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Mudras in Buddhist and Hindu Practices: An Iconographic Consideration

Mudras in Buddhist and Hindu Practices: An Iconographic Consideration

Specifications

Item Code: IDE188

by Fredrick W. Bunce

Hardcover (Edition: 2005)

D. K. Printworld. Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN 81-2460-312-X

Language: English
Size: 11.2" X 8.8"
Pages: 376 (Figures: 715)
Weight of the Book: 1.310 Kg
Price: $80.00   Shipping Free - 4 to 6 days
Viewed times since 6th Aug, 2014

Description

From The Jacket

Mudras occupy an important place in Buddhist and Hindu religious practices as these signify special meanings, associated with specific divinities, associated with specific divinities and rites, which cannot be represented any other way.

This book is a dictionary of mudras in Hindu and Buddhist religious practices that lists the various mudras – deity-centre, rite-centred, yogic-centred, and so on –illustrating each with a simple drawing drawn generally from the perspective of one holding the mudras. It contains references to literary and other source that reveal a lot about the mudras – their description in the texts, rites associated with the mudras in the text as well as the varied interpretations of a number of mudras in the different texts. The book also has an introduction on Hindu and Buddhist mudras that goes into iconographic features associated with deities along with technical descriptions and the subcategories and further divisions into which mudras are arranged. It scrutinises the work done by a number of scholars on the subject to throw further light on the subject.

The volume will prove indispensable to all students and scholars who are engaged in study of Hindi and Buddhist religious traditions and practices.

Fredrick W. Bunce, a PhD and a cultural historian of international eminence, is an authority on ancient iconography and Buddhist arts. He has been honoured with prestigious awards/commend-ations and is listed in who's who in American Art and the International Biographical Dictionary, 1980. He is currently Professor Emeritus of Art, Indiana. He has authored the following books all published D.K. Printworld:

· Buddhist Textile of Laos, Lan Na and the Isan – The Iconography of Design Elements.

· A Dictionary of Buddhist and Hindu Iconography.

· An Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Saints and Demons (2 vols.).

· An Encyclopaedia of Hindu Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Demons and Heroes (3 vols.).

· The Iconography of Architectural Plans – A Study of the Influence of Buddhist and Hinduism on Plans of South and Southeast Asia.

· Islamic Tombs in India – The Iconographical and Genesis of their Design.

· Monuments of India and the Indianized States.

· The Mosques of the Indian Subcontinent – Their Development and Iconography.

· Numbers – Their Iconographic Consideration in Buddhist and Hindu Practices.

· Royal Palaces, Residences and Pavilions of India – An Iconographic Consideration.

· The Sacred Dichotomy: Thoughts and Comments on The Duality of Female and Male Iconography in South Asia and the Mediterranean.

· The Tibetan Iconography of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and other Deities – A Unique Pantheon.

· The Yantra of Deities and their Numerological Foundations – An Iconographic Consideration.

 

Preface

The genesis of this compilation has come from three works which the author had previously published-i.e., An Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Saints and Demons: With Special focus on Iconographic Attributes; A Dictionary of Buddhist and Hindu Iconography-Illustrated-Objects, Devices, Concepts, Rites and Related Terms; and An Encyclopaedia of Hindu Deities, Demigods, Godlings Demons and Heroes; with Special Focus on Iconographic Attributes. It was noted that there were a number of mudra which were specifically assigned to the deities of the two pantheons. Also, a number of these mudra were identical to those practiced by Tibetan, Chinese and Japanese Buddhist (Vajrayana, Mantrayana) Traditions and held or formed by a devotee or priest during various rites, as well as various yogic and dramatic practices. Indentical, but frequently with different terms or names. It was decided to compile the hundreds of mudra-i.e., deity centered, rite centered, yogic centered and dramatic centered-in one volume and to illustrated each.

In so doing, it is to noted that there are numerous citations. Some may feel that the notes are inordinate in their profusion. However, they were included so that the reader may easily: refer to the proper locations, become aware of the varied interpretations of a number of mudra, and be made aware of clarifying additions made by the author.

It was decided to illustrate the mudra with drawings for ease of identification. Each unique mudra is illustrated by an individual drawing. The drawings are generally drawn from the perspective of the one holding the mudra, except in those instances where it was deemed more illustrative to draw the mudra from the viewer's standpoint.

 

Introduction

>From the mundane to the esoteric, from the sacred to the profane, from the religious to the secular, symbols, iconographs, have been part of the human repertoire since time in memorium. Some of the earliest elements of iconography are to be seen in pertoglyphs and paintings preserved on the walls of caves. Whatever humankind has touched or made can be seen as a symbol.

Symbols of wealth and power may be the most ostentatious-from an emerald necklace to a Rolls Royce, or a villa on the Riviera. Conspicuous consumption sets one group part from another, the "have" from the "have notes," the wealthy from the less wealthy or poor. Symbols of rank may be viewed in various circumstances-e.g., the cut and shape of an academic hood worn during formal ceremonies, the shape, size and adornment of the coronets of peers worn during a coronation; and in Southeast Asia the wearing of yellow clothing has been and still is reserved for royalty (sultans) and their immediate family. There are symbols which have been associated with vocation-e.g., a needle and thread with a tailor, or a hammer and saw with a carpenter. A flat brimmed, high crown bowler-like hat identifies Peruvian Indians, or a full feathered headdress with feathered trailer signifies members of the Sioux Tribe. all are symbols of belonging and affiliation.

