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Mudras in Buddhist and Hindu Practices: An Iconographic Consideration

Mudras in Buddhist and Hindu Practices: An Iconographic Consideration

Specifications

Item Code: IDE188

by Fredrick W. Bunce

Hardcover (Edition: 2005)

D. K. Printworld. Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN 81-2460-312-X

Language: English
Size: 11.2" X 8.8"
Pages: 376 (Figures: 715)
Weight of the Book: 1.310 Kg
Price: $105.00
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Description

From The Jacket
Mudras occupy an important place in Buddhist and Hindu religious practices as these signify special meanings, associated with specific divinities, associated with specific divinities and rites, which cannot be represented any other way.

This book is a dictionary of mudras in Hindu and Buddhist religious practices that lists the various mudras – deity-centre, rite-centred, yogic-centred, and so on –illustrating each with a simple drawing drawn generally from the perspective of one holding the mudras. It contains references to literary and other source that reveal a lot about the mudras – their description in the texts, rites associated with the mudras in the text as well as the varied interpretations of a number of mudras in the different texts. The book also has an introduction on Hindu and Buddhist mudras that goes into iconographic features associated with deities along with technical descriptions and the subcategories and further divisions into which mudras are arranged. It scrutinises the work done by a number of scholars on the subject to throw further light on the subject.

The volume will prove indispensable to all students and scholars who are engaged in study of Hindi and Buddhist religious traditions and practices.

Fredrick W. Bunce, a PhD and a cultural historian of international eminence, is an authority on ancient iconography and Buddhist arts. He has been honoured with prestigious awards/commend-ations and is listed in who's who in American Art and the International Biographical Dictionary, 1980. He is currently Professor Emeritus of Art, Indiana. He has authored the following books all published D.K. Printworld:

· Buddhist Textile of Laos, Lan Na and the Isan – The Iconography of Design Elements.

· A Dictionary of Buddhist and Hindu Iconography.

· An Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Saints and Demons (2 vols.).

· An Encyclopaedia of Hindu Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Demons and Heroes (3 vols.).

· The Iconography of Architectural Plans – A Study of the Influence of Buddhist and Hinduism on Plans of South and Southeast Asia.

· Islamic Tombs in India – The Iconographical and Genesis of their Design.

· Monuments of India and the Indianized States.

· The Mosques of the Indian Subcontinent – Their Development and Iconography.

· Numbers – Their Iconographic Consideration in Buddhist and Hindu Practices.

· Royal Palaces, Residences and Pavilions of India – An Iconographic Consideration.

· The Sacred Dichotomy: Thoughts and Comments on The Duality of Female and Male Iconography in South Asia and the Mediterranean.

· The Tibetan Iconography of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and other Deities – A Unique Pantheon.

· The Yantra of Deities and their Numerological Foundations – An Iconographic Consideration.

Preface
The genesis of this compilation has come from three works which the author had previously published-i.e., An Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Saints and Demons: With Special focus on Iconographic Attributes; A Dictionary of Buddhist and Hindu Iconography-Illustrated-Objects, Devices, Concepts, Rites and Related Terms; and An Encyclopaedia of Hindu Deities, Demigods, Godlings Demons and Heroes; with Special Focus on Iconographic Attributes. It was noted that there were a number of mudra which were specifically assigned to the deities of the two pantheons. Also, a number of these mudra were identical to those practiced by Tibetan, Chinese and Japanese Buddhist (Vajrayana, Mantrayana) Traditions and held or formed by a devotee or priest during various rites, as well as various yogic and dramatic practices. Indentical, but frequently with different terms or names. It was decided to compile the hundreds of mudra-i.e., deity centered, rite centered, yogic centered and dramatic centered-in one volume and to illustrated each.

In so doing, it is to noted that there are numerous citations. Some may feel that the notes are inordinate in their profusion. However, they were included so that the reader may easily: refer to the proper locations, become aware of the varied interpretations of a number of mudra, and be made aware of clarifying additions made by the author.

It was decided to illustrate the mudra with drawings for ease of identification. Each unique mudra is illustrated by an individual drawing. The drawings are generally drawn from the perspective of the one holding the mudra, except in those instances where it was deemed more illustrative to draw the mudra from the viewer's standpoint.

Introduction
>From the mundane to the esoteric, from the sacred to the profane, from the religious to the secular, symbols, iconographs, have been part of the human repertoire since time in memorium. Some of the earliest elements of iconography are to be seen in pertoglyphs and paintings preserved on the walls of caves. Whatever humankind has touched or made can be seen as a symbol.

Symbols of wealth and power may be the most ostentatious-from an emerald necklace to a Rolls Royce, or a villa on the Riviera. Conspicuous consumption sets one group part from another, the "have" from the "have notes," the wealthy from the less wealthy or poor. Symbols of rank may be viewed in various circumstances-e.g., the cut and shape of an academic hood worn during formal ceremonies, the shape, size and adornment of the coronets of peers worn during a coronation; and in Southeast Asia the wearing of yellow clothing has been and still is reserved for royalty (sultans) and their immediate family. There are symbols which have been associated with vocation-e.g., a needle and thread with a tailor, or a hammer and saw with a carpenter. A flat brimmed, high crown bowler-like hat identifies Peruvian Indians, or a full feathered headdress with feathered trailer signifies members of the Sioux Tribe. all are symbols of belonging and affiliation.

