood, and the rest, whether committed, caused, or approved; either through avarice, or anger, or ignorance; whether slight, middling, or great; and they result in infinite ignorance and misery. This is (the method of) thinking the contrary.  
2.35 Ahimsapratisthayam Tatsannidhau Vairatyagah 703
  Non-hurting being established, in his presence all enmities cease  
2.36 Satya-Pratisthayam Kriyaphalasrayatvam 710
  By the establishment of truthfulness the Yogi's words become effective. If a man is truthful, by thought, word, or deed, whatever he says happens. The Yogi gets the power of attaining for himself and others the fruits of work without the works  
2.37 Asteya-Pratisthayam Sarvaratnopasthanam 713
  By the establishment of non-stealing all wealth comes to the Yogi  
2.38 Brahmacharya-Pratisthayam Viryalabhah 715
  By the establishment of continence, energy is gained.  
2.39 Aparigrahasthairye Janma Kathanta Sambodhah 717
  When he is fixed in non-receiving, he gets the memory of past life.  
2.40 Saucat-Svanga-Jugupsa Parair-Asamsargah 736
  Internal and external cleanliness being established, arises disgust for one's own body, and (non-contact) with others. "By cleanliness one gets protection of one's body and the cessation of external contacts.  
2.41 Sattva-Suddhi-Saumanasya-Ekagrya-Indriyajaya-Atmadarsana-Yogyatvani Ca 738
  There also arises purification of the sattva, cheerfulness of the mind, concentration, conquest of the senses, and fitness for the realization of the Self  
2.42 Santosad-Anuttamah Sukhalabhah 746
  From contentment comes supreme happiness  
2.43 Kaya-Indriya-Siddhir-Asuddhiksayat Tapah 747
  The result of mortification is bringing powers to the organs and the body, by destroying the impurity.  
2.44 Svadhyayad-Istadevata-Samprayogah 750
  The the repetition of the Mantra comes the realization of the intended deity.  
2.45 Samadhi-Siddhir Isvara-Pranidhanat 752
  By sacrificing all to Isvara comes Samadhi.  
2.46 Sthirasukham-Asanam 759
  Posture is that which is firm and pleasant  
2.47 Prayatna-Saithilya Anantasamapattibhyam 762
  When first sitting for meditation effort and laxity is experienced, there being a constant encountering of these two; make an effort and when it breaks keep on trying.  
2.48 Tato Dvandva-Anabhighatah 763
  Conquering the duality of effort and laxity one gains effortless, easy posture.  
2.49 Tasmin Sati Svasa-Prasvasayor-Gativichchhedah Pranayamah 770
  After taking up posture is the controlling of the motion of exhalation and inhalation.  
2.50 Bahya-Abhyantara-Stambhavrttih Desa-Kala-Samkhyabhih Paridrsto Dirgha Suksmah 776
  Its modifications are either external or internal, or motionless, regulated by place, time and number, either long or short.  
2.51 Bahya-Abhyantara-Visayaksepi Chaturthah 781
  The fourth is restraining the prana, reflecting on external or internal objects.  
2.52 Tatah Ksiyate Prakasavaranam 784
  From that, the covering to the Light of the citta is attenuated.  
2.53 Dharanasu Ca Yogyata Manasah 787
  Therefore when one practices like this, the mind becomes fit for concentration.  
2.54 Sva-Visaya-Asamprayoge Cittasvarupanukara Iva-Indriyanam Pratyaharah 790
  The drawing in of the sense organs is by their giving up their own objects and taking the form of the mind-stuff, as it were.  
2.55 Tatah Parama Vasyata-Indriyanam 810
  Thence arises supreme control of the sense organs.  
  SECOND VOLUME  
  CHAPTERS THREE AND FOUR  
  Chapter Three Powers  
3.1 Desa-Bandhas-Cittasya Dharana 843
  Dharana is holding the mind on the some particular phase, point, object, idea, symbol, thought.  
3.2 Tatra Pratyayaikatanata Dhyanam 852
  An unbroken flow of that concentration in that object is called dhyana.  
3.3 Tad-Eva-Arthamatra-Nirbhasam Svarupasunyam-Iva Samadhih 887
  When that, giving up all forms, reflects only the meaning, it is Samadhi: culmination, one with the highest.  