These secular symbols and the myriad others have been overshadowed by religious symbols. This is particularly true in the visual arts.

There are a number of iconographic features associated with both Buddhist and Hindu deities with rather precise, technical meanings and/or descriptions. Terms which apply when vajra (Ind.; Tib.: rdor-rje) refers to a diamond or adamantine scepter which is symbolic of indestructibility and the wisdom which destroys passion. Its form is rather precise, allowing architectural form that is synonymous with Buddhism; or a trident (Ind.: trisula; Tib.: rtsegsum) which is more often seen in Hindu iconography. The various devices with characteristics unique to their practices are, indeed numerous and sometimes rather complicated.

Iconic attributes are not limited to objects held or worn, but also apply to bodily forms as well. Among the most important of these traits are the positions-i.e., ritual positions-held by the hands(s) of the various deities-i.e., mudras or hastas? Mudras, or hand positions are not the sole province of either the Hindu (Brahmanic) or Buddhist religions. In Christianity hand positions are often a telling feature of the Deity or of a saint. Frequently the Lord Christ is shown with right hand raised, his index and middle fingers extended upwards, his ring and little fingers folded into the palm and the thumb overlapping the latter two. This is known as a symbol of grace or benediction or of forgiveness. Likewise, a female saint may be depicted with their hands crossed over her breasts. This is particularly true of martyrs. That hand position signifies resignation and the acceptance of the will of God. Also, this latter position is often seen to be held by body of a deceased in the Christian tradition. The meaning is the same-acceptance of God's will.

Very often Buddhist and Hindu mudras indicate the character of the deity and in most cases they are a great aid in identifying the particular deity in question. In addition, a number of the mudras-i.e., Tantric mudras-are held by the devotees and/or the priests/lamas who are participating in a specific ceremony.

For the casual observer or devotee the presentation in either two-or three-dimensional form of a deity, whether Buddhist or Hindu, is important. The various technical terms that are applied to the deity are, in most cases, of little interest to these casual spectators. For the student/researcher of religious practices, these technical/descriptive terms began assume some tangible and/or iconic importance.

Mudras can be arranged into four subcategories-i.e.,1) those which are general held or depicted in the representation of deities, demigods, godlings, demons and heroes, both Buddhist and hindu,2) those which are associated with particular tantric worship, particularly of Japanese, Chinese and Tibetan Vajrayana or Mantrayana rites,3) those which are associated with yogic meditational practices, and 4) those which are associated with dramatic practices, including dance. There are a number of mudras which are unique to or are strictly deity-centered-e.g., dharmacakra-mudra or varjrahumkara-mudra-others are similar or identical with deity-centered mudras, but with different titles or names-e.g., pataka-mudras (abhaya-mudras) or the drama oriented suchi-mudra (trajani-mudra)-and still others which are unique to tantric, yogi and dramatic practices. The first category, those associated with specific deities, is rather finite-amounting to a few score positions. It is within the category of tantric rites, particularly as practiced in Japan, that hand positions. It is within the category of tantric rites, particularly as practices in Japan, that hand position multiply to the hundreds.

Within these four subcategories the mudras may be further delineated into single hand (Ind.: asamyutta) and combined (Ind.: samyutta) or two-handed mudras. Single hand, "static" positions predominates within the first-i.e., the deity centered-group. That is not to say that mudras involving both hands, combined mudras, do not form an important part within this category. When one merely considers the possible variations of a single fist the myriad of possible mudras is truly staggering-e.g., 1) fist with thumb placed on the third phalange of the index finger, 2) fist with thumb placed on the second phalange of the index finger, 3) fist with thumb placed on the first phalange of the index finder, 4) fist with thumb folded inside the fingers, 5) fist with thumb folded inside the fingers and the index finger curled so that its nail rests on the second phalanges of the thumb, etc., etc., etc. Among the latter three categories single hand mudras do exist and are of some importance. However, within these categories the combined-form mudras proliferates. In tantric, yogic and dramatic practices, mudras are formed and movement is frequently required to fulfill the tenets of the particular mudra-i.e., within the rites of Tendai Buddhism of Japan the "Hak-Ken: Mudra for sending off the Vision" requires a triple "flicking motion" of the index fingers.

In considering just two works-i.e., Lokesh Chandra and Sharada Rani, Mudras in Japan: etc. and Gauri Devi, Esoteric Mudras of Japan: etc.-1,811 separate illustrations needed to be considered. A large number were repeated. In the case of the "vajranjali-mudra," it was duplicated one-hundred-seventeen times in the two works. A system was needed to facilitate the ease of identification of these 1,811 illustrations. They may be grouped into approximately 4630 different and distinct mudras. This identification system involved first: single, double or combination mudras and their variations. Single and mudras are:1) fist-type mudras: those in which three or more finger (including the thumb) are brought into or in close proximity with the palm, 2) open hand-type mudras: those in which two or less fingers (including the thumb) are brought into or in close proximity with the palm, and 3) others: single hand mudras which to not conform to the two variations noted above. Double or combination hand mudras are:1)Inner fist-type mudras ("Inner Bonds Fist" [Jap.: naibaku ken-in]): in which three or more fingers (including the thumb) are interlaced and are folded into the palm of the hand, 2) outer fist-type mudras ("Outer Bonds [Jap.: gebaku ken-in]): in which three or more fingers (including the thumb) are interlaced and rest on the back of the hand, 3) anjali-type mudras: where hands are brought together, palm towards palm, the finger are extended upwards and tips generally touch or are in close proximity, 4) stupa-type mudras: similar to the anjali-type except, the thumbs rest together and point upwards, and the tips of the forefingers touch the tips of the thumbs in various manner (i.e., tips-to-tips, tips, tips of the index fingers in front of the tips of the thumbs, or tips of the index finger behind of the tips of the thumbs), 5) dhyana-type mudras: where one hand rests upon the other, the fingers generally extended in some manner, and 6) Others: double or combination-type mudras which to not conform to the five double variations noted above.

