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Nrtta Ratnavali of Jaya Senapati
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The word Nrtta is understood as abstract dance or the meditated movement of the body to mnemonic and solfa syllables. Since there is no literary content in the song. the accent is on the trained human body. Jayana realized the intrinsic connection between the physical and psychic and the importance of it. The sanctity of and the powerful communication achieved through the human body was understood by him before he embarked on a detailed description of the body movements in his 13th Century text. Nrtta Ratnavali,

In this treatise of eight chapters. the former four chapters enumerate the nuances of expression through the body under the name Marga, as mentioned by Bharata in the Natyasastra and other treatises. The latter chapters are a graphic description of the dance prevalent during the Kakatiya reign, under the name Desi. Foot movements, movements of the shank and hip in tandem with each other, twirls, leaps, the graceful moves. rhythmic patterns. instrumentation and even training systems in the desi style are discussed. Description of about fifteen provincial group dances like Perani and Dandarsaka find place in the Nrtta Ratnavali. Besides these Jayana goes further and describes the qualities required from each member in the group of artistes. the Sabhapati or President of the gathering and even the preksaka or spectator. Beginning from when and who learns dance he details every aspect of the art including the patron's protocol with respect to the danseuse!

Nrtta Ratnavali is a wealth of knowledge to teachers. choreographers. performing artistes and scholars alike.

 

About the Author

Dr. Pappu Venugopala Rao, (born 1948) a well-known scholar. poet, musicologist. Sanskritist, dance expert. writer and orator has more than 20 books on various subjects to his credit.

The most recent of his books that have received acclaim are 'Flowers at His Feet', 'Science of Sricakra', 'Rasamanjari' and 'Bunch of Javalis'. Still a dedicated student of lndology, Religion and Philosophy, he has presented and published over 100 research papers.

After 32 years of service as academic administrator with the American Institute of Indian Studies, Dr. Rao now holds many important portfolios in prominent institutions,

• Visiting Professor Radhakrishnan Chair, University of Hyderabad
• Visiting Professor, Tumkur University, Karnataka • Member, Sangeet Natak Akademi, New Delhi, • Member of Experts' Committee and Secretary, The Music Academy, Madras, • Member of the Academic Council, Kalakshetra Foundation. Chennai , etc. His lectures on music, dance and literature and workshops on Natya Sastra given all over the world, particularly at the Harvard University, have received high critical acclaim and an equal amount of appreciation from artistes and rasikas.

• He is an adjudicator of Doctoral dissertations in dance, music, Theatre Arts and literature for a number of Universities across the globe.

• Some Recent Awards: • Artiste of the Year 2012 from Bangalore Gayana Samaja • Nritya Kala Saagara from Cleveland Thygaraja Aradhana 2012 • Musicologist Award, Music Forum, Mumbai Dr. Yashoda Thakore's forte is undeniably her 'innovative classicism.' Accomplished in both Kuchipudi and Vilasini Natyam, her impeccable style is a boon bestowed on her by the two stalwarts she has studied with - Padma Shri awardee Smt. Sobha Naidu for Kuchipudi and Padma Bhushan awardee Swapna Sundari for Vilasini Natyam. Taking the tradition forward, Yashoda established the Rinda Saranya Kuchipudi Dance Academy in 1997.

She is also Guest Faculty at the Study in India Program, University of Hyderabad and Adjunct Faculty of Dance at BITS- Pilani, Hyderabad. To add, Yashoda is a qualified teacher of the theory and practice of Yoga. Yashoda has enthralled world audiences with her consummate artistry. Konark, Mudra, Kalamandalam, Nishagandha Festivals, The Sri Krishna Gana Sabha and Madras Music Academy (in the Chennai Music Season) and many other stages have played host to Yashoda in India. She has been showered with praise for her performances in the European Telugu Association Convention, Manchester, The Regent's College & The Nehru Centre, London, The Indian High Commission, Dubai, the Sanskrit Theatre Symposium. Dhaka, the International Kuchipudi Dance Convention, California, the Volos International Festival, Greece and the St.Petersburg Festival, Russia (2012) amongst others.