3.4 Trayam-Ekatra Samyamah 918
  These three put together is called samyama  
3.5 Taj-Jayat Prajnalokah 932
  By the conquest of that comes the light of knowledge (pure Consciousness)  
3.6 Tasya Bhumisu Viniyogah 944
  That should be employed in stages.  
3.7 Trayam-Antarangam Purvebhyah 951
  These three are more internal than those that precede  
3.8 Tad-Api Bahirangam Nirbijasya 957
  Concentration, meditation, culmination, these three also become external from the point of pure Consciousness  
3.9 Vyutthana-Nirodha-Samskarayor-Abhibhava-Pradurbhavau Nirodha-Ksana-Cittanvayo Nirodha-Parinamah 967
  By the control of the disturbed impressions of the mind, and by the rise of impressions of control, the mind, which persists in that moment of control is said to attain the controlling modifications.  
3.10 Tasya Prasantavahita Samskarat 972
  Its flow becomes steady (or calm and serene) by habit.  
3.11 Sarvarthataikagratayoh Ksayodayau Chittasya Samadhi-Parinamah 977
  Taking in all sorts of objects, and concentrating upon one object, these two powers being destroyed and manifested respectively the mind-stuff gets the transformation called Samadhi.  
3.12 Santoditau Tulyapratyayau Cittasyaikagrata-Parinamah  
  When the past and the present look similar, when you observe the mind, when the flow is constant, you don't hold any thought.  
3.13 Etena Bhutendriyesu Dharma-Laksana-Avastha-Parinama Vyakhyatah 993
  By this is explained the threefold transformation of form, time and state, in fine or gross matter, and in the senses (or organs).  
3.14 Santoditavyapadesya-Dharmanupati Dharmi 1009
  That which is acted upon by transformations, either past, present or yet to be manifested, is the qualified.  
3.15 Kramanyatvam Parinamanyatve Hetuh 1011
  The succession of changes is the cause of manifold evolution  
3.16 Parinama-Trayasamyamad-Atitanangatajnanam 1015
  By making samyama on the three sorts of changes comes the knowledge of past and future.  
3.17 Sabda-Artha-Pratyayanam-Itaretara-Adhyasat-Sankara-Tat-Pravibhagasamyamat-Sarvabhutarutajnanam 1023
  By making samyama on word, meaning, and knowledge, which are ordinarily confused, comes the knowledge of animal sounds.  
3.18 Samskara-Saksat-Karanat-Purvajatijnanam 1027
  By perceiving the mental impressions - by making samyama on the impressions you can find out your past life.  
3.19 Pratyayasya Parachittajnanam 1039
  By making samyama on associations of beings, one becomes aware of the knowledge or the mind-stuff of that person.  
3.20 Na Ca Tat Salambanam Tasya-Avisavi-Bhutatvat 1043
  But not its contents - you know the attitude of the mind but not its contents - that not being the object of the samyama.  
3.21 Kaya-Rupa-Samyamat-Tat-Grahya-Sakti-Stambhe Caksuh-Prakasa-Asamyoge-Antardhanam 1047
  By making samyama on the form of the body, the perceptibility of the form being obstructed and the power of manifestation in the eye being separated, the Yogi's body becomes unseen. (Here is concentration on form, continue it, the form disappears. To whom? To the one who concentrates. It is not his body disappearing.)  
3.22 Etena Sabdadi-Antardhanam-Uktam 1058
  The disappearance of or concealment of words which are being spoken and such other things, are also explained.  
3.23 Sopakramam Nirupakramam Cha Karma Tat-Samyamad-Aparantajnanam-Aristebhyo Va 1070
  Karma is of two kinds: soon to be fructified, and later to be fructified. By making samyama the Yogis know the exact time of separation from their bodies.  
3.24 Maitryadisu Balani 1082
  By making samyama on friendship, mercy, etc., the Yogi excels in the respective qualities.  
3.25 Balesu Hastibaladini 1086
  By making samyama on the strength of the elephant and others, their respective strength comes to the Yogi.  
3.26 Pravrttyalokanyasat Suksma Vyavahitaviprakrstajnanam 1088
  By making samyama on the Effulgent Light, comes the knowledge of the fine, the obstructed, and the remote.  
3.27 Bhuvanajnanam Surye Samyamat 1092
  By making samyama on the sun, comes the knowledge of the world - not knowledge of the world, but knowledge of the planets.  
