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Books > History > Narrative of the Indian Revolt: From its Outbreak to the Capture of Lucknow by Sir Colin Campbell
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Narrative of the Indian Revolt: From its Outbreak to the Capture of Lucknow by Sir Colin Campbell
Narrative of the Indian Revolt: From its Outbreak to the Capture of Lucknow by Sir Colin Campbell
Description
From the Jacket

This remarkable volume gives a graphic description of the Revolt of 1857 in India and narrates in full its progress and suppression. The author’s breathtaking illustrated account of the sepoys’ uprising strictly based on official letters and dispatches, eye-witnesses, and memoirs reported in chronological order cannot be ignored. Of course, this rich material makes the volume indispensable. The book published first in 1858, is now a collector’s item.

The author examines the premeditation for the outbreak of the revolt and devotes a full chapter to consider the causes of the revolt. (These are largely admitted by the distinguished historians). He probes deeply into the crucial events and projects the view that there was no definite and co-ordinated plan of the Indian rulers and they merely shared their deeply-felt grievances. The volume further reveals the motives that animated them to rise against the British Raj. It implicates Bahadur Shah Zafar, Nana Saheb, and Rani Lakshmi Bai for the massacre of the Europeans at Delhi, Kanpur, and Jhansi. The British atrocities, i.e., blowing away of sepoys, indiscriminate hanging, and burning of villages are uniformly highlighted. It also puts on record the Indian rulers who betrayed the country. Conspicuously, the author finds a deep solidarity among the sepoys who made the revolt widespread.

The book is peerless for its illustration which represent almost each theatre of the rebellion. These are truly historical and free from an artist’s whimsical and fanciful ideas. These are not merely entertaining but are of unique documentary value.

An introduction to the volume, written by Professor S.P. Verma critically examines historicity of the text and illustrations.

Introduction

The present volume, scarcely noticed, has been occasionally ascribed to Sri Colin Campbell (1792-1863), better known as the Commander-in-Chief in India (1846-1853). It so occurred because of the ambiguous wording of the title page. A thorough examination of the volume reveals that it was issued in ‘penny numbers’, entitled Narrative of the Indian Revolt (nos. 1-36) published weekly by G. Vickers, Angel Court, Strand, London, and latter bound sometime in 1858 in a volume bearing the title Narrative of the Indian Revolt from its Outbreak to the Capture of Lucknow by Sir Colin Campbell (the details of the publisher, etc. given on the spine of each ‘penny number’ is found intact in the bound volume). The compiler or the author of the ‘penny numbers’ is not known. Could it be G. Vickers, the publisher himself? The descriptions related to Campbell (his life-sketch on pages 191-74) and to his actions being made by a third person rule out that Campbell himself was the author of this particular volume.

The book Narrative of the Indian Revolt, profusely illustrated with engravings based on drawings and paintings by British artists and a map of India is a unique volume. It has no introduction. The volume comprising I-XXXVIII chapters and precipitately opens with the mysterious act of circulation of chapattis, and the issue of greased cartridges. It ends with the description of the capture of Lucknow and the account of the British policy related to the measures taken to suppress the revolt of 1857.

The text, though offers description of the events based on eye-witnesses and letters, not available in other works, lacks historicity. In several instances, there is no indication of the source from which the evidence is collected. So also, quite often identity of an eye-witness remains anonymous. The individuals divulging the inside story are identified as “as ayah, or native nurse,” “one of our spies”, “a lady of the rescued party”; “an officer”; “one of the unhappy victim of Indian cruelty”; etc., etc. Additionally, factual errors occur, e.g., the statement that the European troops pursued the rebellious sepoys of Meerut on march to Delhi – is unhistoric:

Meanwhile unaccountable delay occurred in turning out the European troops, and night had set in before the Carabineers arrived on the parade-ground of the 11th Native Infantry. They found there the 60th Rifles and Artillery waiting for them. Their arrival was the signal for a move against the rebels. But by this time the work of destruction within the station had been completed, and the rebels had betaken themselves to the Delhi Road. Thither the Carabineers, the Rifles and the Artillery followed them. The night, however, was too dark, and the movements of the insurgents too uncertain, to permit our troops to act with vigour.

The rear of the insurgents was already disappearing in the gloom when it was encountered by the 60th Rifles and the Horse Artillery, who fired a few volleys, and then returned into the cantonment, where they bivouacked for the night. Heavy patrols provided for the general safety during the night (p. 14).

J.A.B. Palmer concludes that no pursuit was launched and it was considered better to hold the force together for the protection of the station:

Their failure to pursue the mutineers is the second main charge which is constantly laid against Hewitt and Wilson. The preceding paragraphs have shown that this charge is basically unsustainable, because it was not known whither the mutinous regiments had gone. Apart from that, a pursuit was hardly feasible and if undertaken would not, in all probability, have produced the effects expected. At the time Sir Patrick Grant, who succeeded Anson as Commander-in-Chief, took the view that if a wing of the 60th with a squadron of the Carabiniers and some guns had been sent in pursuit the insurrection would have been nipped in the bud, but this was the opinion of an officer who was nowhere near the scene of events and had not the material before him to form a sound judgement. Lord Roberts, writing years later with all the weight of his own military experience, concluded that nothing would have been gained by pursuit and the mutineers would not have been overtaken before they reached Delhi. That is the right judgement. It cannot be supposed that the European troops, as they stood on the native parade ground, were ready equipped for a forty mile night march. Cavalry sent in pursuit would have been liable to be ambushed by the native infantry or the latter would have escaped by dispersing. Even the native infantry did not, in bulk, reach Delhi till the early hours of the afternoon next day: the European infantry would not have got there before the magazine blew up. It is fanciful to suppose that the sight of a few of the Carabiniers on the east bank of the Jumna next morning would have made any difference. If they had managed to get into the city, they would probably have been destroyed, and if they had got to the cantonment their arrival would have more probably precipitated the outbreak there, just as the rumour of the approach of European troops had done at Berhampore and at Meerut itself. There is no real ground for claiming that the appearance of European troops was calculated to restrain an incipient mutiny: the evidence suggests the contrary. There are no sound arguments to support the view that the commanders at Meerut were culpable in failing to launch a wild pursuit into the night; they did better to hold their force together for the protection of the station.

Further, it is appalling since in numerous instances, especially regarding the problems of Bahadur Shah Zafar, the Emperor of Delhi; Lakshmi Bai, Rani of Jhansi, and the uprising of peasants and artisans, etc. in Oudh simply an author’s view is projected. Additionally, the text is horded with the descriptions of the atrocities and excesses committed by the sepoys (quite often found repeated in the text, e.g. see pages 113-118) which enraged the feelings of the people of England who gladly accepted the distorted and exaggerated versions of the events. Obviously, it fostered anti-India feeling among the Britishers. For example, the frontispiece of the volume, “The Massacre at Delhi” (p.1) is pretentious and ill-designed. The illustration shows he sepoys torching British officers’ bungalows, killing their wives and children. Here in the depiction of violence against women and children and the display of an infant being tossed and held on the point of a bayonet - British artist’s imagination is at work. The narration of the event is equally flaunting:

Tortures the most refined, outrages the most vile, were perpetrated upon men, women and children. Men were hacked to pieces in the presence of their wives and children. Wives were stripped before their husband’s eyes, flogged naked through the city, violated there in the public street, and then murdered. To cut off the breasts of the woman was a favourite mode of dismissing them to death; and, most horrible, they were sometimes scalped – skin before separated round the neck, and then drawn over the head of the poor creatures, who was then, blinded by blood driven out into the blazing streets… A man who witnessed the last massacre, where he had gone as spy, gives a horrid account of it, stating that the little children were thrown up in the air and caught on the points of bayonets, or cut as they were falling with tulwars.

…An officer and his wife were tied to trees, their children tortured to death before them, and portions of their flesh crammed down the parents’ throats, the wife was then violated before here husband - he mutilated in a manner too horrible to relate – then both were burnt to death (pp.20-1).

Here no historic source of ‘unspeakable atrocities’ is noticed. A double-page illustration, “English Home in India” (pp.114-15), too establishes British artist’s vengeance against the sepoys. Such visuals infuriated Britishers, and disgraced the Indians.