 

Dr. Yashoda Thakore's forte is undeniably her 'innovative classicism.' Accomplished in both Kuchipudi and Vilasini Natyam, her impeccable style is a boon bestowed on her by the two stalwarts she has studied with - Padma Shri awardee Smt. Sobha Naidu for Kuchipudi and Padma Bhushan awardee Swapna Sundari for Vilasini Natyam. Taking the tradition forward, Yashoda established the Rinda Saranya Kuchipudi Dance Academy in 1997.

She is also Guest Faculty at the Study in India Program, University of Hyderabad and Adjunct Faculty of Dance at BITS- Pilani, Hyderabad. To add, Yashoda is a qualified teacher of the theory and practice of Yoga. Yashoda has enthralled world audiences with her consummate artistry. Konark, Mudra, Kalamandalam, Nishagandha Festivals, The Sri Krishna Gana Sabha and Madras Music Academy (in the Chennai Music Season) and many other stages have played host to Yashoda in India. She has been showered with praise for her performances in the European Telugu Association Convention, Manchester, The Regent's College & The Nehru Centre, London, The Indian High Commission, Dubai, the Sanskrit Theatre Symposium. Dhaka, the International Kuchipudi Dance Convention, California, the Volos International Festival, Greece and the St.Petersburg Festival, Russia (2012) amongst others.

Preface

India is the land of rich and varied heritage. Though there are many classical texts within almost every Indian language, most of our treatises are in Sanskrit. It is necessary that these books be translated to English so that the scholars in other regions experience the underlying cultural synthesis in our country.

Jayana's Nrtta Ratnavali authored in 1253 A.D completes 810 years this year and the Ramappa temple in Palampet that is supposed to have inspired him completes 800 years. Kakatiya Foundation and Kakatiya Heritage Trust are doing a commendable job in making known the aesthetics, profundity and the invaluable nature of the ancient monuments and treatises by publishing some of the works belonging to the Kakatlya period.

We are happy that Sri Papa Rao and Sri Panduranga Rao entrusted us with the responsibility of transliterating and translating to English Nrtta Ratnavali, one of the finest treatises produced during this period.

We are indebted to the earlier scholars who worked on this treatise and on whom we depended heavily for this translation. Prof. V. Raghavan, whose critical edition of Nrtta Ratnavali of Jayasenapati was published by GOML in 1965 and to Prof. PSR Appa Rao and Rallapalli Anantha Krishna Sarma who have translated Nrtta Ratnavali to Telugu, a publication of Potti Sri Ramulu Telugu University, with a previous edition of the same name by Andhra Pradesh Sangeet Natak Academy take a major share of our gratitude.

We had the co-operation of many in this endeavour. The cover page was illustrated by Sri Bapu. The photographs in this book are shot by Mr. Ravi. Drawings are shared by my disciple Anita Vallabh. The ambience of University of Hyderabad where I have been offered the distinguished Dr. Radhakrishnan Chair Visiting Professorship added to my concentration in finalising the text. Five scholars have helped us in transliteration into English and Sanskrit. Sampreeti and Sindhuja, both Kucipudi danseuses, Akhila Maddukuri, an engineering student from BITS, Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Madhura Godbole and Meenal Kulkarni of AIlS, Pune. There are many others like Lakshmi Valli Kona, Dr. Jaya Venugopal and Prandeep Thakore who helped us with the logistics and extended support at various stages.

We are grateful to Compuprint, Mr. Diwakar and Ms. Maheswari who went out of their way and spent time and energy in the making of this book. We hope the readers find the book useful.