There are numerous English sources which in part deal with these myriad iconic features in greater or lesser detail. There are, on the other hand, isolated studies which are quite detailed. For the student/researcher these sources become quite important, particularly if he or she is not acquainted or fluent in the languages of the numerous prime sources-e.g., Sanskrit, Tibetan, Japanese, Chinese, Mongolian, etc. Clarity of description assumes the level of a rime concern.

Discrepancies within the descriptive passages become highly problematical. It becomes obvious in consulting the various sources available that there is, if not a discrepancy or confusion, at least some variation(s) which exists between the written term and the visualized or drawn mudras and / or asanas. When confronting the term "anjali mudras" brings forth seemingly insoluble conundrums-i.e., there are described and/or shown three distinct forms which are related only through the use of the descriptive terms "salutation," greeting," or "worship." Another problematical pose is the vyakhyana mudra. It is described as similar or another name for: the dharmachakra mudras, the chin mudra, or thee vitarka mudra. Such problems are not isolated to the various mudras. In a similar manner, this apparent confusion or discrepancy also can be seen in asanas. The asana known as ardhaparyankasana is seen by some as a seated position while others view it as a standing position. Even the pose known as alidhasana, which is generally seen as a standing pose related to shooting a bow and arrow, is by one source named as a seated posture!

There were a number of problems which arose in the process of this compilation. Numerous descriptions found in A. Coomaraswamy, The Mirror of Gesture, were ambiguous and confusing. The importance of this work is not to be discounted, however, there are a number of confusing descriptions. Nonetheless, problems with the description were plentiful-e.g., regarding mudras entitled: "Aviddha-vakra (swinging curve):..Pataka hands are shown with grace and with (movement of) the elbows" or "Nitamba (buttocks): Pataka hands face upwards, turned over, (extended from) the shoulder to the buttocks." In supplying a clear verbal description the "usage(s) " were taken into account and certain "leaps of faith" hand to be made. These interpretational descriptions are duly noted. In the two works which display hundreds of esoteric Japanese Mantrayana mudras-i.e., Gauri Devi, Esoteric Mudras of Japan: etc., and Lokesh Chandra and Sharada Rani, Mudras in Japan: etc.-numerous mudras were not entitled-e.g., LCS, pp., 64#1.32, 116 #2,175, 174# 3.144-3.146, etc.-while there were mudras which bore titles that described their particular use during the various rites (in many cases there was conflict)-e.g., GDe, p. 166, "Mudra of Ratna Bodhisttva (i.e. of Vajraratna)," and the identical mudra on p. 178," Mudra of Arya Avalokitesvara, no.2," and again the identical mudra in LCS, p. 114, # 2.167, "Vajraraksa bidhisattva," and still further, the identical mudras on p. 259, # 4.180" Mudra of the edict of gods on earth." In none of these last four mudras was the gesture given either a Japanese or Indic name! Luckily, the mudras is virtually identical to the uttarabodhi noted and illustrated in a number of sources.

Finally, a number of sources, particularly secondary sources, possess apparent errors which cannot be attributed to the prime sources, rut to lack of adequate proofing. The publication: Mudra Vigyan – A Way of Life, indicates a number of spelling errors or un-noted variations-e.g., "sinhakrant" (p. 53), "shinghakrant" (p.86) and "singhakrant" (p. 108) all for the same mudra; "veragya" (pp.27 & 108) and "veiragya" (p.88). To say that any publication is without typographical or proofing error would be vain, however, every effort should be made to present as consistent a work as possible.

Further, there are forty mudras established during the reign of Rama III as being acceptable for the depiction of images of The Lord Buddha. These mudras do not necessarily find referents to traditional Hindu or Mahayana Buddhist mudras. Further, in many cases, the mudras find no referents to Indic terms. How then are they to be categorized and / or entitled?

This study, this compilation, therefore, utilizes as its parameters those studies which have gone before, particularly sources in English. A number of works assume major importance-e.g., Lokesh Chandra and Sharada Rani, Mudras in Japan: etc.; and Gauri Devi, Esoteric Mudras of Japan: etc.-if nothing else, because of the sheer mass of information contained. Others, consulted are for popular consumption, but offer important or rarely seen mudras.

In addition, where there are variations, they too, are listed. There are two additional categories which are to be found herein001)" Descriptive terms" which have been assigned to the forty mudras compiled by the Prince Patriarch Paramanujita Jinorasa (Paramanuchit Chinorot), and 2) "assigned terms" from the fifty-seven mudras illustrated in: Stephan Beyer, The Cult of Tara: Magic and Ritual in Tibet.

Other problems are found in both GDe and LCS in which mudras are presented which are associated with different deities and of which not common is given-e.g., Sachittotpada-Bodhisattva mudras or Dharmachakra-pravartana-bodhisattva-vrga-mudra.