In another instance, an account of the massacre at Kanpur of the British officers (June 27, and July 15, 1857), their wives and children is over blown (see pages 113, 117, 125 and 128, illustration on pages 202, 204, 349 and 351). Here, an author’s view severely implicates Dhundu Pant, better known as Nana Saheb on the basis of fictitious descriptions:

It follows an over blown description of the massacre at Bibigarh:

The first order was carried out immediately – i.e., on the evening of the 15th of July, “The native spies were first put to the sword”, says Mr. Sphepherd, “and after them the gentlemen, who were brought out from the out-buildings in which they were confined, and shot with bullets thereafter. The poor female were ordered to come out, but neither threats or persuations could induce them to do so; they laid hold of each by dozens, and clung so close that it was impossible to separate, them or drag them out of the building. The troopers, therefore brought muskets, and after firing a great many shorts from the doors, windows, etc. reached in with swords and bayonets. Some of the helpless creatures, in their agony, fell down at the feet of their murdereds, clasped their legs, and begged of them, in the most pitiful manner, to spare their lives, but to no purpose. The fearful deed was done, most deliberately and completely, in the midst of the most dreadful shrieks and cries of the victims. There were between 140 and 150 souls, including children; and from a little before sunset till candle-light was occupied in completing the dreadful deed…The dead bodies of those murdered on the preceding evening were then ordered to be thrown into the same well, and Jullads were employed to drag them away like dogs” (p.113).

Additional details appears on page 125:

Traces of the most wanton devastation met the eye at every step – every door and gate was pulled off its hinges. Some officers of the force visited the place wherein the fearful tragedy of the day had been enacted. It was a native house of the better most kind, having rooms on either side, round an enclosed inner court-yard, where these unfortunate ladies and soldiers’ wives and their children, had been confined; and it was told as an actual and literal fact that the floor of the inner room was two inches deep in blood all over – it came over men’s shoes as they stepped. Tresses of women’s hair, and children’s shoes and articles of female wear, broad hats and bonnets, books, and such like things, lay scattered all about the rooms. There were the marks of bullets and sword-cuts on the walls – not high up, as if men had fought, but low down, and about the corners where the poor-creatures had been cut to pieces. There, too, just behind the house, was the well into which the bodies of the victims had been thrown, and where they were to be seen a mangled heap, with an arm or leg protruding here and there.

J. W. Sherer who was one of the first few to visit Bibigarh find the account of the event ‘massacre at Bibigrah’ being exaggerated: “Of mutilation, in that house at least, there was no sign, nor at that time was there any writings on the walls.” Sherer has further to say that “Of his [Nana Saheb] individual influence there seems no trace throughout. We know something of what Azimollah did; and the hand is not difficult to discover, at times, of Jawala Pershad, Baba Bhut, Tantia Tope, and the rest; but the stolid, discontended figure of the Nana himself, remains in the background.

The lack of evidence is admitted and some obscurity surrounded this incident. Surendra Nath Sen writes that it is impossible to settle whether the Bibigarh massacre was committed before Nana Saheb had left for Bithur or after. R. C. Majudmar also finds that while there is no doubt about the massacre and its gruesome details, the role attributed to Nana Saheb bears insufficient evidence. “Nanha’s cruelties have attained world wide notoriety. But black though his deed were there are no means to determine his motive which impelled him and his personal share in them.”

In brief, the description in the volume are sensational, and produced with a view to capitalizing on the intense interest in England in 1857-58 on all things to do with the ‘Revolt of 1857’. The volume an assemblage of the ‘penny numbers’, bound in 1858 intended diffusion of the British follies and atrocities by launching anti-India feeling through misrepresentation of facts. The text is filled with pretentious account of the excesses done by the sepoys. In general, in the narration of the events there pervades a feel of misrepresentation. There is always a lack of discreet analysis of the events, and the author’s view is of little historical merit.

Nonetheless, this volume is still worthwhile to be consulted. In numerous instances the events are reported with the quotes from the letters which are not published elsewhere. An incorporation of the official dispatches and letters, mainly the dispatches of Major Eyre (p 140), Brigadier Nicholson (p.152), General Wilson (pp.179-182), and General Havelock (pp.185-186) are important.

The Narrative of the Indian Revolt is peerless for its illustrations which represent almost each theatre of the rebellion. They represent the incidents of the revolt, likenesses of the individuals: British officers and the principal leaders of the uprising, and the on-the-spot drawings of the historical buildings, townscapes, etc. these are helpful to refresh one’s recollections of the events of the rebellion.

The number of the illustrations prepared from the engravings on steel (prints in black-and-white) is fairly large, and most of them do not bear the name of the artist, or engraver. Rarely the names of the artists: S Prout, W. Purser and George Beechey and the engravers: C. Mottram and W. Brandard occur in the illustrations drawn and engraved by them. George Beechey is also known as a portrait painter of the King of Oudh, and in our volume his notable work is the portrait of Nana Saheb painted at Bithur (p.109).

A few words may be said about the technique used at that time. The engravings used to multiply the prints was common in England since sixteenth century, and the type of engravings under study, is intaglio with soft-ground etching. In it, the effect is like that of a pencil or chalk drawing and in it the ground is mixed with colour. As a result of which the tonal variations as seen in an artist’s drawings, are successfully achieved by the engraver.

The camera had been invented and some of the drawings of buildings are avowedly based on photographs (see) illustration of page 22). While the artist drew the artist drew the landscape himself he used an instrument called camera obscura, a box with lens which reflected an image of the landscape on the drawing sheet, for securing accuracy.

The illustrations (scenes of battle and expeditions) based on memory either of the artist, if himself a eye-witness, or of other eye-witnesses are by-and-large in conformity of the text. In all cases the artists and witnesses were Europeans and there is probably a distinct element of bias against the rebels in these depictions. But the depictions, even when they draw on imagination, are realistic. The way they show the rebel prisoners being executed by the English testifies to their sense of realism, even if tainted by a sense of vengeance (see illustrations on pages 42-3 and 168). These drawings bear evidence of ferocious measures resorted by the British authorities to suppress the rebellion. The realism achieved in their work is complete to the extant that these visuals are an everlasting source of vigour and strength with which Indian resisted British power. The illustrations offer visual documentation of the major events and a living record of the times.

In general, the figures are characteristic and appear as individual character, and thus the central theme of the picture becomes more expressive. The human and animal figures are highly modeled and the whole picture is finished in a continuous range of smoky tones. Further the device of conveying distance and sfumato in the rendering of the objects make the scene lively. The chiaroscuro effect, scientific perspective, characteristic rendering of the human and animal figures, and lastly the naturalistic light and shade effect – all combine the humanistic elements in the art of the illustrations. Over and above, the whole of the event surcharged with action and filled with emotions and feelings leaves us spell-bound. In brief, a close look on these pictures drive us willingly into the past. These are not merely entertaining but are of unique documentary value.

The depiction of buildings, by their accuracy, suggest on-the-spot observation (illustrations on pp.94, 97, 142, 144-145, 166, 178, 190, 192, 198-199, 214 and 360). In them, the treatment of the monuments is both spacious and lively. These bear affinity with the Neoclassic tradition of landscape painting. The drawings are truly historical and free from artist’s whimscal or fanciful ideas. Additionally, the illustrations ‘Procession of Muharram’ (pp. 151-51), ‘Courtyard of the King’s palace at Delhi.’ (pp. 174-75), ‘Principal street of Lucknow’ (p. 190), ‘The thugs of India’ (pp. 210-11), ‘Travelling in Punjab’ (p.255), ‘Inhabitants of Simla’ (p.279), ‘House of a Hindu’ (p.286), ‘Travelling’ (p.288), ‘Procession of Hindu Goddess Kali’ (p.298), ‘Herdsmen’ (p.339), ‘Faqirs of Rajasthan’ (p.346), ‘Domestic servants’ (p.361), ‘Malabar women’ (p.442), etc. etc. bear rare evidence on everyday life in India during mid-nineteenth century.

To sum up, these contemporary illustrations of the revolt of 1857 attempt to record the events, and are no less important in increasing our understanding of the occurrences of this historic year. These visuals leave an everlasting impression on our mind and this neglected historical source – material need to be studies. Further their interpretation in the light of the writings till date is important. Of course, this rich material makes the volume Narrative of the Indian Revolt indispensable work of historical importance. The book, published in 1858, is now a collector’s item.