3.28 Candre Taravyuhajnanam 1094
  By making samyama on the moon comes the knowledge of the cluster of stars  
3.29 Dhruve Tad-Gatijnanam 1097
  On the polestar, when you make samyama, comes the knowledge of the motions of the stars.  
3.30 Nabhi Cakre Kayavyuhajnanam 1105
  By making samyama on the navel circle comes the knowledge of the constitution of the body.  
3.31 Kanthakupe Ksutpipasanivrttih 1107
  If you make samyama on the hollow of the throat, you can control your hunger and thirst.  
3.32 Kurma-Nadyam Sthairyam 1110
  On the nerve called kurma comes fixity of the body.  
3.33 Murdha-Jyotisi Siddha-Darsanam 1116
  When you make samyama on the upward Light, upward consciousness, then you become aware of the higher levels of consciousness.  
3.34 Pratibhad-Va Sarvam 1122
  Or by the power of pratibha, all knowledge - vivid imagination - ending in intuition, a kind of genius.  
3.35 Hrdaye Citta-Samvit 1130
  If you make samyama in the heart, comes knowledge of minds, total perception, illumination.  
3.36 Sattva-Purusayor-Atyantasamkirnayoh Pratyayavisesad Bhogah Pararthatvat Svarthasamyamat Purusajnanam 1134
  All enjoyment or experience is due to the false identification of the mind and the soul or Self, which are completely unmixed. Mind is for the sake of Self, and not independent, samyama on the Self-existing One gives the knowledge of the Being.  
3.37 Tatah Pratibha-Sravana-Vedana-Adarsa-Asvada-Varta Jayante 1143
  From that arises the knowledge belonging to the pratibha, (that is: intuition, illumination; no supernatural perception) and hearing, touching, seeing, tasting, and smelling.  
3.38 Te Samadhavupasarga Vyutthane Siddhayah 1146
  These are obstacles to Samadhi, but they are powers in their worldly state  
3.39 Bandha-Karana-Saithilyat Pracara-Samvedanat Ca Cittasya Para-sariravesah 1148
  When the cause of the bondage of the mind-stuff, psycho-physical complex, becomes loosened, the Yogi, by his knowledge of its channels of activity has the power to influence other bodies.  
3.40 Udanajayat-Jala-Panka-Kantakadisu-Asanga Utkrantisca 1169
  By conquering the current called udana the Yogi does not sink in water, on in swamps, he can walk on thorns, etc., and can die at will.  
3.41 Samanajayat Prajvalanam 1174
  By the conquest of the current samana he is surrounded by a blaze of light.  
3.42 Srotrakasayoh Sambandhasamyamad-Divyam Srotram 1177
  By making samyama on the relation between the ear and the akasa comes divine hearing.  
3.43 Kaya Akasayoh Sambandhasamyamat Laghutula Samapattesca-Akasagamanam 1183
  By making samyama on the relation between this body and the space, this relationship, this contact between the body and the space, and becoming light as cotton - by that samyama on this space and body you make the body very light.  
3.44 Bahir-Akalpita Vrttir-Mahavideha tatah Prakasa-Avarana-Ksayah 1185
  By making samyama on the "real modifications" of the mind, outside of the body, called great disembodiedness comes disappearance  
3.45 Sthula-Svarupa-Suksma-Anvaya-Arthavatva-Samyamad-Bhutajayah 1195
  If you make samyama on matter, that is what you gain.  
3.46 Tato-Animadi-Pradurbhavah Kaya-Sampad-Tad-Dharma-Anabhi-ghatasca 1197
  From that comes minuteness and the rest of the powers, "glorification of the body," and indestructibleness of the bodily qualities.  
3.47 Rupa-Lavanya-Bala-Vajra-Samhananatvani Kayasampat 1199
  The "glorification of the body" is beauty, complexion, strength, adamantine hardness.  
3.48 Grahana-Svarupa-Asmitanvayarthavatva-Samyamadi-Indriyajayah 1205
  By making samyama on perception, the nature of sensation, their association with the ego consciousness, and their purposiveness, one gains mastery over the senses.  
3.49 Tato Manojavitvam Vikaranabhavah Pradhanajayasca 1210
  From that comes to the body the power of rapid movement like the mind, power of the organs independently of the body, and conquest of nature. Then the mind instantaneously, effortlessly, and completely conquers the nature.  