A number of the drawings in the two above cited works were ill-conceived, poorly drawn-e.g., LCS, p. 113, #2.161 in which the left hand is shown with a thumb and five fingers! This, of course, is not the fault of the authors. However the presentation of such images, especially, those in which careful delineation of the various fingers is not possible, does place the viewer / reader in a quandary.

Finally, all this being said, in such a compilation, errors may, inadvertently occur. For those errors and/or omissions the author apologizes and invites any correction or addition.

 

Contents
  List of Figures vii
  User's Guide xvii
  Preface and Introduction xxiii
  Mudras 1
  A 2
  B 28
  C 42
  D 56
  E 65
  F 66
  G 68
  H 78
  I 87
  J 89
  K 98
  L 127
  M 131
  N 146
  O 157
  P 159
  R 190
  S 198
  T 235
  U 245
  V 250
  W 281
  Y 282
  Z 286
  Addendum 287
  Notes 289
  Bibliography 309
  Appendix A  
  Descriptive Term Designations 317
  Appendix B  
  Thail Postures of the Lord Buddha 321
  Appendix C  
  Mudras List 329
  Acknowledgements 345
 
List of Figures
 
Figure   Page
1. abhaya mudra I 2
2. abhaya mudra II 3
3. abhaya mudra III 3
4. abhaya mudra IV 3
5. abhisheka mudra 4
6. abhisheka-guhya mudra 5
7. Achala-agni mudra 5
8. adara gassho (mudra) I 6
9. adara gasshoa (mudra) II 6
10. adho-mukham mudra 7
11. Adhishthana mudra 7
12. adho-musthi-mukula mudra 7
13. agni-chakra mudra 8
14. agni-charka mudra 8
15. agni-charka shamana mudra 8
16. agni-jvala mudra 9
17. agni-shala mudra 9
18. agraja mudra 9
19. ahayavarada mudra 10
20. ahvana mudra 10
21. aja-mukha mudra 10
22. ajanta temborin-in (mudra) 11
23. akka-in (mudra) 11
24. alinga mudra 12
25. aloke mudra 12
26. Amida-butsu seppo-in (mudra) I 13
27. Amida-butsu-seppo-in(mudra) II 13
28. Amida-butsu-seppo-in(mudra) III 14
29. Amida-butsu-seppo-in(mudra) IV 14
30. Amida-butsu-seppo-in(mudra) V 14
31. Amida-butsu-seppo-in(mudra) VI 15
32. anchita mudra 15
33. Angarakha mudra 16
34. an-i-in (mudra) 17
35. an-i-shoshu-in (mudra) 17
36. anjali mudra I 17
37. anjali II 18
38. anjali mudra III 18
39. ankusha mudra 19
40. anuchitta mudra 19
41. anuja mudra 19
42. anzan-in (mudra) 20
43. apan mudra 20
44. apan-vayu mudra 20
45. arala mudra I 21
46. arala mudra II 21
47. arala mudra III 21
48. arala-kataka-mukha mudra 22
49. archita mydra 22
50. ardhachandra mudra I 22
51. ardhachandra mudra II 23
52. ardha-mukha mudra 23
53. ardhanjali mudra 23
54. ardha-pataka mudra 24
55. ardha-rechita mudra 24
56. argham mudra 24
57. Arjuna mudra I 25
58. ashoka mudra 25
59. ashta-dala-padma mudra 25
60. ashva-ratna mudra 26
61. avahana mudra 26
62. avahittha mudra 27
63. aviddha-vakra mudra 27
64. bahya-bandha mudra 28
65. baka mudra 28
66. baku jo in (mudra) 28
67. Balaramavatara mudra 29
68. BAM mudra 29
69. bana mudra 29
70. basa-un-kongo-in (mudra) I 30
71. basara-un-kongo-in (mudra) II 30
72. bhartri mudra 31
73. bhartri-bhartri mudra 31
74. bherunda mudra 32
75. Bhima mudra 32
76. bhinnanjali mudra 32
77. bhramara mudra 33
78. bhumisparsha mudra 34
79. bhutadamara mudra 34
80. bihararieisata gassho (mudra) 35
81. boda gassho (mudra) 35
82. bon jiki-in (mudra) 36
83. Brahma mudra 36
84. Brahmana mudra 37
85. Brihaspati mudra 37
86. bu bosatsu-in (mudra) 38
87. Buddhalochani mudra 38
88. buddhashramana mudra I 38
89. buddhashramana mudra II 39
90. Budha mudra 39
91. buku-in (mudra) 39
92. bu mo-in (mudra) 40
93. buppatsu-in (mudra) 40
94. butsu bu sammaya-in (mudra) 40
95. bu zo-in (mudra) 41
96. chaga mudra 42
97. chakra mudra I 42
98. chakra mudra II 42
99. chakra-ratna mudra 43
100. chakravaka mudra 43
101. chakravartin mudra 43
102. chakshur mudra 44
103. champaka mudra 44
104. Chandra mudra 44
105. chandrakala mudra I 45
106. chandrakala mudra II 45
107. chandra-mriga mudra 45
108. chapetadana mudra 46
109. chaturahasta mudra 46
110. chatura mudra I 46
111. chatura mudra II 47
112. chatura mudra III 47
113. chaturashra mudra 47
114 chatur-dig-bandha mudra 48
115. chatur-mukham mudra 48
116. chi ken-in (mudra) I 48
117. chi ken-in (mudra) II 49
118. chiku cho sho-in (mudra) 49