Contents

Chapter I The Revolt, its Origin and Character-The Mysterious Cakes and Lotus Flowers-The Story of the Greased Cartridges 1
Chapter IIDisaffection appears at Berhampore-The Outbreak at Barrackpore – Attempted Assassination of Lieutenant Baugh – Colonel Wheler’s Supineness-Decision of General Hearsay-Mutineers Hanged5
Chapter III.Re-appearance of the Disaffection at Lucknow The Movement quelled by Sir Henry Lawrence-Rebellion of the 3rd Cavalry at Meerut-Condemned, Imprisoned, and Rescued by their Comrades-Outbreak of the Native Troops-Death of Colonel Finnis-Slaughter of the Europeans9
Chapter IVDelhi and its Defences-Seizure of the City by the Mutineers-Massacre of the Europeans-Heroic Defence of Lieutenants Willoughby and Forrest-They Blow up the Magazine-The King of Delhi proclaimed-Atrocious Treatment of European Women and Children16
Chapter VMutiny Stamped out at Ferozepore33
Chapter VIAlarm at Calcutta-Arrest of the King of Oude-Lord Canning’s Administration-Nagpore-Sangor-Jhansi-Nowgong-Aurungabad-Azimghur-Benares69
Chapter VIIThe Siege of Delhi-the Massacre at Allahabad-Retribution at Rohnee76
Chapter VIIILucknow Besieged-Danger of the Garrison-Sir H. Lawrence’s Defence-His Death-His Character and Career98
Chapter IXCawnpore-Desperate Situation of Sir H. Wheeler – The Hospital Fortified – Mutiny of the Troops-Defence of the European Position-Nena Sahib-Capitulation of the Cawnpore Garrison-The Massacre105
Chapter XThe Flight from Futteyghur-Murder of the Fugitives by Nena Sahib118
Chapter XIThe “Army of Retribution” – Havelock’s Victories-March on Cawnpore-Rout of Nena Sahib-Seenes in Cawnpore122
Chapter XIIOutbreak at Dinapore-The Slaughter of British Troops at Arrah-Gallant Defence of that place-Relieved by Major Eyre-Jubbulpore134
Chapter XIIIAffairs at Agra-The Battle of Agra143
Chapter XIVThe Siege of Delhi continued-The Bombardment-The Assault and Capture of the City148
Chapter XVCondition of Delhi after the Siege-The Fugitive Rebels Pursued-Capture of the King and Five of his Sons-Execution of the Princess-Brigadier Greathed’s Victories.170
Chapter XVIThe Belief of Lucknow182
Chapter XVII.Havelock’s Column of Relief besieged in Lucknow-The Fight at Bhitoor-advance of Reinforcements under Sir Colin Campbell188
Chapter XVIII.The Relief of Lucknow by Sir Colin Campbell-Affairs at Cawnpore194
Chapter XIXThe Punjab-The Surprise at Sealkote-The Rising at Kolapore-Massacre at Kotah-Koor Singh’s Progress-Affairs in Rewah-The Dhar Mutineers-The Affair at Jeerun-Hazareebagh 201
Chapter XX.Narrative of the Defence of Lucknow and the Death of Sir H. Lawrence-Sir Colin Campbell’s Fight to the Residency-Havelock’s Death218
Chapter XXIGeneral Windham at Cawnpore-His Repulse by the Gwalior Contingent-The Second Siege of Cawnpore-Opportune Arrival of Sir Colin Campbell245
Chapter XXIIHow the Punjab was Saved260
Chapter XXIIILord Canning’s Defence-Lord Dalhousie and the Annexation of Oude266
Chapter XXIVArrival of the Lucknow Garrison at Calccuta-Sir James Outram at Alumbagh-Sir Colin Campbell’s Movements after the Relief of Cawnpore275
Chapter XXV.Journals of the Siege of Lucknow290
Chapter XXVIDeath of the Queen of Oude-The Oude Dynasty-Our Compact with the Government-Oude Robbers-The Court and the People314
Chapter XXVIISir Henry Havelock-His Life and Labours332
Chapter XXVIIIIndian Grievances and Indian Revenge338
Chapter XXIXFrom Calcutta to Cawnpore in 1858341
Chapter XXXSir Colin Campbell’s Operations in Oude-The Relief of Saugor-Exploits in Rajpootana-Important Engagements in the Doab and Rohilcund-Whitlock’s Successes347
Chapter XXXIAn Indian’s View of the Causes of the Mutiny257
Chapter XXXIIThe Trial of the King of Delhi368
Chapter XXXIIIThe Recapture of Lucknow381
Chapter XXXIVOperations and Prospects after the Capture of Lucknow408
Chapter XXXVOfficial Despatches-Movements of the Dispersed Rebels-Rohilcund, Kotah, Jhansi 428
Chapter XXXVIIIOur policy in India-Measures for the Suppression of the Revolt-Conclusion450
LIST OF ENGRAVINGS/
Agra, View Inside The Fort At 145
Entrance to the Fortress of 142
The Fort at144
Taj Mahal at215
Interior View of the Fort of312, 373
Ambush, Troops in406
Arrah, Holding Out at138, 139
Allahabad, Escape of European Officers from Massacre at61
Rout of the Mutineers at, by Col. Neill63
The Judges’ Court-house and Gallows at265
Mess-house of the Officers of the 6th Bengal Native Infantry at267
Cavalry crossing the Ferry at276
Amazons, Guard of a Native Kings Harem.193
Army on the March in India234, 235
Artillery going into Action231
Adjimir, Banker’s House at432
Auckland Hotel, Calcutta360
Attendants of the Court of Oude418
Bang AT Delhi, The22
Attack on the, at the Capture of Delhi163
Batteries before Delhi, Engineer Officers in the 85
Barnard, the late General; Portrait of 73
Benares, View of the City of 255
Bengal Army, Regular Cavalry of the 87
Bengal, Fakir of 3
Regular and Irregular Cavalry of 282, 283
Bengalese-How they are Converted into British Soldiers60
Blowing Mutinous Sepoys from Field-pieces at Peshawur, Preparations for42, 43
Boats, a Fleet of Native, off Cawnpore120
Bolundshuhur, Village of, near Meerut156
Bombay, the Roadstead at198, 199
British Reinforcements on the March49
Brown, Jessie, at Lucknow246, 247
Bungalow, Destruction of a, at Meerut15
Banker’s House at Adjimir432
Bhore Ghaut, entrance to Tunnel in390, 391
Birthplace of Gen. Inglis, Nova Seotia428
Brahmins, Meetings of the, at the Temple of Conjeveram300
British Officers Reconnoitring294, 295
Calcutta, Gateway of Fort William, 67
Police336
The Pool at394
Camp before Delhi, Hindoo Rao’s House82
Campbell, Sir Colin, Portrait of 181
Cawnpore, a Fleet of Native Boats off120
Cawnpore District, Ejeetment of Natives from a Burning Village in the 219
Cawnpore, the Ganges near111
The House in which the Ladies and Children were Massacred at202
Portrait of the Butcher of 204
Surseya-Ghaut at108
Scene in the Intrenchments at217
The Well at241
Interior of the House at, where the Massacre was committed349
The scene of the Massacre of the Ladies and Children351
Campbell, Sir Colin, and Jung Bahadoor, Interview between426, 427
Cavalry of Bengal, Regular and Irregular282, 283
Cavalry Crossing the Ferry at Allahabad276
Chuttur Munzil, Lucknow378, 379
Chupatties, Chowkeydar Passing the3
Colvin, the late George, Esq., Portrait of74
Court-yard in the Palace at Delhi174, 175
Conjeveram, Meeting of the Brahmins at the Temple of300
Court of Runjeet Singh448-449
Dak Runners Converying News of The Sepoy Revolt34
Dacca, View of 250
Delhi, Bank at22
Attack on the 163
Courtyard in the Palace at174-175
Engagement with the Mutineers before154
Engineer Officers in the Batteries before85
Favourite Wives of the King of171
Fight in the Lines Before78-79
Fort of Selimghur at166
Fugitives from, Fording a River25
General View of the City of30, 31
Great Gate of the Jumma Musjid at97
Head-Quarters before, previous to the Assault157
King’s Palace at19
The Kootab Minar near178
Massacre at1
Mutinous Sepoys on their way to Delhi pursued by Cavalry17
Plan of the Siege, and Defences of159
Principal Gate of the Palace at26
Scene at the Kootab Minar after the Capture of the King of 214
Serai Picket in the Subzee Mundee before 162
Slaughter inside of168
South Gate of the Palace at94
View in the Chandnee Chouk26
View of the General’s Mound in the Camp before84
View of, from the Flagstaff Tower 186, 187
Delhi-State Procession of the King of 342, 343 After the Siege-The Jumma Musjid 306, 307
Ejectment of Natives from A Burning Village In The Cawnpore District219
Engagement with Mutineers before Delhi. 154
Engineer Officers in the Batteries before Delhi85