Nandanama samvatsara, Pusya Suddha Pancami

 

Introduction

(Thousand pillar mantapa inscription 1162, fourth verse) Kakattyas have been the second major dynasty of the Andhra region after the Satavahanas. They made a lasting contribution not only to the political history, but also in protecting and promoting various sculptural and religious aspects during that time. The above verse indicates that their kingdom spread upto Bay of Bengal in the east, Srisailam in the south, the Malyavanta Mountains in the north and Kalyani in the west. Historians believe that this dynasty started with Prolaraju-I 1050 AD and lasted up to Prataparudra who ruled the kingdom between 1290-1396 AD. Inscriptional evidences help us in understanding, religious, political, economic and social conditions of that period. The Kakattya period also produced many Sanskrit and Telugu scholars whose works reflect the glory of that time.

Who were the Ktikatiyas, is a question that leads us to two interesting episodes without any authentic documentary evidence. In the Prataparudrtyam of Vidyanatha it is said that a goddess known as Kakati was the presiding deity of their dynasty after whose name the dynasty was known. The second anecdote is from Krtdabhiramam of Vinukonda Vallabharaya which mentions that Kakati means a creeper of the pumpkin. Once, during an invasion on the harem of a kingdom, while all others were killed, a young prince was rescued as he fell down from the palace into a pumpkin creeper. Therefore that dynasty came to be known as the Kakati dynasty.

Most historians begin the history of the Kakattya dynasty with Prolaya-Il but later inscriptions reveal the existence of a Prolaraju-I. This treatise Nrtta Ratnavalt by Jayasenapati on classical and regional dance forms during the Kiikatiyii rule is a very significant contribution in the field of art. It caters to not only students of dance, but also to those of history, sociology and anthropology. Like Bharata's Natyasastrawhich gives glimpses of voice culture, Nrtta Ratndvali throws light on Kinesiology.

There is an interesting history and bond between the author Jayana and his patron Ganapati Deva. Jayana belongs to the Ayyana dynasty. His ancestors hail from Yelanddu area, Kroyyuru. History tells us that his ancestors were at service with the Cola rulers when they were ruling Velanadu with Candavolu as their capital. Jayana's grandfather, Narayana Nayaka built a township in an island near the place where River Krsna merges into the Bay of Bengal. In 1203 AD when Jayana's father Pinnacoda Nayaka was ruling the island, Ganapati Deva invaded it, and defeated Jayana's father. With appreciation for his valor, Ganapati Deva entered into a bond with Narayana Nayaka by marrying both his daughters Narama and Perama. Jayana was a small boy then. Ganapati Deva took him under his care and got him educated. He made Jayana rule Tarnarapuri according to an inscription in 1213 AD. We find in Nrtta Ratnavali many a mention of Jayana's loyalty and respect for Ganapati Deva.

preksya prajnamatisayavatim svamibhaktim ca harsad
akaumarad ganapatinrpo jayanam yam samarcya I
gundamatye sakalasumanassevyamane jayantam
vacain patyau haririva kalaslaghaniyam vyanaisit ll

He in whom Ganapatibhupala noted great talent and loyalty (towards patron) and entrusted him to the care of the much sought after Gundamatya, just as Indra entrusted Jayanta to Brhaspati and had the meritorious art taught.

This also gives us information that Jayana was entrusted to Gundamatya and learnt fine arts under his tutelage. Jayana describes himself as gajasadhanika and senapati of Ganapati Deva.

lti srimanmaharajadhiraja - ganapatideva- gajasddhanika-jayasenapati-
viracitayam nrttaratnavalyam nartanaviveko nama prathamofdhyavah

This is the first chapter 'Nartana Vivekam', in Nrtta Ratnavali authored by Jayasenapati, the chief of the elephant forces of Ganapatideva, the superior king of kings.

Prof. Raghavan mentions that it is not possible that Jayana was entrusted to the tutelage of the famous Gundamatya of Prataparudra's time. There may be another. There are also epigraphical evidences of Jayana coming under the care of Ganapati Deva.