119. chin mudra I 49
120. chin mudra II 50
121. chintamani mudra I 50
122. chintamani mudra II 50
123. chintamani mudra III 51
124. chintamani mudra IV 51
125. chintamani mudra V 51
126. chitta-guhya mudra 52
127. cho butsu fu-in (mudra) 52
128. cho kongo renge-in (mudra) 52
129. cho nen ju-in (mudra) 53
130. chonmukhmukham mudra I 53
131. chonmukhmukham mudra II 54
132. cho zai-in (mudra) 54
133. dai kai-in (mudra) 56
134. dai ye-to-no-in (mudra) 56
135. damaruhasta (mudra) 57
136. dampati mudra 57
137. danda mudra 58
138. Dharani-Avalokiteshvara mudra 58
139. dharmachakra mudra 58
140. dharmachakra-pravartana mudra 59
141. dharmachakra-pravartana-bodhisttva-varga-mudra 59
142. dharma-pravartana mudra 59
143. Dharmaraja mudra 60
144. dhenu mudra I 60
145. dhenu mudra II 60
146. Dhritarashtra mudra 61
147. dhupa mudra I 61
148. dhupa mudra II 61
149. dhyana mudra I 62
150. dhyana mudra II 62
151. dola mudra 63
152. dvi-mukham mudra 64
153. fu ko-in (mudra) 66
154. fukushu gassho (mudra) 66
155. fu ku-yo-in (mudra) 67
156. funnu ken-in (mudra) 67
157. fi tsu ku yo-in (mudra) 67
158. gada mudra 68
159. Gaganaganja mudra I 68
160. Gaganaganja mudra II 68
161. gaja (hasta) mudra 69
162. gajadanta mudra 69
163. gandha mudra I 69
164. gandha mudra II 70
165. gandharan temborin-in (mudra) 70
166. gandhararattha mudra 71
167. gandharva mudra 71
168. gardabha mudra 71
169. garuda mudra 72
170. garuda-paksha mudra 72
171. gebaku goko (gassho) mudra 72
172. gebaku ken-in (mudra) I 73
173. gebaku ken-in (mudra) II 73
174. gebaku ken-in (mudra) III 73
175. ge-in (mudra) I 74
176. ge-in (mudra) II 74
177. ge-in (mudra) III 74
178. ge-in (mudra) IV 75
179. ge kai-in (mudra) 75
180. ghanta-vadana mudra 75
181. go buku-in (mudra) 76
182. go-san-ze (mudra) 76
183. gyan mudra 77
184. haku sho-in (mudra) I 78
185. haku sho-in (mudra) II 78
186. hamsa mudra 78
187. hamsa-paksha mudra I 79
188. hamsa-paksha mudra II 79
189. hamsasya mudra I 79
190. hansi mudra 80
191. haranama gassho (mudra) 80
192. harina mudra I 80
193. hastasvastika mudra I 81
194. hastasvastika mudra II 81
195. hastasvastika mudra III 82
196. hastasvastika mudra IV 82
197. hasti-ratna mudra 82
198. Hayagriva mudra I 83
199. Hayagriva mudra II 83
200. hemanta mudra 83
201. hi ko-in (mudra) 84
202. HOH mudra 84
203. honzonbu jo no-in (mudra) 85
204. hora no-in(mudra) 85
205. horyuji temborin-in (mudra) 86
206. HUM mudra 86
207. Indra mudra 87
208. Ishvara mudra 87
209. issai ho byo kai go (mudra) 88
210. JAH mudra 89
211. jo renge-in (mudra) 90
212. jnana mudra I 90
213. jnan-avalokite mudra 91
214. jnana-shri mudra 92
215. jnyana mudra 92.
216. jo fudo-in (mudra) 92.
217. jo-in (mudra) I 93.
218. jo-in (mudra) II 93.
219. jo-in (mudra) III 94
220. jo-in (mudra) IV 94
221. jo-in (mudra) V 95
222. jo-in (mudra) VI 95
223. jo-in (mudra) VII 95
224. jo-in (mudra) VIII 96
225. jo zu ma ko ku-in (mudra) 96
226. ju-in kushi ji shin-in (mudra) 97
227. jyeshta-bhratri mudra 97
228. kadali mudra 98
229. kai mon-in (mudra) 98
230. ka-in (mudra) 99
231. kai shin-in (mudra) 99
232. kaji ko sui-in (mudra) 99
233. Kalkiavatara mudra 100
234. kamjayi mudra 100
235. kanaka-matsya mudra 100
236. kandanjali mudra 101
237. kanishtha-bhratri mudra 101
238. kanjo-in (mudra) 101
239. kanshukuden-in (mudra) 102
240. kapittha mudra I 102
241. kapittha mudra II 102
242. kapittha mudra III 103
243. kapota mudra I 103
244. karana mudra I 103
245. karana mudra II 104
246. karkata mudra 104
247. karma-Akashagarbha mudra 104
248. kartari (hasta) mudra 105
249. kartari-danda mudra 105
250. kartari-mukha mudra I 105
251. kartari-mukha II 106
252. kartari-mukha mudra III 106
253. kartari-svastika mudra 106
254. Karttivirya mudra 107
255. kashyapa mudra 107
256. kataka mudra I 107
257. kataka mudra II 108
258. kataka mudra III 108
259. kataka mudra IV 108
260. kataka mudra V 109
261. kataka mudra VI 109
262. kataka-varbhana mudra 109
263. kati mudra 110
264. katiga mudra 110
265. katyavalambita mudra 110
266. kavacha mudra I 111
267. kavachai mudra II 111
268. kayen sho-in (mudra) 111
269. ke bosatsu-in (mudra) 112