These secular symbols and the myriad others have been overshadowed by religious symbols. This is particularly true in the visual arts.

There are a number of iconographic features associated with both Buddhist and Hindu deities with rather precise, technical meanings and/or descriptions. Terms which apply when vajra (Ind.; Tib.: rdor-rje) refers to a diamond or adamantine scepter which is symbolic of indestructibility and the wisdom which destroys passion. Its form is rather precise, allowing architectural form that is synonymous with Buddhism; or a trident (Ind.: trisula; Tib.: rtsegsum) which is more often seen in Hindu iconography. The various devices with characteristics unique to their practices are, indeed numerous and sometimes rather complicated.

Iconic attributes are not limited to objects held or worn, but also apply to bodily forms as well. Among the most important of these traits are the positions-i.e., ritual positions-held by the hands(s) of the various deities-i.e., mudras or hastas? Mudras, or hand positions are not the sole province of either the Hindu (Brahmanic) or Buddhist religions. In Christianity hand positions are often a telling feature of the Deity or of a saint. Frequently the Lord Christ is shown with right hand raised, his index and middle fingers extended upwards, his ring and little fingers folded into the palm and the thumb overlapping the latter two. This is known as a symbol of grace or benediction or of forgiveness. Likewise, a female saint may be depicted with their hands crossed over her breasts. This is particularly true of martyrs. That hand position signifies resignation and the acceptance of the will of God. Also, this latter position is often seen to be held by body of a deceased in the Christian tradition. The meaning is the same-acceptance of God's will.

Very often Buddhist and Hindu mudras indicate the character of the deity and in most cases they are a great aid in identifying the particular deity in question. In addition, a number of the mudras-i.e., Tantric mudras-are held by the devotees and/or the priests/lamas who are participating in a specific ceremony.

For the casual observer or devotee the presentation in either two-or three-dimensional form of a deity, whether Buddhist or Hindu, is important. The various technical terms that are applied to the deity are, in most cases, of little interest to these casual spectators. For the student/researcher of religious practices, these technical/descriptive terms began assume some tangible and/or iconic importance.

Mudras can be arranged into four subcategories-i.e.,1) those which are general held or depicted in the representation of deities, demigods, godlings, demons and heroes, both Buddhist and hindu,2) those which are associated with particular tantric worship, particularly of Japanese, Chinese and Tibetan Vajrayana or Mantrayana rites,3) those which are associated with yogic meditational practices, and 4) those which are associated with dramatic practices, including dance. There are a number of mudras which are unique to or are strictly deity-centered-e.g., dharmacakra-mudra or varjrahumkara-mudra-others are similar or identical with deity-centered mudras, but with different titles or names-e.g., pataka-mudras (abhaya-mudras) or the drama oriented suchi-mudra (trajani-mudra)-and still others which are unique to tantric, yogi and dramatic practices. The first category, those associated with specific deities, is rather finite-amounting to a few score positions. It is within the category of tantric rites, particularly as practiced in Japan, that hand positions. It is within the category of tantric rites, particularly as practices in Japan, that hand position multiply to the hundreds.

Within these four subcategories the mudras may be further delineated into single hand (Ind.: asamyutta) and combined (Ind.: samyutta) or two-handed mudras. Single hand, "static" positions predominates within the first-i.e., the deity centered-group. That is not to say that mudras involving both hands, combined mudras, do not form an important part within this category. When one merely considers the possible variations of a single fist the myriad of possible mudras is truly staggering-e.g., 1) fist with thumb placed on the third phalange of the index finger, 2) fist with thumb placed on the second phalange of the index finger, 3) fist with thumb placed on the first phalange of the index finder, 4) fist with thumb folded inside the fingers, 5) fist with thumb folded inside the fingers and the index finger curled so that its nail rests on the second phalanges of the thumb, etc., etc., etc. Among the latter three categories single hand mudras do exist and are of some importance. However, within these categories the combined-form mudras proliferates. In tantric, yogic and dramatic practices, mudras are formed and movement is frequently required to fulfill the tenets of the particular mudra-i.e., within the rites of Tendai Buddhism of Japan the "Hak-Ken: Mudra for sending off the Vision" requires a triple "flicking motion" of the index fingers.