(Epi.Ind.III, page 84, V, page 142, 143 and VI page 38)

The verse from the inscriptions reads as follows.

Tadanujamatisaumyakaramakaralaksyaih
Suvinayanayadaksyasthairyagambhiryasauryaih l
sisumapi garimanam prapitam jayanakhyam
narapatiraminandhya svanucarye nyayuktam //

The king then took their brother Jayana into his service, though he was just a child. He found him to be very gentle, humble, polite, confident, graceful and valorous We find that Jayana always mentions Ganapati Deva's name with respect. In the beginning of chapter 5, where he begins to talk of the desi styles, he mentions:

tairyatritayavijnarahastattvavisarade l
margadesivibhagasya vivecanavicaksane ll

maharajadhirajefsmin ganapatyavanisvare l
samudramekhalamenam bahuna raksati ksamam ll

ya desi vartate lake sasmabhih kathyatesphutam l
nirupyatefdhuna desyam sthanakani yathakramam ll

We shall elaborate that dance which is prevalently practiced in the world, Right now, I shall describe Desi sthiinakas in order. I shall describe that provincial abstract dance prevalent in the reign of the king of kings, Ganapati Bhupala who is the moon of fame which makes the lotus of the earth blossom, who consumes in flames the hearts of the enemies with sunlight valor, who wields an intoxicated sword akin to a snake that sucks the life-energy of the enemies, who surpasses Karna, Kamadhenu (the divine cow) and kalpavrksa (wishing tree) in sacrifice, who puts to shame Manmadha, the god of love in form, grace and prosperity, who is well versed in nuances of song and instrumental music and an expert at differentiating between classical and provincial styles, Right now I shall describe Desisthanakas in order.

It is here that he states the most significant information of the date of the book:

kalau yate tu varsesu bhutabanagnisagaraih
mitesvanandasamjnefbde jagadanandadayini ll

sasvatkuvalayollasiyasahpraleyarocisi l

pratapatapanapraudhi tapitaratimanase ll

Now, in Bharatavarsa, the period of vaivasvata manvantara, Kaliyuga, after 4355 years during this period, in the year Ananda which gives joy to the world. (which is equal to 1253 AD.)

Ganapati Deva ruled between 1198 and 1261 AD. He passed away in 1262 AD. It is interesting to note that while he was still ruling, he made his daughter Rudramamba a joint ruler from 1258 AD. We find a last official record of Ganapati Deva jointly with his daughter in 1261 AD.

As mentioned, the Kakatiya dynasty has contributed immensely to the enrichment of culture in Andhradesa, They extended patronage to scholars, poets, musicians, dancers, sculptors, artists of many forms of art. The inscriptions give us ample evidence of the Kakatiyas' patronage to artistes. The Pillalamarri inscription, mentions houses constructed for temple singers, percussion artistes and dancers. The Panagallu inscription also makes a mention that musicians and dancers received contributions.

An inscription of Dharmasagara reveals that ten devadasis received land donations (corpus of inscriptions 37,36 and 1). The inscription of Ganapati Deva (Epi.Ind.vol 638) where Jayana was made ruler of Chebrolu also mentions donations to sixteen devadasis. The Malkapuram inscription of RudramaDevi describes the arrangement of ten devadasi dancers and fourteen musicians to perform in the temple. Apart from these there are temples constructed with architectural excellence which depict dance extensively. Important among these constructions are the thousand pillar temple at Warangal, the Ramappa gudi or Rudreswaralayam at Palampet and the Swayambhu Lingeswaraswamy temple inside the Warangal fort. The Ramappa temple was built by Recherla Rudradeva, chief of Army and minister of Ganapati Deva in 1213 AD. This temple is of great importance to our study of Nrtta Ratnavalt . Some scholars opine that Jayana was inspired by the temple for writing Nrtta Ratnavali.