270. kasha-bandha mudra 112
271. ketaki mudra 112
272. ketu mudra 113
273. khadga mudra I 113
274. khadga mudra II 113
275. khadga mudra III 114
276. khadga mudra IV 114
277. khadga-mukula mudra 114
278. khdga-ratna mudra 115
279. khanda-mukula mudra 115
280. khatva mudra 115
281. kichijo-in (mudra) 116
282. kilaka mudra 116
283. kimbei-in (mudra) 116
284. kimyo-gassho (mudra) 117
285. kongo-gassho (mudra) 117
286. kongo-ken-in mudra I 117
287. kongo-ken-in mudra II 118
288. kongo-mo-in (mudra) 118
289. kongo rin-in (mudra) 119
290. ko taku (-in) (mudra) 119
291. Krishnavatara mudra 120
292. kshanti mudra 120
293. Kshttriya mudra 120
294. kshepana mudra I 121
295. kshepana mudra II 121
296. Kshitigarbha mudra 121
297. kuan butsu kai ye-in (mudra) 122
298. kuken (mudra) 122
299. kumma(n)ra gassho (mudra) 122
300. kunda-dhvaja mudra 123
301. kurma mudra I 123
302. kurma mudra II 123
303. kurma mudra III 124
304. Kurmavatara mudra 124
305. kurpara mudra I 124
306. kurpana mudra II 125
307. kuruvaka mudra 125
308. Kuvera mudra 125
309. Lakshmi mudra 127
310. lalita mudra 127
311. langula mudra 127
312. lata mudra 128
313. lina-karkata mudra 128
314. linalapadma mudra 128
315. linga mudra 129
316. Lochana mudra 129
317. lolahasta mudra 129
318. Madhya-pataka mudra 131
319. Maha-Akashagarbha mudra 131
320. maha-jnana-khadga mudra 131
321. Mahakala mudra 132
322. maha-karma mudra 132
323. mahakrant mudra 132
324. maha-samaya mudra 133
325. Mahasthamaprapta (mudra) 133
326. maha-vajra-chakra mudra 133
327. makara mudra 134
328. mandala mudra 135
329. mani-ratna mudra 135
330. Manmatha mudra 136
331. matri mudra 137
332. matsya mudra 137
333. Matsyavatara mudra 137
334. mayura mudra 138
335. mifu renge-in (mudra) I 138
336. mifu renge-in (mudra) II 139
337. mifu renge-in (mudra) III 139
338. miharita gassho (mudra) 139
339. Milarepa's mudra 140
340. mragi mudra 140
341. mrigashirsha mudra I 140
342. mrigashirsha mudra II 141
343. mugdhram mudra 141
344. mukha mudra 141
345. mukula mudra 142
346. mu no sho shu-go-in (mudra) 142
347. mushofushi-in (mudra) I 143
348. mushofushi-in (mudra) II 143
349. mushofushi-in (mudra) III 144
350. mushti mudra 144
351. mustikam mudra 144
352. mushti-mriga mudra 145
353. mushti-svastika mudra 145
354. naga-bandha mudra 146
355. naibaku ken-in (mudra) I 146
356. naibaku ken-in (mudra) II 147
357. naibaku ken-in (mudra) III 147
358. Nairriti mudra 147
359. naivedye mudra 148
360. nalini-padmakosha mudra 148
361. namaskara mudra I 149
362. namaskara mudra II 149
363. nananda mudra 149
364. nan kan-nin-in (mudra) 150
365. Narasimhavatara mudra 150
366. Naya-sutra mudra I 150
367. Naya-sutra mudra II 151
368. nebina gassho (mudra) 151
369. netra mudra I 151
370. netra mudra II 152
371. nidhi-ghata mudra 152
372. nidratahasta (mudra) 152
373. nimbasala mudra 153
374. nirvan(a) mudra 153
375. nishedha mudra 153
376. nitamba mudra 154
377. niwa-in (mudra) 154
378. nyorai getsu-in (mudra) 155
379. nyorai hosso-in (mudra) 155
380. nyorai ken-in (mudra) 155
381. nyorai saku-in (mudra) 156
382. nyorai shin-in (mudra) 156
383. nyorai zo-in (mudra) 156
384. ongyo-in (mudra) I 157
385. ongyo-in (mudra) II 157
386. ottanasha gassho (mudra) 158
387. padma mudra I 159
388. padmahasta (mudra) 159
389. padmakosha mudra 159
390. padma-kunjara mudra 160
391. padyam mudra 160
392. paksha-pradyota mudra 161
393. paksha-vanchita mudra 161
394. paksha-pradyota mudra 162
395. paksha-vanchita mudra 162
396. padmakosha mudra 162
397. Panchoshnisha mudra 163
398. pang chan-samor 163
399. pang chong-krom-keaw 163
400. pang ham-phra-kean-chan 164
401. pang hamyat 164
402. pang harm-marn 165
403. pang khabphrawakkali 165
404. pang khor-phon 166
405. pang lila I 166
406. pang lila II 166
407. pang loy-tard 167
408. pang nakawalok I 167
409. pang nakawalok II 168
410. pang palelai 168
411. pang parinipparn 168
412. pang pattakit 169
413. pang perdlok 169
414. pang phraditthanroy-phrabuddhabatr 170
415. pang phra-keit-tatu 170
416. pang phrasarnbhatr 170
417. pang phratabreakhanan I 171
418. pang phratabreakhanan II 171
419. pang phratarn-ehibhikku 172