3.50 Sattva-Purusanyata-Khyatimatrasya Sarvabhavadhisthatrtvam Sar-vajnatrtvam-Ca 1215
  By making samyama on the discrimination between Sattva and the purusa come omnipotence and omniscience. By making samyama on pure Being and discriminative knowledge, one gains transcendence from this relative world.  
3.51 Tad-Vairagyad Api Dosa-Bija-Ksaye Kaivalyam 1220
  By giving up even these powers comes the destruction of the very seed of limitation, this leads to kaivlalya.  
3.52 Sthanyupanimantrane Sanga-Smayakaranam Punaranista Prasangat 1228
  The yogi should not feel allured or flattered by the overtures of celestial, or higher, beings for fear of evil, or temptations, again.  
3.53 Ksana-Tat-Kramayoh Samyamad-Vivekajam Jnanam 1237
  By making samyama on a particle of time and its precession and succession comes discrimination  
3.54 Jati-Laksana-Deshair-Anyatanavacchedat-Tulyayos-Tatah-Pratipattih 1242
  Those things which cannot be differentiated by species, sings and place, even they will be discriminated by the above samyama.

 

 
3.55 Tarakam Sarva-Visayam Sarvatha-Visayam Akramam-Ceti-Vivekajam-Jnanam 1249
  By the similarity of the purity between the sattva and the purusa, comes kaivalya. Liberation is attained when the mind becomes as pure as the Self.  
3.56 Sattva-Purusayoh Suddhi-Samye Kaivalyam-Iti 1253
  By the similarity of the purity between the sattva and the purusa, comes kaivalya. Liberation is attained when the mind becomes as pure as the Self  
  CHAPTER FOUR
INDEPENDENCE
 
4.1 Janmausadhi-Mantra-Tapah-Samadhijah Siddhayah 1262
  Success in Samadhi or success in liberation or attainment is due to birth, food, mantra (or initiation) or self-control.  
4.2 Jatyantara-Parinamah Prakrtyapurat 1267
  The change into another species is by the filling in of nature  
4.3 Nimittam-Aprayojakam Prakrtinam Varanabhedastu Tatah Ksetrika Vat 1275
  Good and bad deeds are not the direct causes in the transformations of nature, but they act as breakers of obstacles.  
4.4 Nirmanachittani-Asmitamatrat 1282
  From egoism alone proceeds the created mind.  
4.5 Pravrttibhede Prayojakam Cittam-Ekam-Anekesam 1287
  Though the activities of the different created minds are various, the one original mind is the controller of them all.  
4.6 Tatra Dhyanajam-Anasayam 1290
  The mind that comes out of Samadhi or meditation alone is free from karma.  
4.7 Karmasuklakrsnam Yoginas-Trividham-Itaresam 1300
  Karma is neither good nor bad for the yogis; for others they are threefold - good, bad and indifferent.  
4.8 Tatas-Tad-Vipakanugunanam-Eva-Abhivyaktir-Vasananam 1309
  From these threefold works are manifested in each state only those desires fitting to that state alone.  
4.9 Jati-Desa-Kala-Vyavahitanam-Api-Anantaryam Smrti-Samskarayor-Ekarupatvat 1321
  There is consecutiveness in desires or subconscious contents even though separated by species, space, and time, there being identification of memory and impressions.  
4.10 Tasam-Anaditvam Cha Asiso Nityatvat 1325
  Thirst for happiness being eternal, desires are without beginning.  
4.11 Hetu-Phalasrayalambanair Samgrhitatvad-Esam-Abhave-Tadabhavah 1330
  Being held together by cause and effect, support, and objects, in the absence of these is its absence.  
4.12 Atitanagatam Svarupato-Asti Adhvabhedad-Dharmanam 1334
  The past and the future, exist in their own nature, qualities having different ways.  
4.13 Te Vyaktasuksma Gunatmanah 1342
  These urges or karmas are manifested or unmanifested according to the nature of the gunas  
4.14 Parinamaikatvad-Vastutattvam 1345
  The unity of things is from the unity in changes  
4.15 Vastusamye Cittabhedat-Tayor-Vibhaktah Panthah 1353
  Though the object is the same, the projection is different because of the different nature of the mindstuff.  