In considering just two works-i.e., Lokesh Chandra and Sharada Rani, Mudras in Japan: etc. and Gauri Devi, Esoteric Mudras of Japan: etc.-1,811 separate illustrations needed to be considered. A large number were repeated. In the case of the "vajranjali-mudra," it was duplicated one-hundred-seventeen times in the two works. A system was needed to facilitate the ease of identification of these 1,811 illustrations. They may be grouped into approximately 4630 different and distinct mudras. This identification system involved first: single, double or combination mudras and their variations. Single and mudras are:1) fist-type mudras: those in which three or more finger (including the thumb) are brought into or in close proximity with the palm, 2) open hand-type mudras: those in which two or less fingers (including the thumb) are brought into or in close proximity with the palm, and 3) others: single hand mudras which to not conform to the two variations noted above. Double or combination hand mudras are:1)Inner fist-type mudras ("Inner Bonds Fist" [Jap.: naibaku ken-in]): in which three or more fingers (including the thumb) are interlaced and are folded into the palm of the hand, 2) outer fist-type mudras ("Outer Bonds [Jap.: gebaku ken-in]): in which three or more fingers (including the thumb) are interlaced and rest on the back of the hand, 3) anjali-type mudras: where hands are brought together, palm towards palm, the finger are extended upwards and tips generally touch or are in close proximity, 4) stupa-type mudras: similar to the anjali-type except, the thumbs rest together and point upwards, and the tips of the forefingers touch the tips of the thumbs in various manner (i.e., tips-to-tips, tips, tips of the index fingers in front of the tips of the thumbs, or tips of the index finger behind of the tips of the thumbs), 5) dhyana-type mudras: where one hand rests upon the other, the fingers generally extended in some manner, and 6) Others: double or combination-type mudras which to not conform to the five double variations noted above.

There are numerous English sources which in part deal with these myriad iconic features in greater or lesser detail. There are, on the other hand, isolated studies which are quite detailed. For the student/researcher these sources become quite important, particularly if he or she is not acquainted or fluent in the languages of the numerous prime sources-e.g., Sanskrit, Tibetan, Japanese, Chinese, Mongolian, etc. Clarity of description assumes the level of a rime concern.

Discrepancies within the descriptive passages become highly problematical. It becomes obvious in consulting the various sources available that there is, if not a discrepancy or confusion, at least some variation(s) which exists between the written term and the visualized or drawn mudras and / or asanas. When confronting the term "anjali mudras" brings forth seemingly insoluble conundrums-i.e., there are described and/or shown three distinct forms which are related only through the use of the descriptive terms "salutation," greeting," or "worship." Another problematical pose is the vyakhyana mudra. It is described as similar or another name for: the dharmachakra mudras, the chin mudra, or thee vitarka mudra. Such problems are not isolated to the various mudras. In a similar manner, this apparent confusion or discrepancy also can be seen in asanas. The asana known as ardhaparyankasana is seen by some as a seated position while others view it as a standing position. Even the pose known as alidhasana, which is generally seen as a standing pose related to shooting a bow and arrow, is by one source named as a seated posture!

There were a number of problems which arose in the process of this compilation. Numerous descriptions found in A. Coomaraswamy, The Mirror of Gesture, were ambiguous and confusing. The importance of this work is not to be discounted, however, there are a number of confusing descriptions. Nonetheless, problems with the description were plentiful-e.g., regarding mudras entitled: "Aviddha-vakra (swinging curve):..Pataka hands are shown with grace and with (movement of) the elbows" or "Nitamba (buttocks): Pataka hands face upwards, turned over, (extended from) the shoulder to the buttocks." In supplying a clear verbal description the "usage(s) " were taken into account and certain "leaps of faith" hand to be made. These interpretational descriptions are duly noted. In the two works which display hundreds of esoteric Japanese Mantrayana mudras-i.e., Gauri Devi, Esoteric Mudras of Japan: etc., and Lokesh Chandra and Sharada Rani, Mudras in Japan: etc.-numerous mudras were not entitled-e.g., LCS, pp., 64#1.32, 116 #2,175, 174# 3.144-3.146, etc.-while there were mudras which bore titles that described their particular use during the various rites (in many cases there was conflict)-e.g., GDe, p. 166, "Mudra of Ratna Bodhisttva (i.e. of Vajraratna)," and the identical mudra on p. 178," Mudra of Arya Avalokitesvara, no.2," and again the identical mudra in LCS, p. 114, # 2.167, "Vajraraksa bidhisattva," and still further, the identical mudras on p. 259, # 4.180" Mudra of the edict of gods on earth." In none of these last four mudras was the gesture given either a Japanese or Indic name! Luckily, the mudras is virtually identical to the uttarabodhi noted and illustrated in a number of sources.

Finally, a number of sources, particularly secondary sources, possess apparent errors which cannot be attributed to the prime sources, rut to lack of adequate proofing. The publication: Mudra Vigyan – A Way of Life, indicates a number of spelling errors or un-noted variations-e.g., "sinhakrant" (p. 53), "shinghakrant" (p.86) and "singhakrant" (p. 108) all for the same mudra; "veragya" (pp.27 & 108) and "veiragya" (p.88). To say that any publication is without typographical or proofing error would be vain, however, every effort should be made to present as consistent a work as possible.

Further, there are forty mudras established during the reign of Rama III as being acceptable for the depiction of images of The Lord Buddha. These mudras do not necessarily find referents to traditional Hindu or Mahayana Buddhist mudras. Further, in many cases, the mudras find no referents to Indic terms. How then are they to be categorized and / or entitled?

This study, this compilation, therefore, utilizes as its parameters those studies which have gone before, particularly sources in English. A number of works assume major importance-e.g., Lokesh Chandra and Sharada Rani, Mudras in Japan: etc.; and Gauri Devi, Esoteric Mudras of Japan: etc.-if nothing else, because of the sheer mass of information contained. Others, consulted are for popular consumption, but offer important or rarely seen mudras.