420. pang phratopyun 172
421. pang plon-aryusangkharn 173
422. pang plon-kammathan 173
423. pang prongahyuksankhan 173
424. pang rab-pholmamuang 174
425. pang ram-pueng 174
426. pang sanghlupnammamuangduaibaht 175
427. pang sawoimathopayas 175
428. pang sedetphutthadannernpai 175
429. pang song-nam-phon 176
430. pang song-picharanacharatham 176
431. pang songruputkang 177
432. pang sonkhem 177
433. pang sung-rabmathupayas 178
434. pang sung-rabyaka 178
435. pang tavainetr 178
436. pang thong-tang-etatakkasatarn 179
437. pang tukkarakiriya 179
438. pang uhm-bhatr 180
439. pankaj mudra 180
440. Parashuramavatara mudra 181
441. pardisha-mukula mudra 181
442. Parvati mudra 181
443. pasha mudra I 182
444. pasha mudra II 182
445. pasha mudra III 182
446. pataka mudra I 183
447. pataka mudra II 183
448. patra mudra 184
449. pitri mudra 184
450. pothi mudra 184
451. pralambam mudra 185
452. pran mudra 185
453. pravartitahasta (mudra) 185
454. prithvi mudra 186
455. puga mudra 186
456. puna mudra 186
457. purn-gyan mudra 187
458. punnaga mudra 187
459. purusha-ratna mudra 188
460. pushap-mala mudra I 188
461. pushap-mala mudra II 188
462. pushpanjali (mudra) 189
463. pushpaputa mudra 189
464. pushpe mudra 189
465. Ragaraja Mula-mudra 190
466. Ragavajra mudra 190
467. Raguramavatara mudra 191
468. Rahu mudra 191
469. ratna-ghata mudra 191
470. ratna mudra I 192
471. ratna mudra II 192
472. ratna-kalasha mudra 192
473. Ratnaprabha-Akashagarbha mudra 193
474. ratna-vahana mudra 193
475. Ravana mudra 193
476. rechita mudra 194
477. rei-in (mudra) 194
478. renge-bu-shu-in (mudra) 195
479. renge ken-in (mudra) 195
480. ren renge-in (mudra) 196
481. rupa renge-in (mudra) 197
482. Sahasra-bhuja Avalokiteshvara mudra 198
483. sai butsu-in (mudra) 199
484. sa-in (mudra) 199
485. sai zai-in (mudra) 200
486. saku-in (mudra) 200
487. samanta-buddhanam mudra 200
488. samdamsa mudra I 201
489. samdamsa mudra II 201
490. samdamsa-mukha mudra 201
491. samputa mudra I 202
492. samputa mudra II 202
493. samyama-nayaka mudra 202
494. sanfuta gassho (mudra) 203
495. sanjali mudra 203
496. sankaisaisho-in (mudra) 203
497. samkirna mudra 204
498. sankirna-makara mudra 204
499. san-ko-cho-in (mudra) 204
500. san-ko-in (mudra) 205
501. san-ko-in (mudra) 205
502. sapatni mudra 205
503. Sarasvati mudra I 206
504. Sarasvati mudra II 206
505. Sarpakara mudra 206
506. sarpashirsha mudra 207
507. sarva-buddha-bodhisattvanam mudra 207
508. sarva-dharmah mudra 208
509. sarva-tahagata-avalokite mudra 208
510. sarva-tathagatebhyo mudra 209
511. segan-semuti-in (mudra) 209
512. semui-in (mudra) 210
513. shabda mudra I 210
514. shabda mudra II 211
515. Shaibya mudra 211
516. shakata mudra I 211
517. shakata mudra II 212
518. Shakra mudra 212
519. Shakyamuni (mudra) 212
520. Shambhu mudra 213
521. Shanaischara mudra 213
522. shami mudra 213
523. shankha mudra I 214
524. shankha mudra II 214
525. shankha mudra III 214
526. shankha mudra IV 215
527. shankha-varta mudra 215
528. Shanmukha mudra 215
529. shan-mukham mudra 216
530. sharad mudra 216
531. shikharai mudra 217
532. shirsha mudra 218
533. Shiva-linga mudra 218
534. sho cha ro-in (mudra) 219
535. sho ko-in (mudra) 219
536. shri-vatsya mudra 219
537. Shudra mudra 220
538. shukatunda mudra 220
539. Shukra mudra 221
540. shumi sen ho-in mudra 221
541. shunya mudra 221
542. shvashri mudra 222
543. shvashura mudra 222
544. sima-bandha mudra I 222
545. simha mudra 223
546. simhakarna mudra I 223
547. simha-mukha mudra 224
548. sindkuvara mudra 224
549. singhakrant mudra 224
550. sitatapatra mudra 225
551. snusha mudra 225
552. so ko shu-go-in (mudra) 226
553. sokuchi sokuchi-in (mudra) 226
554. sola-padma mudra 226
555. sthirabodhi mudra 227
556. stri mudra 227
557. stri-ratna mudra 227
558. suchi mudra I 228
559. suchi mudra II 228
560. suchi mudra III 228
561. suchi mudra IV 229
562. suchyasya mudra 229
563. sukri mudra 229
564. summoning sins (mudra) 230
565. sumukham mudra 230
566. supratishtha mudra 230
567. surabhi mudra I 231
568. surabhi mudra II 231
569. Surya mudra I 231
570. Surya mudra II 232
571. sutra mudra 232