English Homes in India in 1857114, 115
Entrenchments at Cawnpore, Scene in the217
Escape of European Officers from Massacre at Allahabad.61
Elephants of the Rajah of Travancore330, 331
Elephant carrying Troops to the Camp at Lucknow358
Elephant of Oude382
Embarkation of Officers for India363
Entrance to Lucknow, the445
FAKIR OF BENGAL3
Fakirs of Radjestan346
Festival of the Mohurrim151-151
Fight in the Lines before Delhi78, 79
Finnis, Colonel, the Death of, on the Parade Ground, Meerut13
Fleet of Native Boats off Cawnpore120
Fort at Agra144
Entrance to the142
A View inside the Fort of312, 373
Fort William, Calcutta, Gateway of67
Interior Views of the312-373
Fugitives from Delhi fording a River25
Funeral of the Queen of Oude:-
Conveying the Coffin to the Hearse
315
Hindoo Priest reading Prayers over the Coffin322
The Burial at Sundown324
GANGES, THE, NEAR CAWNPORE111
Hindoo House on the Banks of the286
General’s Mound, View of the, in the Camp before Delhi84
Goorkha Chiefs46
Goorkhas, Havildar of Sirmoor Battalion303
Grierson, Corporal Burgess, Portrait of289
Greathed, Colonel, and his Brothers, Portraits of228
Gwalior Contingent, Troops of the48
Court of the Rajah of270-271
Gallows and Judge’s Court-house at Allahabad265
HAVELOC, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR H., BART., K.C.B., PORTRAITS OF 121,243
Havildar of Sirmoor Battalion, Goorkhas303
Head-Quarters before Delhi previous to the Assault157
Highlanders, the, at Lucknow222, 223
Hindoo Rao’s House, Camp before Delhi82
Hindoo House, Interior of a 36
On the Banks of the Ganges286
Himalayas, People of the , near Nynee Tal.39
Hindoos Travelling288
Hodson, Captain, Portrait of397
Home, Lieut. D. C., Portrait of301
Homes in India in 1857114-115
House in which the Ladies ad Children were Massacred at Cawnpore, the202
Humayoon, Tomb of he Emperor178
INDIA, ENGLIH HOMES IN, 1857114-115
Transport of Troops in133
Embarkation of Officers for363
Imambarra, at Lucknow385
Tomb of Mahomed Ali Shah in the387
Indian Army on the Mareh234-235
Indian Rajan and his Escort366-367
Inglis, Gen., his Birthplace at Nova Scotia428
Inhabitants of the Mountainous District near Simla279
JESSIE BROWN AT LUCKNOW246-247
Jhansi, the Siege of-Troops in the Trenches439
Judge’s Court House and the Gallows at Allahabad265
Jumma Musjid, Delhi, Great Gate of the 97
View near the306, 307
Jumna, View on the Banks of the216
Jung Bahadoor and Sir Colin Campbell, Interview between426, 427
KING OF DELHI, PORTRAIT OF169
King of Delhi-Favourite Wives of the 171
Scene at the Kootab Minar, after the Capture of the 214
State Procession of the 342-343
Kali, Procession of the Hindoo Goddess298
Khedmetgar277
Kotwal of Police at Lucknow, the403
Kootab Minar, Delhi178
LAWRENCE, SIR H., PRESENTING SABRES TO SEPOY NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS10
Lawrence, the late Sir Henry, Portrait of 99
Lawrence, Sir John, Chief Commissioner of the Punjab, Portrait of 325
Life, a Ride for54, 55
Lotus Flower, the3
Lucknow, Capital of Oude103
Entrance to445
From the Balcony of the Residency240
General View of 198, 199
Highlanders at222-223
Jessie Brown at246-247
Principal Street in190
Roomee Durwazee Gate at192
Street in102
Head of Relieving Force Arriving at the Bailey Guard318, 319
The King’s Palace at402
The Kotwal of Police at403
Tombs at409
Captain Simpson’s House at421
View from a Window of the Martiniere414
March, Reinforcement on the49
Massacre at Delhi.1
Massacre of the Officers of the 54th N.I.24
Meerut, Death of Colonel Finnis on the Parade-Ground at13
Destruction of a Bungalow at15
The Revolt at12
Village of Bolundshuhur, near156
The Artillery Mess-House at327
Mess-house of the Officers of the 6th Bengal Native Infantry at Allahabad.267
Mess-house at Meerut-the Artillery327
M’Leod, Mr., Portrait of325
Mohurrim, the Festival of the150, 151
Mound, View of the General’s, in the Camp before Delhi84
Mutineers, Rout of the, at Allahabad, by Colonel Neill63
Engagement with the, before Delhi154
Mutinous Sepoys on their way to Delhi pursued by Cavalry17
Nena Sahib, Portrait of109
Night Travelling in the Punjab255
Nova Scotia, General Inglis’s Birthplace at423
Nynee Tul, People of the Himalayas, near39
Oude, The SUITE OF THE QUEEN OF, IN THE COURT OF THE HOTEL DURING THE ABLUTION OF THE BODY313
Attendants of the Court of 418
Overland Route to India-Interior of a Café at Suez435
PALACE OF THE KING, AT DELHI19
Courtyard in the 174, 175
Principal Gate of the 26
South Gate of the 94
Punjab, Night Travelling in the 255
People of the Himalayas, near Nynee Tal39
Peshawur, Preparations for Blowing Mutinous Sepoys from Field-Pieces at42-43
Bhisti, or Water Carrier277
Picket, the Outlying, before Delhi147
Portraits-Barnard, General73
“Butcher of Cawnpore,” the204
Campbell, Sir Colin, K.C.B.181
Colvin, the late George, Esq.75
Delhi. The King of 169
Greathed, Colonel, and his Brothers228
Portraits-Havelock, the late General 121243
Lawrence, the late Sir Henry99
Nena Sahib109
Windham, Major-General229
Grierson, Corporal Burgess289
Hodson, Captain397
Home, Lieutenant D. C.301
Lawrence, Sir J., Chief Commissioner325
M’Leod, Mr., Financial Commissioner325
Montgomery, Mr.325
Russell, W. H., Esq.433
Police of Calcutta336
Pool at Calcutta, the394
Procession of the Hindoo Goddess Kali298
Punjab Irregular Force, Troops of the, Serving with the Army before Delhi.15
RAJPOOTS, A GROUP OF132
Radjestan, Fakirs of346
Railway-The Great East Indian Peninsular-Entrance to the Tunnel in the Bhore Ghaut390, 391
Rajah of Gwalior, Court of the 270, 271
Rajah, an Indian, and his Escort366, 367
Ram Swamee, the Temple of, an advanced post of the British camp before Delhi310
Recruiting for the Indian Army-
Cavalry205
Infantry207
Waiting to Pass the Medical Examination370
Scene in the “Hampshire Hog,” Westminster384
“Who’ll Serve the Queen?”420
Rustic Recruits438
Regular Cavalry of the Bengal Army87
Reinforcements on the March in India 354, 355
Repulse of Sortie from Delhi, July 1490, 91
Revolt at Meerut, the12
Revolt, Dak Runners Conveying News of the Sepoy34
Revolted Sepoys Driven from a Walled Village126, 127
Roadstead at Bombay, the198, 199
Roomee Durwazee Gate at Lucknow, the192
Runjeet Singh, Court of 448-449
Russell, W. H., Esq., Portrait of 433
SABRES, PRESENTATION OF, TO SEPOY NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS BY SIR H LAWRENCE10
Schir Singh, Rajah of the Sikhs, with his Escort.258-259
Scinde, Gentlement of 279
Selimghur, the Fort of, Delhi 166
Sepoys, a group of 6, 7
Preparations for Blowing Mutinous ones from the Guns at Peshawur 42, 43
Revolted ones driven from a Walled Village 126, 127
Sepoy Non-Commissioned Officers, Sir H. Lawrence presenting Sabres to 10
Serai Picket in the Subzee-Mundee before Delhi.162
Serai, interior of the, in the Subzee-Mundee 183
Sikhs, a Group of 37
Sikhs of the Punjab Irregular Force serving with the Troops before Delhi. 156
Simpson’s, Captain, his House at Lucknow 421
Simla, Inhabitants of the Mountainous Districts near 279
Slaughter inside Delhi, the 168
Sortie from Delhi, Repulse of the 88, 89
Street in Lucknow 102
Subzee-Mundee, Interior of the Serai in 183
Serai Picket in the, before Delhi 162
Surseya Ghaut at Cawnpore 168
Suez, Interior of a Café at 435
Sylhet, View of 252
THUGS OF INDIA, THE 210, 211
Taj Mahal, Agra 415
Todhas, Buffalo Herdsmen 339
Tombs at Lucknow 409
Tomb of the Emperor Humayoon 178
Transport of Troops in India 133
Troops of the Gwalior Contingent 48
Troops, Transport of, in India 133
Travancore, Elephants of the Rajah of 330, 331
Troops in Ambush 406
WINDHAM, MAJOR-GEN., PORTRAIT OF 299
Wives of the King of Delhi, the Favourite 171
Zemindar 277