In addition, where there are variations, they too, are listed. There are two additional categories which are to be found herein001)" Descriptive terms" which have been assigned to the forty mudras compiled by the Prince Patriarch Paramanujita Jinorasa (Paramanuchit Chinorot), and 2) "assigned terms" from the fifty-seven mudras illustrated in: Stephan Beyer, The Cult of Tara: Magic and Ritual in Tibet.

Other problems are found in both GDe and LCS in which mudras are presented which are associated with different deities and of which not common is given-e.g., Sachittotpada-Bodhisattva mudras or Dharmachakra-pravartana-bodhisattva-vrga-mudra.

A number of the drawings in the two above cited works were ill-conceived, poorly drawn-e.g., LCS, p. 113, #2.161 in which the left hand is shown with a thumb and five fingers! This, of course, is not the fault of the authors. However the presentation of such images, especially, those in which careful delineation of the various fingers is not possible, does place the viewer / reader in a quandary.

Finally, all this being said, in such a compilation, errors may, inadvertently occur. For those errors and/or omissions the author apologizes and invites any correction or addition.

Contents
List of Figuresvii
User's Guidexvii
Preface and Introductionxxiii
Mudras1
A2
B28
C42
D56
E65
F66
G68
H78
I87
J89
K98
L127
M131
N146
O157
P159
R190
S198
T235
U245
V250
W281
Y282
Z286
Addendum287
Notes289
Bibliography309
Appendix A
Descriptive Term Designations317
Appendix B
Thail Postures of the Lord Buddha321
Appendix C
Mudras List329
Acknowledgements345
List of Figures
FigurePage
1.abhaya mudra I2
2.abhaya mudra II3
3.abhaya mudra III3
4.abhaya mudra IV3
5.abhisheka mudra4
6.abhisheka-guhya mudra5
7.Achala-agni mudra5
8.adara gassho (mudra) I6
9.adara gasshoa (mudra) II6
10.adho-mukham mudra7
11.Adhishthana mudra7
12.adho-musthi-mukula mudra7
13.agni-chakra mudra8
14.agni-charka mudra8
15.agni-charka shamana mudra8
16.agni-jvala mudra9
17.agni-shala mudra9
18.agraja mudra9
19.ahayavarada mudra10
20.ahvana mudra10
21.aja-mukha mudra10
22.ajanta temborin-in (mudra)11
23.akka-in (mudra)11
24.alinga mudra12
25.aloke mudra12
26.Amida-butsu seppo-in (mudra) I13
27.Amida-butsu-seppo-in(mudra) II13
28.Amida-butsu-seppo-in(mudra) III14
29.Amida-butsu-seppo-in(mudra) IV14
30.Amida-butsu-seppo-in(mudra) V14
31.Amida-butsu-seppo-in(mudra) VI15
32.anchita mudra15
33.Angarakha mudra16
34.an-i-in (mudra)17
35.an-i-shoshu-in (mudra)17
36.anjali mudra I17
37.anjali II18
38.anjali mudra III18
39.ankusha mudra19
40.anuchitta mudra19
41.anuja mudra19
42.anzan-in (mudra)20
43.apan mudra20
44.apan-vayu mudra20
45.arala mudra I21
46.arala mudra II21
47.arala mudra III21
48.arala-kataka-mukha mudra22
49.archita mydra22
50.ardhachandra mudra I22
51.ardhachandra mudra II23
52.ardha-mukha mudra23
53.ardhanjali mudra23
54.ardha-pataka mudra24
55.ardha-rechita mudra24
56.argham mudra24
57.Arjuna mudra I25
58.ashoka mudra25
59.ashta-dala-padma mudra25
60.ashva-ratna mudra26
61.avahana mudra26
62.avahittha mudra27
63.aviddha-vakra mudra27
64.bahya-bandha mudra28
65.baka mudra28
66.baku jo in (mudra)28
67.Balaramavatara mudra29
68.BAM mudra29
69.bana mudra29
70.basa-un-kongo-in (mudra) I30
71.basara-un-kongo-in (mudra) II30
72.bhartri mudra31
73.bhartri-bhartri mudra31
74.bherunda mudra32
75.Bhima mudra32
76.bhinnanjali mudra32
77.bhramara mudra33
78.bhumisparsha mudra34
79.bhutadamara mudra34
80.bihararieisata gassho (mudra)35
81.boda gassho (mudra)35
82.bon jiki-in (mudra)36
83.Brahma mudra36
84.Brahmana mudra37
85.Brihaspati mudra37
86.bu bosatsu-in (mudra)38
87.Buddhalochani mudra38
88.buddhashramana mudra I38
89.buddhashramana mudra II39
90.Budha mudra39
91.buku-in (mudra)39
92.bu mo-in (mudra)40
93.buppatsu-in (mudra)40
94.butsu bu sammaya-in (mudra)40
95.bu zo-in (mudra)41
96.chaga mudra42
97.chakra mudra I42
98.chakra mudra II42
99.chakra-ratna mudra43