4.16 Na Caikacittatantram Vastu Tadapramanakam Tada Kim Syat 1358
  The object cannot be said to be dependent on the perception of a single mind. There being no proof of its existence. It would then become non-existent.  
4.17 Tad-Uparagapeksitvat-Cittasya Vastu Jnatajnatam 1366
  Objects are known or unknown to the mind by virtue of their affecting or no affecting the mind itself.  
4.18 Sada Jnatas-Cittavrttayas-Tat-Prabhoh Purusasyaparinamitvat 1369
  The states of the mind are always known because the master of the mind, the purusa, is unchangeable.  
4.19 Na Tat-Svabhasam Drsyatvat 1378
  The mind is not self-luminous, being an object.  
4.20 Ekasamaye Ca-Ubhaya-Anavadharanam 1318
  From its being unable to cognize both at the same time.  
4.21 Cittantara-Drsye Buddhi-Buddher-Ati-Prasangah Smrti-Sankarascha 1385
  Another cognizing mind being assumed, there will be no end to such assumptions, and confusion of memory will be the result.  
4.22 Citer-apratisakramayas-Tadakarapattau Svabuddhi-Samvedanam 1388
  The essence of knowledge (the purusa) being unchangeable when the mind takes its form, it becomes conscious.  
4.23 Drastr-Drsyoparaktam Cittam Sarvartham 1396
  Colored by the seer and the seen, the mind is able to understand everything.  
4.24 Tad-Asamkhyeya-Vasanabhis-Citram-Api Parartham Samhatyakaritvat 1405
  This mind, though variegated by innumerable desires, acts for another, because it acts in combination.  
4.25 Visesa-Darsina Atmabhava-Bhavananivrttih 1409
  For the discriminating, the perception of the mind as Atman ceases.  
4.26 Tada Vivekanimnam Kaivalya-Pragbhava Cittam 1418
  Then, bent on discriminating, the mind attains the previous state of kaivalya (isolation or freedom).  
4.27 Tat-Chidresu Pratyayantarani Samskarebhyah 1422
  The thoughts that arise as obstacles, or obstructions, to that are from the former impressions.  
4.28 Hanam-Esam Klesavad-Uktam 1413
  Their destruction is in the same manner as of ignorance, egoism and the rest, as said before.  
4.29 Prasamkhyane-Api-Akusidasya Sarvatha Viveka-Khyater-Dharmameghah-Samadhih 1434
  No selfish desire or attachment of any kind is what is needed for the highest illumination. Have desirelessness to the highest degree, nothing stays with you, nothing is yours  
4.30 Tatah Klesa-Karma-Nivrttih 1443
  From that comes cessation of pain and works.  
4.31 Tada Sarvavaranamalapetasya Jnanasyanantyaj- Jneyam-Alpam 1446
  The knowledge, bereft of covering and impurities, becoming infinite, the knowable becomes small.  
4.32 Tatah Krtarthanam Parinama-Krama-Samaptir-Gunanam 1455
  Then are finished the successive-Nirgrahyah Kramah 1459
4.33 Ksana-Pratiyogi Parinamaparanta-Nirgrahyah Kramah 1459
  The changes that exist in relation to moments and which are perceived at the other end are succession.  
4.34 Purusartha-Sunyanam Gunanam Prati-Prasavah Kaivalyam Svarupa-Pratistha Va Citi-Shakter-Iti 1467
  The resolution in the inverse order of the qualities, bereft of any motive of action for the purusa, the being, is kaivalya, freedom, or it is the establishment of the power of knowledge in its own nature.  
4.35 Kaivalya-Nirvanayoh Purnaikyam 1474
  Kaivalya and nirvana are completely identical; nirvana the cessation of the existential being.  
4.36 Kaivalyam Dharma Dharminah Purusasya 1481
  The freedom or liberation is the very state of this substance or the Being. It is not to be attained, not that you experience something new, that liberation is the very nature of the Being.  
4.37 Kaivalye Visve Purusa-Darsanam Puruse Ca Akhila-Visva- Darsanam 1484
  In that state of liberation there is vision of the Being and in the Being there is the vision of the entire universe.  
4.38 Sagunam Satcidanandam Nirgunam Ca tatah Param Tatvam Iti 1489
  Being with attributes is the truth, consciousness and bliss, then, the attributeless Being is transcendental and the thing in itself, tatvataha.  
  INDEX  
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