572. suvarna-chakra mudra 232
573. svakuchagraha mudra 233
574. svastika mudra I 233
575. svastika mudra II 233
576. svastika mudra III 234
577. svastika mudra IV 234
578. svastika mudra V 234
579. tala-mukha mudra 235
580. tala-pataka mudra 235
581. tala-simha mudra 235
582. tamrachuda mudra I 236
583. tamrachuda mudra II 236
584. tarjani mudra I 236
585. tarjani mudra II 237
586. tarpana mudra 237
587. Tathagata-damshtra mudra 237
588. tathagata-kushi mudra 238
589. tathagata-vachana mudra 238
590. tattva mudra 238
591. teiriei gassho (mudra) 239
592. tejas-bodhisattva mudra 239
593. temborin-in mudra 239
594. to myo-in (mudra) 240
595. tormai mudra 240
596. Trailikyavijaya mudra I 241
597. trijnana mudra 241
598. tri-mukhammudra 242
599. tripitaka mudra I 242
600. tripitaka mudra II 242
601. tripitaka mudra III 243
602. trisharana mudra 243
603. trishula mudra I 243
604. trishula mudra II 244
605. trishula mudra III 244
606. udveshtitalapadma mudra 245
607. udritta mudra 245
608. ulbana mudra 246
609. uluka mudra 246
610. Upakeshini mudra 246
611. uparatna mudra 247
612. upaya-paramita mudra 247
613. urnanabha mudra 247
614. urusamsthita mudra 248
615. urusanisha mudra 248
616. utsanga mudra 248
617. uttarabodhi mudra 249
618. Vaishravana mudra 250
619. Vaishya mudra 250
620. vajra mudra I 251
621. vajra mudra II 251
622. Vajra-Akashgarbha mudra 251
623. varja-aloke mudra 252
624. vajra-amrita mudra 252
625. vajra-bandha mudra 253
626. bajranjali mudra 253
627. vajra-darshe mudra 254
628. vajra-dharme mudra 254
629. vajra-dhupe mudra 255
630. vajra-gandhe mudra 255
631. vajra-gita mudra 255
632. vajra-gite mudra 256
633. vajra-hasye mudra 256
634. Vajrahetu mudra 256
635. vajrahumkara mudra I 257
636. vajrahumkara mudra II 257
637. vajrahumkara mudra III 258
638. vajrahumkara mudra IV 258
639. Vajrakula mudra 258
640. vajra-lasye mudra 259
641. vajra-mala mudra 259
642. vajra-manas mudra 260
643. vajra-mridamge mudra 260
644. vajra-muraje mudra 261
645. vahra-musthi I 261
646. vajra-musthi II 261
647. vajra-musthi III 262
648. vajra-musthi (kai mon) mudra 262
649. vajra-nritye mudra 262
650. vajrapataka mudra 263
651. vajra-pushpe mudra 263
652. vajra-rasye mudra 263
653. Vajrasattva mudra 264
654. vajra-shri mudra 264
655. vajra-sparshe mudra 264
656. vajra-suchi mudra 265
657. vajra-vamshe mudra 265
658. vajra-vine mudra 265
659. Vamanavatara mudra 266
660. vandana mudra I 266
661. vandana mudra II 267
662. varada mudra 267
663. varaha mudra I 268
664. varaha mudra II 268
665. varaha mudra III 268
666. varajkam mudra I 269
667. varahakam mudra II 269
668. Vara-kaya-samaya-mudra 269
669. vardhamanakai mudra 270
670. vardhamana mudra 270
671. varsha mudra 270
672. Varuna mudra 271
673. varuna(a) mudra 271
674. vasanta mudra 271
675. vayas mudra 272
676. vayu mudra I 272
677. vayu mudra II 272
678. Vayu mudra III 273
679. veragya mudra 273
680. vhalo mudra 273
681. viapkanjali mudra 274
682. vidya mudra 274
683. Vijneshvara mudra 274
684. vikasitapadma mudra 275
685. Vinayaka mudra 275
686. viprakirna mudra 275
687. Virudhaka mudra I 276
688. Virudhaka mudra II 276
689. Virya-paramita mudra 276
690. Vishnu mudra 277
691. vismaya mudra I 277
692. vismaya mudra II 277
693. vismaya-vitarka mudra 278
694. visttam mudra 278
695. vitarka mudra 278
696. vittam mudra 279
697. vyaghra mudra I 279
698. vyaghra mudra II 279
699. vyali mudra 280
700. Yaksha mudra 282
701. Yakshini mudra 282
702. Yama mudra I 282
703. Yama mudra 283
704. yampasham mudra 283
705. yoni mudra I 284
706. yoni mudra II 284
707. yoni mudra III 285
708. zen-in (mudra) 286
709. zu ko-in (mudra) 286
710. hridayaya (mudra) 288
711. kavachaya (mudra) 288
712. netratroyaiya (mudra) 288
713. phat (mudra) 288
714. shikhayai (mudra) 289
715. shirasi (mudra) 289

 

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Customer Comments

  • why the benefits of the mudras are not stated in the book. its like a dictionary without meanings
    - morgan
    5th Feb 2014
  • Would like others comments please
    - Audrey innes
    6th Aug 2007
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