100.chakravaka mudra43
101.chakravartin mudra43
102.chakshur mudra44
103.champaka mudra44
104.Chandra mudra44
105.chandrakala mudra I45
106.chandrakala mudra II45
107.chandra-mriga mudra45
108.chapetadana mudra46
109.chaturahasta mudra46
110.chatura mudra I46
111.chatura mudra II47
112.chatura mudra III47
113.chaturashra mudra47
114chatur-dig-bandha mudra48
115.chatur-mukham mudra48
116.chi ken-in (mudra) I48
117.chi ken-in (mudra) II49
118.chiku cho sho-in (mudra)49
119.chin mudra I49
120.chin mudra II50
121.chintamani mudra I50
122.chintamani mudra II50
123.chintamani mudra III51
124.chintamani mudra IV51
125.chintamani mudra V51
126.chitta-guhya mudra52
127. cho butsu fu-in (mudra)52
128. cho kongo renge-in (mudra)52
129.cho nen ju-in (mudra)53
130.chonmukhmukham mudra I53
131.chonmukhmukham mudra II54
132.cho zai-in (mudra)54
133. dai kai-in (mudra)56
134.dai ye-to-no-in (mudra)56
135.damaruhasta (mudra)57
136.dampati mudra57
137. danda mudra58
138.Dharani-Avalokiteshvara mudra58
139.dharmachakra mudra58
140.dharmachakra-pravartana mudra59
141.dharmachakra-pravartana-bodhisttva-varga-mudra59
142.dharma-pravartana mudra59
143.Dharmaraja mudra60
144.dhenu mudra I60
145.dhenu mudra II60
146.Dhritarashtra mudra61
147.dhupa mudra I61
148.dhupa mudra II61
149.dhyana mudra I62
150.dhyana mudra II62
151.dola mudra63
152.dvi-mukham mudra64
153.fu ko-in (mudra)66
154.fukushu gassho (mudra)66
155.fu ku-yo-in (mudra)67
156.funnu ken-in (mudra)67
157.fi tsu ku yo-in (mudra)67
158.gada mudra68
159.Gaganaganja mudra I68
160.Gaganaganja mudra II68
161.gaja (hasta) mudra69
162.gajadanta mudra69
163.gandha mudra I69
164.gandha mudra II70
165.gandharan temborin-in (mudra)70
166.gandhararattha mudra71
167.gandharva mudra71
168.gardabha mudra71
169.garuda mudra72
170.garuda-paksha mudra72
171.gebaku goko (gassho) mudra72
172.gebaku ken-in (mudra) I73
173.gebaku ken-in (mudra) II73
174.gebaku ken-in (mudra) III73
175.ge-in (mudra) I74
176.ge-in (mudra) II74
177.ge-in (mudra) III74
178.ge-in (mudra) IV75
179.ge kai-in (mudra)75
180.ghanta-vadana mudra75
181.go buku-in (mudra)76
182.go-san-ze (mudra)76
183. gyan mudra77
184.haku sho-in (mudra) I78
185.haku sho-in (mudra) II78
186.hamsa mudra78
187.hamsa-paksha mudra I79
188.hamsa-paksha mudra II79
189.hamsasya mudra I79
190.hansi mudra80
191.haranama gassho (mudra)80
192.harina mudra I80
193.hastasvastika mudra I81
194.hastasvastika mudra II81
195.hastasvastika mudra III82
196.hastasvastika mudra IV82
197.hasti-ratna mudra82
198.Hayagriva mudra I83
199.Hayagriva mudra II83
200.hemanta mudra83
201.hi ko-in (mudra)84
202.HOH mudra84
203.honzonbu jo no-in (mudra)85
204.hora no-in(mudra)85
205.horyuji temborin-in (mudra)86
206.HUM mudra86
207.Indra mudra87
208.Ishvara mudra87
209.issai ho byo kai go (mudra)88
210.JAH mudra89
211.jo renge-in (mudra)90
212.jnana mudra I90
213.jnan-avalokite mudra91
214.jnana-shri mudra92
215.jnyana mudra92.
216.jo fudo-in (mudra)92.
217.jo-in (mudra) I93.
218.jo-in (mudra) II93.
219.jo-in (mudra) III94
220.jo-in (mudra) IV94
221.jo-in (mudra) V95
222.jo-in (mudra) VI95
223.jo-in (mudra) VII95
224.jo-in (mudra) VIII96
225.jo zu ma ko ku-in (mudra)96
226.ju-in kushi ji shin-in (mudra)97
227.jyeshta-bhratri mudra97
228.kadali mudra98
229.kai mon-in (mudra)98
230.ka-in (mudra)99
231.kai shin-in (mudra)99
232.kaji ko sui-in (mudra)99
233.Kalkiavatara mudra100
234.kamjayi mudra100
235.kanaka-matsya mudra100
236.kandanjali mudra101
237.kanishtha-bhratri mudra101
238.kanjo-in (mudra)101
239.kanshukuden-in (mudra)102
240.kapittha mudra I102
241.kapittha mudra II102
242.kapittha mudra III103
243.kapota mudra I103
244.karana mudra I103
245.karana mudra II104
246.karkata mudra104
247.karma-Akashagarbha mudra104
248.kartari (hasta) mudra105
249.kartari-danda mudra105
250.kartari-mukha mudra I105
251.kartari-mukha II106
252.kartari-mukha mudra III106
253.kartari-svastika mudra106
254.Karttivirya mudra107
255.kashyapa mudra107