Narrative of the Indian Revolt: From its Outbreak to the Capture of Lucknow by Sir Colin Campbell

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Edition:
2007
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Aryan Books International
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8173053316
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Narrative of the Indian Revolt: From its Outbreak to the Capture of Lucknow by Sir Colin Campbell

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From the Jacket

This remarkable volume gives a graphic description of the Revolt of 1857 in India and narrates in full its progress and suppression. The author’s breathtaking illustrated account of the sepoys’ uprising strictly based on official letters and dispatches, eye-witnesses, and memoirs reported in chronological order cannot be ignored. Of course, this rich material makes the volume indispensable. The book published first in 1858, is now a collector’s item.

The author examines the premeditation for the outbreak of the revolt and devotes a full chapter to consider the causes of the revolt. (These are largely admitted by the distinguished historians). He probes deeply into the crucial events and projects the view that there was no definite and co-ordinated plan of the Indian rulers and they merely shared their deeply-felt grievances. The volume further reveals the motives that animated them to rise against the British Raj. It implicates Bahadur Shah Zafar, Nana Saheb, and Rani Lakshmi Bai for the massacre of the Europeans at Delhi, Kanpur, and Jhansi. The British atrocities, i.e., blowing away of sepoys, indiscriminate hanging, and burning of villages are uniformly highlighted. It also puts on record the Indian rulers who betrayed the country. Conspicuously, the author finds a deep solidarity among the sepoys who made the revolt widespread.

The book is peerless for its illustration which represent almost each theatre of the rebellion. These are truly historical and free from an artist’s whimsical and fanciful ideas. These are not merely entertaining but are of unique documentary value.

An introduction to the volume, written by Professor S.P. Verma critically examines historicity of the text and illustrations.

Introduction

The present volume, scarcely noticed, has been occasionally ascribed to Sri Colin Campbell (1792-1863), better known as the Commander-in-Chief in India (1846-1853). It so occurred because of the ambiguous wording of the title page. A thorough examination of the volume reveals that it was issued in ‘penny numbers’, entitled Narrative of the Indian Revolt (nos. 1-36) published weekly by G. Vickers, Angel Court, Strand, London, and latter bound sometime in 1858 in a volume bearing the title Narrative of the Indian Revolt from its Outbreak to the Capture of Lucknow by Sir Colin Campbell (the details of the publisher, etc. given on the spine of each ‘penny number’ is found intact in the bound volume). The compiler or the author of the ‘penny numbers’ is not known. Could it be G. Vickers, the publisher himself? The descriptions related to Campbell (his life-sketch on pages 191-74) and to his actions being made by a third person rule out that Campbell himself was the author of this particular volume.

The book Narrative of the Indian Revolt, profusely illustrated with engravings based on drawings and paintings by British artists and a map of India is a unique volume. It has no introduction. The volume comprising I-XXXVIII chapters and precipitately opens with the mysterious act of circulation of chapattis, and the issue of greased cartridges. It ends with the description of the capture of Lucknow and the account of the British policy related to the measures taken to suppress the revolt of 1857.

The text, though offers description of the events based on eye-witnesses and letters, not available in other works, lacks historicity. In several instances, there is no indication of the source from which the evidence is collected. So also, quite often identity of an eye-witness remains anonymous. The individuals divulging the inside story are identified as “as ayah, or native nurse,” “one of our spies”, “a lady of the rescued party”; “an officer”; “one of the unhappy victim of Indian cruelty”; etc., etc. Additionally, factual errors occur, e.g., the statement that the European troops pursued the rebellious sepoys of Meerut on march to Delhi – is unhistoric:

Meanwhile unaccountable delay occurred in turning out the European troops, and night had set in before the Carabineers arrived on the parade-ground of the 11th Native Infantry. They found there the 60th Rifles and Artillery waiting for them. Their arrival was the signal for a move against the rebels. But by this time the work of destruction within the station had been completed, and the rebels had betaken themselves to the Delhi Road. Thither the Carabineers, the Rifles and the Artillery followed them. The night, however, was too dark, and the movements of the insurgents too uncertain, to permit our troops to act with vigour.

The rear of the insurgents was already disappearing in the gloom when it was encountered by the 60th Rifles and the Horse Artillery, who fired a few volleys, and then returned into the cantonment, where they bivouacked for the night. Heavy patrols provided for the general safety during the night (p. 14).

J.A.B. Palmer concludes that no pursuit was launched and it was considered better to hold the force together for the protection of the station:

Their failure to pursue the mutineers is the second main charge which is constantly laid against Hewitt and Wilson. The preceding paragraphs have shown that this charge is basically unsustainable, because it was not known whither the mutinous regiments had gone. Apart from that, a pursuit was hardly feasible and if undertaken would not, in all probability, have produced the effects expected. At the time Sir Patrick Grant, who succeeded Anson as Commander-in-Chief, took the view that if a wing of the 60th with a squadron of the Carabiniers and some guns had been sent in pursuit the insurrection would have been nipped in the bud, but this was the opinion of an officer who was nowhere near the scene of events and had not the material before him to form a sound judgement. Lord Roberts, writing years later with all the weight of his own military experience, concluded that nothing would have been gained by pursuit and the mutineers would not have been overtaken before they reached Delhi. That is the right judgement. It cannot be supposed that the European troops, as they stood on the native parade ground, were ready equipped for a forty mile night march. Cavalry sent in pursuit would have been liable to be ambushed by the native infantry or the latter would have escaped by dispersing. Even the native infantry did not, in bulk, reach Delhi till the early hours of the afternoon next day: the European infantry would not have got there before the magazine blew up. It is fanciful to suppose that the sight of a few of the Carabiniers on the east bank of the Jumna next morning would have made any difference. If they had managed to get into the city, they would probably have been destroyed, and if they had got to the cantonment their arrival would have more probably precipitated the outbreak there, just as the rumour of the approach of European troops had done at Berhampore and at Meerut itself. There is no real ground for claiming that the appearance of European troops was calculated to restrain an incipient mutiny: the evidence suggests the contrary. There are no sound arguments to support the view that the commanders at Meerut were culpable in failing to launch a wild pursuit into the night; they did better to hold their force together for the protection of the station.

Further, it is appalling since in numerous instances, especially regarding the problems of Bahadur Shah Zafar, the Emperor of Delhi; Lakshmi Bai, Rani of Jhansi, and the uprising of peasants and artisans, etc. in Oudh simply an author’s view is projected. Additionally, the text is horded with the descriptions of the atrocities and excesses committed by the sepoys (quite often found repeated in the text, e.g. see pages 113-118) which enraged the feelings of the people of England who gladly accepted the distorted and exaggerated versions of the events. Obviously, it fostered anti-India feeling among the Britishers. For example, the frontispiece of the volume, “The Massacre at Delhi” (p.1) is pretentious and ill-designed. The illustration shows he sepoys torching British officers’ bungalows, killing their wives and children. Here in the depiction of violence against women and children and the display of an infant being tossed and held on the point of a bayonet - British artist’s imagination is at work. The narration of the event is equally flaunting:

Tortures the most refined, outrages the most vile, were perpetrated upon men, women and children. Men were hacked to pieces in the presence of their wives and children. Wives were stripped before their husband’s eyes, flogged naked through the city, violated there in the public street, and then murdered. To cut off the breasts of the woman was a favourite mode of dismissing them to death; and, most horrible, they were sometimes scalped – skin before separated round the neck, and then drawn over the head of the poor creatures, who was then, blinded by blood driven out into the blazing streets… A man who witnessed the last massacre, where he had gone as spy, gives a horrid account of it, stating that the little children were thrown up in the air and caught on the points of bayonets, or cut as they were falling with tulwars.

…An officer and his wife were tied to trees, their children tortured to death before them, and portions of their flesh crammed down the parents’ throats, the wife was then violated before here husband - he mutilated in a manner too horrible to relate – then both were burnt to death (pp.20-1).

Here no historic source of ‘unspeakable atrocities’ is noticed. A double-page illustration, “English Home in India” (pp.114-15), too establishes British artist’s vengeance against the sepoys. Such visuals infuriated Britishers, and disgraced the Indians.