256.kataka mudra I107
257. kataka mudra II108
258.kataka mudra III108
259.kataka mudra IV108
260.kataka mudra V109
261.kataka mudra VI109
262.kataka-varbhana mudra109
263.kati mudra110
264.katiga mudra110
265.katyavalambita mudra110
266.kavacha mudra I111
267.kavachai mudra II111
268.kayen sho-in (mudra)111
269.ke bosatsu-in (mudra)112
270.kasha-bandha mudra112
271.ketaki mudra112
272.ketu mudra113
273.khadga mudra I113
274.khadga mudra II113
275.khadga mudra III114
276.khadga mudra IV114
277.khadga-mukula mudra114
278.khdga-ratna mudra115
279.khanda-mukula mudra115
280.khatva mudra115
281.kichijo-in (mudra)116
282.kilaka mudra116
283.kimbei-in (mudra)116
284.kimyo-gassho (mudra)117
285.kongo-gassho (mudra)117
286.kongo-ken-in mudra I117
287.kongo-ken-in mudra II118
288.kongo-mo-in (mudra)118
289.kongo rin-in (mudra)119
290.ko taku (-in) (mudra)119
291.Krishnavatara mudra120
292.kshanti mudra120
293.Kshttriya mudra120
294.kshepana mudra I121
295.kshepana mudra II121
296.Kshitigarbha mudra121
297.kuan butsu kai ye-in (mudra)122
298.kuken (mudra)122
299.kumma(n)ra gassho (mudra)122
300.kunda-dhvaja mudra123
301.kurma mudra I123
302.kurma mudra II123
303.kurma mudra III124
304.Kurmavatara mudra124
305.kurpara mudra I124
306.kurpana mudra II125
307.kuruvaka mudra125
308.Kuvera mudra125
309.Lakshmi mudra127
310.lalita mudra127
311.langula mudra127
312.lata mudra128
313.lina-karkata mudra128
314.linalapadma mudra128
315.linga mudra129
316.Lochana mudra129
317.lolahasta mudra129
318.Madhya-pataka mudra131
319.Maha-Akashagarbha mudra131
320.maha-jnana-khadga mudra131
321.Mahakala mudra132
322.maha-karma mudra132
323.mahakrant mudra132
324.maha-samaya mudra133
325.Mahasthamaprapta (mudra)133
326.maha-vajra-chakra mudra133
327.makara mudra134
328.mandala mudra135
329.mani-ratna mudra135
330.Manmatha mudra136
331.matri mudra137
332.matsya mudra137
333.Matsyavatara mudra137
334.mayura mudra138
335.mifu renge-in (mudra) I138
336.mifu renge-in (mudra) II139
337.mifu renge-in (mudra) III139
338.miharita gassho (mudra)139
339.Milarepa's mudra140
340.mragi mudra140
341.mrigashirsha mudra I140
342.mrigashirsha mudra II141
343.mugdhram mudra141
344.mukha mudra141
345.mukula mudra142
346.mu no sho shu-go-in (mudra)142
347.mushofushi-in (mudra) I143
348.mushofushi-in (mudra) II143
349.mushofushi-in (mudra) III144
350.mushti mudra144
351.mustikam mudra144
352.mushti-mriga mudra145
353.mushti-svastika mudra145
354.naga-bandha mudra146
355.naibaku ken-in (mudra) I146
356.naibaku ken-in (mudra) II147
357.naibaku ken-in (mudra) III147
358.Nairriti mudra147
359.naivedye mudra148
360.nalini-padmakosha mudra148
361.namaskara mudra I149
362.namaskara mudra II149
363.nananda mudra149
364.nan kan-nin-in (mudra)150
365.Narasimhavatara mudra150
366.Naya-sutra mudra I150
367.Naya-sutra mudra II151
368.nebina gassho (mudra)151
369.netra mudra I151
370.netra mudra II152
371.nidhi-ghata mudra152
372.nidratahasta (mudra)152
373.nimbasala mudra153
374.nirvan(a) mudra153
375.nishedha mudra153
376.nitamba mudra154
377.niwa-in (mudra)154
378.nyorai getsu-in (mudra)155
379.nyorai hosso-in (mudra)155
380.nyorai ken-in (mudra)155
381.nyorai saku-in (mudra)156
382.nyorai shin-in (mudra)156
383.nyorai zo-in (mudra)156
384.ongyo-in (mudra) I157
385.ongyo-in (mudra) II157
386.ottanasha gassho (mudra)158
387.padma mudra I159
388.padmahasta (mudra)159
389.padmakosha mudra159
390.padma-kunjara mudra160
391.padyam mudra160
392.paksha-pradyota mudra161
393.paksha-vanchita mudra161
394.paksha-pradyota mudra162
395.paksha-vanchita mudra162
396.padmakosha mudra162
397.Panchoshnisha mudra163
398.pang chan-samor163
399.pang chong-krom-keaw163
400.pang ham-phra-kean-chan164
401.pang hamyat164
402.pang harm-marn165
403.pang khabphrawakkali165
404.pang khor-phon166
405.pang lila I166
406.pang lila II166
407.pang loy-tard167
408.pang nakawalok I167
409.pang nakawalok II168
410.pang palelai168
411.pang parinipparn168