In another instance, an account of the massacre at Kanpur of the British officers (June 27, and July 15, 1857), their wives and children is over blown (see pages 113, 117, 125 and 128, illustration on pages 202, 204, 349 and 351). Here, an author’s view severely implicates Dhundu Pant, better known as Nana Saheb on the basis of fictitious descriptions:

It follows an over blown description of the massacre at Bibigarh:

The first order was carried out immediately – i.e., on the evening of the 15th of July, “The native spies were first put to the sword”, says Mr. Sphepherd, “and after them the gentlemen, who were brought out from the out-buildings in which they were confined, and shot with bullets thereafter. The poor female were ordered to come out, but neither threats or persuations could induce them to do so; they laid hold of each by dozens, and clung so close that it was impossible to separate, them or drag them out of the building. The troopers, therefore brought muskets, and after firing a great many shorts from the doors, windows, etc. reached in with swords and bayonets. Some of the helpless creatures, in their agony, fell down at the feet of their murdereds, clasped their legs, and begged of them, in the most pitiful manner, to spare their lives, but to no purpose. The fearful deed was done, most deliberately and completely, in the midst of the most dreadful shrieks and cries of the victims. There were between 140 and 150 souls, including children; and from a little before sunset till candle-light was occupied in completing the dreadful deed…The dead bodies of those murdered on the preceding evening were then ordered to be thrown into the same well, and Jullads were employed to drag them away like dogs” (p.113).

Additional details appears on page 125:

Traces of the most wanton devastation met the eye at every step – every door and gate was pulled off its hinges. Some officers of the force visited the place wherein the fearful tragedy of the day had been enacted. It was a native house of the better most kind, having rooms on either side, round an enclosed inner court-yard, where these unfortunate ladies and soldiers’ wives and their children, had been confined; and it was told as an actual and literal fact that the floor of the inner room was two inches deep in blood all over – it came over men’s shoes as they stepped. Tresses of women’s hair, and children’s shoes and articles of female wear, broad hats and bonnets, books, and such like things, lay scattered all about the rooms. There were the marks of bullets and sword-cuts on the walls – not high up, as if men had fought, but low down, and about the corners where the poor-creatures had been cut to pieces. There, too, just behind the house, was the well into which the bodies of the victims had been thrown, and where they were to be seen a mangled heap, with an arm or leg protruding here and there.

J. W. Sherer who was one of the first few to visit Bibigarh find the account of the event ‘massacre at Bibigrah’ being exaggerated: “Of mutilation, in that house at least, there was no sign, nor at that time was there any writings on the walls.” Sherer has further to say that “Of his [Nana Saheb] individual influence there seems no trace throughout. We know something of what Azimollah did; and the hand is not difficult to discover, at times, of Jawala Pershad, Baba Bhut, Tantia Tope, and the rest; but the stolid, discontended figure of the Nana himself, remains in the background.

The lack of evidence is admitted and some obscurity surrounded this incident. Surendra Nath Sen writes that it is impossible to settle whether the Bibigarh massacre was committed before Nana Saheb had left for Bithur or after. R. C. Majudmar also finds that while there is no doubt about the massacre and its gruesome details, the role attributed to Nana Saheb bears insufficient evidence. “Nanha’s cruelties have attained world wide notoriety. But black though his deed were there are no means to determine his motive which impelled him and his personal share in them.”

In brief, the description in the volume are sensational, and produced with a view to capitalizing on the intense interest in England in 1857-58 on all things to do with the ‘Revolt of 1857’. The volume an assemblage of the ‘penny numbers’, bound in 1858 intended diffusion of the British follies and atrocities by launching anti-India feeling through misrepresentation of facts. The text is filled with pretentious account of the excesses done by the sepoys. In general, in the narration of the events there pervades a feel of misrepresentation. There is always a lack of discreet analysis of the events, and the author’s view is of little historical merit.

Nonetheless, this volume is still worthwhile to be consulted. In numerous instances the events are reported with the quotes from the letters which are not published elsewhere. An incorporation of the official dispatches and letters, mainly the dispatches of Major Eyre (p 140), Brigadier Nicholson (p.152), General Wilson (pp.179-182), and General Havelock (pp.185-186) are important.

The Narrative of the Indian Revolt is peerless for its illustrations which represent almost each theatre of the rebellion. They represent the incidents of the revolt, likenesses of the individuals: British officers and the principal leaders of the uprising, and the on-the-spot drawings of the historical buildings, townscapes, etc. these are helpful to refresh one’s recollections of the events of the rebellion.

The number of the illustrations prepared from the engravings on steel (prints in black-and-white) is fairly large, and most of them do not bear the name of the artist, or engraver. Rarely the names of the artists: S Prout, W. Purser and George Beechey and the engravers: C. Mottram and W. Brandard occur in the illustrations drawn and engraved by them. George Beechey is also known as a portrait painter of the King of Oudh, and in our volume his notable work is the portrait of Nana Saheb painted at Bithur (p.109).

A few words may be said about the technique used at that time. The engravings used to multiply the prints was common in England since sixteenth century, and the type of engravings under study, is intaglio with soft-ground etching. In it, the effect is like that of a pencil or chalk drawing and in it the ground is mixed with colour. As a result of which the tonal variations as seen in an artist’s drawings, are successfully achieved by the engraver.

The camera had been invented and some of the drawings of buildings are avowedly based on photographs (see) illustration of page 22). While the artist drew the artist drew the landscape himself he used an instrument called camera obscura, a box with lens which reflected an image of the landscape on the drawing sheet, for securing accuracy.

The illustrations (scenes of battle and expeditions) based on memory either of the artist, if himself a eye-witness, or of other eye-witnesses are by-and-large in conformity of the text. In all cases the artists and witnesses were Europeans and there is probably a distinct element of bias against the rebels in these depictions. But the depictions, even when they draw on imagination, are realistic. The way they show the rebel prisoners being executed by the English testifies to their sense of realism, even if tainted by a sense of vengeance (see illustrations on pages 42-3 and 168). These drawings bear evidence of ferocious measures resorted by the British authorities to suppress the rebellion. The realism achieved in their work is complete to the extant that these visuals are an everlasting source of vigour and strength with which Indian resisted British power. The illustrations offer visual documentation of the major events and a living record of the times.

In general, the figures are characteristic and appear as individual character, and thus the central theme of the picture becomes more expressive. The human and animal figures are highly modeled and the whole picture is finished in a continuous range of smoky tones. Further the device of conveying distance and sfumato in the rendering of the objects make the scene lively. The chiaroscuro effect, scientific perspective, characteristic rendering of the human and animal figures, and lastly the naturalistic light and shade effect – all combine the humanistic elements in the art of the illustrations. Over and above, the whole of the event surcharged with action and filled with emotions and feelings leaves us spell-bound. In brief, a close look on these pictures drive us willingly into the past. These are not merely entertaining but are of unique documentary value.

The depiction of buildings, by their accuracy, suggest on-the-spot observation (illustrations on pp.94, 97, 142, 144-145, 166, 178, 190, 192, 198-199, 214 and 360). In them, the treatment of the monuments is both spacious and lively. These bear affinity with the Neoclassic tradition of landscape painting. The drawings are truly historical and free from artist’s whimscal or fanciful ideas. Additionally, the illustrations ‘Procession of Muharram’ (pp. 151-51), ‘Courtyard of the King’s palace at Delhi.’ (pp. 174-75), ‘Principal street of Lucknow’ (p. 190), ‘The thugs of India’ (pp. 210-11), ‘Travelling in Punjab’ (p.255), ‘Inhabitants of Simla’ (p.279), ‘House of a Hindu’ (p.286), ‘Travelling’ (p.288), ‘Procession of Hindu Goddess Kali’ (p.298), ‘Herdsmen’ (p.339), ‘Faqirs of Rajasthan’ (p.346), ‘Domestic servants’ (p.361), ‘Malabar women’ (p.442), etc. etc. bear rare evidence on everyday life in India during mid-nineteenth century.

To sum up, these contemporary illustrations of the revolt of 1857 attempt to record the events, and are no less important in increasing our understanding of the occurrences of this historic year. These visuals leave an everlasting impression on our mind and this neglected historical source – material need to be studies. Further their interpretation in the light of the writings till date is important. Of course, this rich material makes the volume Narrative of the Indian Revolt indispensable work of historical importance. The book, published in 1858, is now a collector’s item.

Contents

Chapter I The Revolt, its Origin and Character-The Mysterious Cakes and Lotus Flowers-The Story of the Greased Cartridges 1
Chapter IIDisaffection appears at Berhampore-The Outbreak at Barrackpore – Attempted Assassination of Lieutenant Baugh – Colonel Wheler’s Supineness-Decision of General Hearsay-Mutineers Hanged5
Chapter III.Re-appearance of the Disaffection at Lucknow The Movement quelled by Sir Henry Lawrence-Rebellion of the 3rd Cavalry at Meerut-Condemned, Imprisoned, and Rescued by their Comrades-Outbreak of the Native Troops-Death of Colonel Finnis-Slaughter of the Europeans9
Chapter IVDelhi and its Defences-Seizure of the City by the Mutineers-Massacre of the Europeans-Heroic Defence of Lieutenants Willoughby and Forrest-They Blow up the Magazine-The King of Delhi proclaimed-Atrocious Treatment of European Women and Children16
Chapter VMutiny Stamped out at Ferozepore33
Chapter VIAlarm at Calcutta-Arrest of the King of Oude-Lord Canning’s Administration-Nagpore-Sangor-Jhansi-Nowgong-Aurungabad-Azimghur-Benares69
Chapter VIIThe Siege of Delhi-the Massacre at Allahabad-Retribution at Rohnee76
Chapter VIIILucknow Besieged-Danger of the Garrison-Sir H. Lawrence’s Defence-His Death-His Character and Career98
Chapter IXCawnpore-Desperate Situation of Sir H. Wheeler – The Hospital Fortified – Mutiny of the Troops-Defence of the European Position-Nena Sahib-Capitulation of the Cawnpore Garrison-The Massacre105
Chapter XThe Flight from Futteyghur-Murder of the Fugitives by Nena Sahib118
Chapter XIThe “Army of Retribution” – Havelock’s Victories-March on Cawnpore-Rout of Nena Sahib-Seenes in Cawnpore122
Chapter XIIOutbreak at Dinapore-The Slaughter of British Troops at Arrah-Gallant Defence of that place-Relieved by Major Eyre-Jubbulpore134
Chapter XIIIAffairs at Agra-The Battle of Agra143
Chapter XIVThe Siege of Delhi continued-The Bombardment-The Assault and Capture of the City148
Chapter XVCondition of Delhi after the Siege-The Fugitive Rebels Pursued-Capture of the King and Five of his Sons-Execution of the Princess-Brigadier Greathed’s Victories.170
Chapter XVIThe Belief of Lucknow182
Chapter XVII.Havelock’s Column of Relief besieged in Lucknow-The Fight at Bhitoor-advance of Reinforcements under Sir Colin Campbell188
Chapter XVIII.The Relief of Lucknow by Sir Colin Campbell-Affairs at Cawnpore194
Chapter XIXThe Punjab-The Surprise at Sealkote-The Rising at Kolapore-Massacre at Kotah-Koor Singh’s Progress-Affairs in Rewah-The Dhar Mutineers-The Affair at Jeerun-Hazareebagh 201
Chapter XX.Narrative of the Defence of Lucknow and the Death of Sir H. Lawrence-Sir Colin Campbell’s Fight to the Residency-Havelock’s Death218
Chapter XXIGeneral Windham at Cawnpore-His Repulse by the Gwalior Contingent-The Second Siege of Cawnpore-Opportune Arrival of Sir Colin Campbell245
Chapter XXIIHow the Punjab was Saved260
Chapter XXIIILord Canning’s Defence-Lord Dalhousie and the Annexation of Oude266
Chapter XXIVArrival of the Lucknow Garrison at Calccuta-Sir James Outram at Alumbagh-Sir Colin Campbell’s Movements after the Relief of Cawnpore275
Chapter XXV.Journals of the Siege of Lucknow290
Chapter XXVIDeath of the Queen of Oude-The Oude Dynasty-Our Compact with the Government-Oude Robbers-The Court and the People314
Chapter XXVIISir Henry Havelock-His Life and Labours332
Chapter XXVIIIIndian Grievances and Indian Revenge338
Chapter XXIXFrom Calcutta to Cawnpore in 1858341
Chapter XXXSir Colin Campbell’s Operations in Oude-The Relief of Saugor-Exploits in Rajpootana-Important Engagements in the Doab and Rohilcund-Whitlock’s Successes347
Chapter XXXIAn Indian’s View of the Causes of the Mutiny257
Chapter XXXIIThe Trial of the King of Delhi368
Chapter XXXIIIThe Recapture of Lucknow381
Chapter XXXIVOperations and Prospects after the Capture of Lucknow408
Chapter XXXVOfficial Despatches-Movements of the Dispersed Rebels-Rohilcund, Kotah, Jhansi 428
Chapter XXXVIIIOur policy in India-Measures for the Suppression of the Revolt-Conclusion450
LIST OF ENGRAVINGS/
Agra, View Inside The Fort At 145
Entrance to the Fortress of 142
The Fort at144
Taj Mahal at215
Interior View of the Fort of312, 373
Ambush, Troops in406
Arrah, Holding Out at138, 139
Allahabad, Escape of European Officers from Massacre at61
Rout of the Mutineers at, by Col. Neill63
The Judges’ Court-house and Gallows at265
Mess-house of the Officers of the 6th Bengal Native Infantry at267
Cavalry crossing the Ferry at276
Amazons, Guard of a Native Kings Harem.193
Army on the March in India234, 235
Artillery going into Action231
Adjimir, Banker’s House at432
Auckland Hotel, Calcutta360
Attendants of the Court of Oude418
Bang AT Delhi, The22
Attack on the, at the Capture of Delhi163
Batteries before Delhi, Engineer Officers in the 85
Barnard, the late General; Portrait of 73
Benares, View of the City of 255
Bengal Army, Regular Cavalry of the 87
Bengal, Fakir of 3
Regular and Irregular Cavalry of 282, 283
Bengalese-How they are Converted into British Soldiers60
Blowing Mutinous Sepoys from Field-pieces at Peshawur, Preparations for42, 43
Boats, a Fleet of Native, off Cawnpore120
Bolundshuhur, Village of, near Meerut156
Bombay, the Roadstead at198, 199
British Reinforcements on the March49
Brown, Jessie, at Lucknow246, 247
Bungalow, Destruction of a, at Meerut15
Banker’s House at Adjimir432
Bhore Ghaut, entrance to Tunnel in390, 391
Birthplace of Gen. Inglis, Nova Seotia428
Brahmins, Meetings of the, at the Temple of Conjeveram300
British Officers Reconnoitring294, 295
Calcutta, Gateway of Fort William, 67
Police336
The Pool at394
Camp before Delhi, Hindoo Rao’s House82
Campbell, Sir Colin, Portrait of 181
Cawnpore, a Fleet of Native Boats off120
Cawnpore District, Ejeetment of Natives from a Burning Village in the 219
Cawnpore, the Ganges near111
The House in which the Ladies and Children were Massacred at202
Portrait of the Butcher of 204
Surseya-Ghaut at108
Scene in the Intrenchments at217
The Well at241
Interior of the House at, where the Massacre was committed349
The scene of the Massacre of the Ladies and Children351
Campbell, Sir Colin, and Jung Bahadoor, Interview between426, 427
Cavalry of Bengal, Regular and Irregular282, 283
Cavalry Crossing the Ferry at Allahabad276
Chuttur Munzil, Lucknow378, 379
Chupatties, Chowkeydar Passing the3
Colvin, the late George, Esq., Portrait of74
Court-yard in the Palace at Delhi174, 175
Conjeveram, Meeting of the Brahmins at the Temple of300
Court of Runjeet Singh448-449
Dak Runners Converying News of The Sepoy Revolt34
Dacca, View of 250
Delhi, Bank at22
Attack on the 163
Courtyard in the Palace at174-175
Engagement with the Mutineers before154
Engineer Officers in the Batteries before85
Favourite Wives of the King of171
Fight in the Lines Before78-79
Fort of Selimghur at166
Fugitives from, Fording a River25
General View of the City of30, 31
Great Gate of the Jumma Musjid at97
Head-Quarters before, previous to the Assault157
King’s Palace at19
The Kootab Minar near178
Massacre at1
Mutinous Sepoys on their way to Delhi pursued by Cavalry17
Plan of the Siege, and Defences of159
Principal Gate of the Palace at26
Scene at the Kootab Minar after the Capture of the King of 214
Serai Picket in the Subzee Mundee before 162
Slaughter inside of168
South Gate of the Palace at94
View in the Chandnee Chouk26
View of the General’s Mound in the Camp before84
View of, from the Flagstaff Tower 186, 187
Delhi-State Procession of the King of 342, 343 After the Siege-The Jumma Musjid 306, 307
Ejectment of Natives from A Burning Village In The Cawnpore District219
Engagement with Mutineers before Delhi. 154
Engineer Officers in the Batteries before Delhi85
English Homes in India in 1857114, 115