412.pang pattakit169
413.pang perdlok169
414.pang phraditthanroy-phrabuddhabatr170
415.pang phra-keit-tatu170
416.pang phrasarnbhatr170
417.pang phratabreakhanan I171
418.pang phratabreakhanan II171
419.pang phratarn-ehibhikku172
420.pang phratopyun172
421.pang plon-aryusangkharn173
422.pang plon-kammathan173
423.pang prongahyuksankhan173
424.pang rab-pholmamuang174
425.pang ram-pueng174
426.pang sanghlupnammamuangduaibaht175
427.pang sawoimathopayas175
428.pang sedetphutthadannernpai175
429.pang song-nam-phon176
430.pang song-picharanacharatham176
431.pang songruputkang177
432.pang sonkhem177
433.pang sung-rabmathupayas178
434.pang sung-rabyaka178
435.pang tavainetr178
436.pang thong-tang-etatakkasatarn179
437.pang tukkarakiriya179
438.pang uhm-bhatr180
439.pankaj mudra180
440.Parashuramavatara mudra181
441.pardisha-mukula mudra181
442.Parvati mudra181
443.pasha mudra I182
444.pasha mudra II182
445.pasha mudra III182
446.pataka mudra I183
447.pataka mudra II183
448.patra mudra184
449.pitri mudra184
450.pothi mudra184
451.pralambam mudra185
452.pran mudra185
453.pravartitahasta (mudra)185
454. prithvi mudra186
455.puga mudra186
456.puna mudra186
457.purn-gyan mudra187
458.punnaga mudra187
459.purusha-ratna mudra188
460.pushap-mala mudra I188
461.pushap-mala mudra II188
462.pushpanjali (mudra)189
463.pushpaputa mudra189
464.pushpe mudra189
465.Ragaraja Mula-mudra190
466.Ragavajra mudra190
467.Raguramavatara mudra191
468.Rahu mudra191
469.ratna-ghata mudra191
470.ratna mudra I192
471.ratna mudra II192
472.ratna-kalasha mudra192
473.Ratnaprabha-Akashagarbha mudra193
474.ratna-vahana mudra193
475.Ravana mudra193
476.rechita mudra194
477.rei-in (mudra)194
478.renge-bu-shu-in (mudra)195
479.renge ken-in (mudra)195
480.ren renge-in (mudra)196
481.rupa renge-in (mudra)197
482.Sahasra-bhuja Avalokiteshvara mudra198
483.sai butsu-in (mudra)199
484.sa-in (mudra)199
485.sai zai-in (mudra)200
486.saku-in (mudra)200
487.samanta-buddhanam mudra200
488.samdamsa mudra I201
489.samdamsa mudra II201
490.samdamsa-mukha mudra201
491.samputa mudra I202
492.samputa mudra II202
493. samyama-nayaka mudra202
494.sanfuta gassho (mudra)203
495.sanjali mudra203
496.sankaisaisho-in (mudra)203
497.samkirna mudra204
498.sankirna-makara mudra204
499.san-ko-cho-in (mudra)204
500.san-ko-in (mudra)205
501.san-ko-in (mudra)205
502.sapatni mudra205
503.Sarasvati mudra I206
504.Sarasvati mudra II206
505.Sarpakara mudra206
506.sarpashirsha mudra207
507.sarva-buddha-bodhisattvanam mudra207
508.sarva-dharmah mudra208
509.sarva-tahagata-avalokite mudra208
510.sarva-tathagatebhyo mudra209
511.segan-semuti-in (mudra)209
512.semui-in (mudra)210
513.shabda mudra I210
514.shabda mudra II211
515.Shaibya mudra211
516.shakata mudra I211
517.shakata mudra II212
518.Shakra mudra212
519.Shakyamuni (mudra)212
520.Shambhu mudra213
521.Shanaischara mudra213
522.shami mudra213
523.shankha mudra I214
524.shankha mudra II214
525.shankha mudra III214
526.shankha mudra IV215
527.shankha-varta mudra215
528.Shanmukha mudra215
529.shan-mukham mudra216
530.sharad mudra216
531.shikharai mudra217
532.shirsha mudra218
533.Shiva-linga mudra218
534.sho cha ro-in (mudra)219
535.sho ko-in (mudra)219
536.shri-vatsya mudra219
537.Shudra mudra220
538.shukatunda mudra220
539.Shukra mudra221
540.shumi sen ho-in mudra221
541.shunya mudra221
542.shvashri mudra222
543.shvashura mudra222
544.sima-bandha mudra I222
545.simha mudra223
546.simhakarna mudra I223
547.simha-mukha mudra224
548.sindkuvara mudra224
549.singhakrant mudra224
550.sitatapatra mudra225
551.snusha mudra225
552.so ko shu-go-in (mudra)226
553.sokuchi sokuchi-in (mudra)226
554.sola-padma mudra226
555.sthirabodhi mudra227
556.stri mudra227
557.stri-ratna mudra227
558.suchi mudra I228
559.suchi mudra II228
560.suchi mudra III228
561.suchi mudra IV229
562.suchyasya mudra229
563.sukri mudra229
564.summoning sins (mudra)230
565.sumukham mudra230
566.supratishtha mudra230
567.surabhi mudra I231
568.surabhi mudra II231
569.Surya mudra I231
570.Surya mudra II232
571.sutra mudra232
572.suvarna-chakra mudra232
573.svakuchagraha mudra233
574.svastika mudra I233
575.svastika mudra II233
576.svastika mudra III234
577.svastika mudra IV234
578.svastika mudra V234
579.tala-mukha mudra235
580.tala-pataka mudra235
581.tala-simha mudra235
582.tamrachuda mudra I236
583.tamrachuda mudra II236
584.tarjani mudra I236
585. tarjani mudra II237
586.tarpana mudra237
587.Tathagata-damshtra mudra237
588.tathagata-kushi mudra238
589.tathagata-vachana mudra238
590.tattva mudra238
591.teiriei gassho (mudra)239
592.tejas-bodhisattva mudra239
593.temborin-in mudra239
594.to myo-in (mudra)240
595.tormai mudra240
596.Trailikyavijaya mudra I241
597.trijnana mudra241
598.tri-mukhammudra242
599.tripitaka mudra I242
600.tripitaka mudra II242
601.tripitaka mudra III243
602.trisharana mudra243
603.trishula mudra I243
604.trishula mudra II244
605.trishula mudra III244
606.udveshtitalapadma mudra245
607.udritta mudra245
608.ulbana mudra246
609.uluka mudra246
610.Upakeshini mudra246
611.uparatna mudra247
612.upaya-paramita mudra247
613.urnanabha mudra247
614.urusamsthita mudra248
615.urusanisha mudra248
616.utsanga mudra248
617.uttarabodhi mudra249
618.Vaishravana mudra250
619.Vaishya mudra250
620.vajra mudra I251
621.vajra mudra II251
622.Vajra-Akashgarbha mudra251
623.varja-aloke mudra252
624.vajra-amrita mudra252
625.vajra-bandha mudra253
626.bajranjali mudra253
627.vajra-darshe mudra254
628.vajra-dharme mudra254
629.vajra-dhupe mudra255
630.vajra-gandhe mudra255
631.vajra-gita mudra255
632.vajra-gite mudra256
633.vajra-hasye mudra256
634.Vajrahetu mudra256
635.vajrahumkara mudra I257
636.vajrahumkara mudra II257
637.vajrahumkara mudra III258
638.vajrahumkara mudra IV258
639.Vajrakula mudra258
640.vajra-lasye mudra259
641.vajra-mala mudra259
642.vajra-manas mudra260
643.vajra-mridamge mudra260
644.vajra-muraje mudra261
645.vahra-musthi I261
646.vajra-musthi II261
647.vajra-musthi III262
648.vajra-musthi (kai mon) mudra262
649.vajra-nritye mudra262
650.vajrapataka mudra263
651.vajra-pushpe mudra263
652.vajra-rasye mudra263
653.Vajrasattva mudra264
654.vajra-shri mudra264
655.vajra-sparshe mudra264
656.vajra-suchi mudra265
657. vajra-vamshe mudra265
658.vajra-vine mudra265
659.Vamanavatara mudra266
660.vandana mudra I266
661.vandana mudra II267
662.varada mudra267
663.varaha mudra I268
664.varaha mudra II268
665.varaha mudra III268
666.varajkam mudra I269
667.varahakam mudra II269
668.Vara-kaya-samaya-mudra269
669.vardhamanakai mudra270
670.vardhamana mudra270
671.varsha mudra270
672.Varuna mudra271
673.varuna(a) mudra271
674.vasanta mudra271
675.vayas mudra272
676.vayu mudra I272
677.vayu mudra II272
678.Vayu mudra III273
679.veragya mudra273
680.vhalo mudra273
681.viapkanjali mudra274
682.vidya mudra274
683.Vijneshvara mudra274
684.vikasitapadma mudra275
685.Vinayaka mudra275
686.viprakirna mudra275
687.Virudhaka mudra I276
688.Virudhaka mudra II276
689.Virya-paramita mudra276
690.Vishnu mudra277
691.vismaya mudra I277
692.vismaya mudra II277
693.vismaya-vitarka mudra278
694.visttam mudra278
695.vitarka mudra278
696. vittam mudra279
697.vyaghra mudra I279
698.vyaghra mudra II279
699.vyali mudra280
700.Yaksha mudra282
701.Yakshini mudra282
702.Yama mudra I282
703.Yama mudra283
704.yampasham mudra283
705.yoni mudra I284
706.yoni mudra II284
707.yoni mudra III285
708.zen-in (mudra)286
709.zu ko-in (mudra)286
710.hridayaya (mudra)288
711.kavachaya (mudra)288
712.netratroyaiya (mudra)288
713.phat (mudra)288
714.shikhayai (mudra)289
715.shirasi (mudra)289
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Customer Comments

  • why the benefits of the mudras are not stated in the book. its like a dictionary without meanings
    - morgan
    5th Feb 2014
  • Would like others comments please
    - Audrey innes
    6th Aug 2007
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