Entrenchments at Cawnpore, Scene in the217
Escape of European Officers from Massacre at Allahabad.61
Elephants of the Rajah of Travancore330, 331
Elephant carrying Troops to the Camp at Lucknow358
Elephant of Oude382
Embarkation of Officers for India363
Entrance to Lucknow, the445
FAKIR OF BENGAL3
Fakirs of Radjestan346
Festival of the Mohurrim151-151
Fight in the Lines before Delhi78, 79
Finnis, Colonel, the Death of, on the Parade Ground, Meerut13
Fleet of Native Boats off Cawnpore120
Fort at Agra144
Entrance to the142
A View inside the Fort of312, 373
Fort William, Calcutta, Gateway of67
Interior Views of the312-373
Fugitives from Delhi fording a River25
Funeral of the Queen of Oude:-
Conveying the Coffin to the Hearse
315
Hindoo Priest reading Prayers over the Coffin322
The Burial at Sundown324
GANGES, THE, NEAR CAWNPORE111
Hindoo House on the Banks of the286
General’s Mound, View of the, in the Camp before Delhi84
Goorkha Chiefs46
Goorkhas, Havildar of Sirmoor Battalion303
Grierson, Corporal Burgess, Portrait of289
Greathed, Colonel, and his Brothers, Portraits of228
Gwalior Contingent, Troops of the48
Court of the Rajah of270-271
Gallows and Judge’s Court-house at Allahabad265
HAVELOC, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR H., BART., K.C.B., PORTRAITS OF 121,243
Havildar of Sirmoor Battalion, Goorkhas303
Head-Quarters before Delhi previous to the Assault157
Highlanders, the, at Lucknow222, 223
Hindoo Rao’s House, Camp before Delhi82
Hindoo House, Interior of a 36
On the Banks of the Ganges286
Himalayas, People of the , near Nynee Tal.39
Hindoos Travelling288
Hodson, Captain, Portrait of397
Home, Lieut. D. C., Portrait of301
Homes in India in 1857114-115
House in which the Ladies ad Children were Massacred at Cawnpore, the202
Humayoon, Tomb of he Emperor178
INDIA, ENGLIH HOMES IN, 1857114-115
Transport of Troops in133
Embarkation of Officers for363
Imambarra, at Lucknow385
Tomb of Mahomed Ali Shah in the387
Indian Army on the Mareh234-235
Indian Rajan and his Escort366-367
Inglis, Gen., his Birthplace at Nova Scotia428
Inhabitants of the Mountainous District near Simla279
JESSIE BROWN AT LUCKNOW246-247
Jhansi, the Siege of-Troops in the Trenches439
Judge’s Court House and the Gallows at Allahabad265
Jumma Musjid, Delhi, Great Gate of the 97
View near the306, 307
Jumna, View on the Banks of the216
Jung Bahadoor and Sir Colin Campbell, Interview between426, 427
KING OF DELHI, PORTRAIT OF169
King of Delhi-Favourite Wives of the 171
Scene at the Kootab Minar, after the Capture of the 214
State Procession of the 342-343
Kali, Procession of the Hindoo Goddess298
Khedmetgar277
Kotwal of Police at Lucknow, the403
Kootab Minar, Delhi178
LAWRENCE, SIR H., PRESENTING SABRES TO SEPOY NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS10
Lawrence, the late Sir Henry, Portrait of 99
Lawrence, Sir John, Chief Commissioner of the Punjab, Portrait of 325
Life, a Ride for54, 55
Lotus Flower, the3
Lucknow, Capital of Oude103
Entrance to445
From the Balcony of the Residency240
General View of 198, 199
Highlanders at222-223
Jessie Brown at246-247
Principal Street in190
Roomee Durwazee Gate at192
Street in102
Head of Relieving Force Arriving at the Bailey Guard318, 319
The King’s Palace at402
The Kotwal of Police at403
Tombs at409
Captain Simpson’s House at421
View from a Window of the Martiniere414
March, Reinforcement on the49
Massacre at Delhi.1
Massacre of the Officers of the 54th N.I.24
Meerut, Death of Colonel Finnis on the Parade-Ground at13
Destruction of a Bungalow at15
The Revolt at12
Village of Bolundshuhur, near156
The Artillery Mess-House at327
Mess-house of the Officers of the 6th Bengal Native Infantry at Allahabad.267
Mess-house at Meerut-the Artillery327
M’Leod, Mr., Portrait of325
Mohurrim, the Festival of the150, 151
Mound, View of the General’s, in the Camp before Delhi84
Mutineers, Rout of the, at Allahabad, by Colonel Neill63
Engagement with the, before Delhi154
Mutinous Sepoys on their way to Delhi pursued by Cavalry17
Nena Sahib, Portrait of109
Night Travelling in the Punjab255
Nova Scotia, General Inglis’s Birthplace at423
Nynee Tul, People of the Himalayas, near39
Oude, The SUITE OF THE QUEEN OF, IN THE COURT OF THE HOTEL DURING THE ABLUTION OF THE BODY313
Attendants of the Court of 418
Overland Route to India-Interior of a Café at Suez435
PALACE OF THE KING, AT DELHI19
Courtyard in the 174, 175
Principal Gate of the 26
South Gate of the 94
Punjab, Night Travelling in the 255
People of the Himalayas, near Nynee Tal39
Peshawur, Preparations for Blowing Mutinous Sepoys from Field-Pieces at42-43
Bhisti, or Water Carrier277
Picket, the Outlying, before Delhi147
Portraits-Barnard, General73
“Butcher of Cawnpore,” the204
Campbell, Sir Colin, K.C.B.181
Colvin, the late George, Esq.75
Delhi. The King of 169
Greathed, Colonel, and his Brothers228
Portraits-Havelock, the late General 121243
Lawrence, the late Sir Henry99
Nena Sahib109
Windham, Major-General229
Grierson, Corporal Burgess289
Hodson, Captain397
Home, Lieutenant D. C.301
Lawrence, Sir J., Chief Commissioner325
M’Leod, Mr., Financial Commissioner325
Montgomery, Mr.325
Russell, W. H., Esq.433
Police of Calcutta336
Pool at Calcutta, the394
Procession of the Hindoo Goddess Kali298
Punjab Irregular Force, Troops of the, Serving with the Army before Delhi.15
RAJPOOTS, A GROUP OF132
Radjestan, Fakirs of346
Railway-The Great East Indian Peninsular-Entrance to the Tunnel in the Bhore Ghaut390, 391
Rajah of Gwalior, Court of the 270, 271
Rajah, an Indian, and his Escort366, 367
Ram Swamee, the Temple of, an advanced post of the British camp before Delhi310
Recruiting for the Indian Army-
Cavalry205
Infantry207
Waiting to Pass the Medical Examination370
Scene in the “Hampshire Hog,” Westminster384
“Who’ll Serve the Queen?”420
Rustic Recruits438
Regular Cavalry of the Bengal Army87
Reinforcements on the March in India 354, 355
Repulse of Sortie from Delhi, July 1490, 91
Revolt at Meerut, the12
Revolt, Dak Runners Conveying News of the Sepoy34
Revolted Sepoys Driven from a Walled Village126, 127
Roadstead at Bombay, the198, 199
Roomee Durwazee Gate at Lucknow, the192
Runjeet Singh, Court of 448-449
Russell, W. H., Esq., Portrait of 433
SABRES, PRESENTATION OF, TO SEPOY NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS BY SIR H LAWRENCE10
Schir Singh, Rajah of the Sikhs, with his Escort.258-259
Scinde, Gentlement of 279
Selimghur, the Fort of, Delhi 166
Sepoys, a group of 6, 7
Preparations for Blowing Mutinous ones from the Guns at Peshawur 42, 43
Revolted ones driven from a Walled Village 126, 127
Sepoy Non-Commissioned Officers, Sir H. Lawrence presenting Sabres to 10
Serai Picket in the Subzee-Mundee before Delhi.162
Serai, interior of the, in the Subzee-Mundee 183
Sikhs, a Group of 37
Sikhs of the Punjab Irregular Force serving with the Troops before Delhi. 156
Simpson’s, Captain, his House at Lucknow 421
Simla, Inhabitants of the Mountainous Districts near 279
Slaughter inside Delhi, the 168
Sortie from Delhi, Repulse of the 88, 89
Street in Lucknow 102
Subzee-Mundee, Interior of the Serai in 183
Serai Picket in the, before Delhi 162
Surseya Ghaut at Cawnpore 168
Suez, Interior of a Café at 435
Sylhet, View of 252
THUGS OF INDIA, THE 210, 211
Taj Mahal, Agra 415
Todhas, Buffalo Herdsmen 339
Tombs at Lucknow 409
Tomb of the Emperor Humayoon 178
Transport of Troops in India 133
Troops of the Gwalior Contingent 48
Troops, Transport of, in India 133
Travancore, Elephants of the Rajah of 330, 331
Troops in Ambush 406
WINDHAM, MAJOR-GEN., PORTRAIT OF 299
Wives of the King of Delhi, the Favourite 171
Zemindar 277
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