 

Contents

 

Chapter One 1
Benediction 1
Eulogy to nrtta 2
Eulogy to the author 6
Eulogy to the text 7
Occasions for nrtta 8
Descent of ruitya 9
Qualities of natya 10
The four kinds of expressions 12
The qualities of nrtta, nrtya and natya in Marga and Desi styles 17
Qualiies of Ldsya and Tnndava 19
Parts of Lasya 20
Uddhatam 24
Chapter Two 27
Angas, pratyangas and upangas 27
Movements of the head 27
Qualities of glances 39
Actions of the pupils 49
Ways of looking 51
Actions of eyelids 52
Actions of eyebrows 54
Actions of nose 57
Movements of the lip 59
Movements of the cheek 61
Qualities of the chin 62
Qualities of the jaw 64
Actions of the tongue 65
Actions of the teeth 66
Qualities of the neck 67
Hues of the face 69
Qualities of the hand 71
Single Hand (Gestures) 77
Double hand gestures 97
The Hasta Karanas 107
Hand movements 109
Movements of the fore arm 111
The Nrtta Hastas 115
Qualities of hand movements 128
Movements of the chest 129
Movements of the sides 131
Actions of the stomach 133
Movements of the waist 134
Actions of the thighs 135
Actions of the knees 136
Actions of calves 138
Movements of the feet 140
Movements of the toes 144
Chapter Three 151
Qualities of caris 151
Positions 169
Standing Postures for men 170
Axioms 174
Carts in accordance with the axioms 176
Sleeping Postures 181
Standing Postures for Women 183
Mandalas 188
Chapter Four 207
Nrtta Karanas 207
Qualities of the hundred and eight Kararuis 214
The Angaharas 267
Qualities of outward movements 295
Chapter Five 303
Eulogy to provincial dance 303
The Twenty three Provincial Stances 306
Leaping movements 315
Qualities of Alaga 321
Qualities of Lohadi 322
Qualities of Darpasaranam 324
Qualities of Bhramari 326
Chapter Six 337
The sixteen Desi foot movements 338
Twenty eight patas 340
Desi caris 352
The forty six Desi Lasyangas 367
Qualities of Rhythmic Pattern 382
Chapter Seven 391
System of training 391
Instrumentation 396
Vicitra paddhati 399
Qualities of Perani 400
Arrangement in Perini 401
Five parts of Prerana 402
The Pattern of Prerani 406
The Provincial system 408
The pattern of Preksana 410
Two types of Suda 411
Rasakam 412
Carcari 416
Natyarasakam 417
Dandarasakam 417
Sivapriya 419
Cintunrtta 421
Kandukanrtta 422
Bhandikanrtta 424
Ghatisaninrtta 425
Carananrtta 426
Bahurapanrtta 427
Kollatanartana 429
Qualities of a danseuse 431
Qualities of a dancer 434
Qualities of Mukhari 436
Qualities of Pratimukhari 438
Qualities of musicians 438
Qualities of the main singer 439
Qualities of the group 440
Qualities of traditional artistes 442
Qualities of the stage 446
Qualities of the president of the gathering 451
Decorum of the audience 452
Chapter Eight 457
Arrangement of seats for the president and audience 457
The makeup of the chief danseuse 464
Arrangement of the group 468
Group of musicians 470
Music devoid of the word 472
Bibliography 479
Sample Pages
















Nrtta Ratnavali of Jaya Senapati

Item Code:
NAM253
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2013
ISBN:
9789351049920
Language:
Sanskrit Text With Transliteration and English Translation
Size:
10.0 inch X 7.0 inch
Pages:
510 (24 Color Illustrations)
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Weight of the Book: 970 gms
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About the Book

The word Nrtta is understood as abstract dance or the meditated movement of the body to mnemonic and solfa syllables. Since there is no literary content in the song. the accent is on the trained human body. Jayana realized the intrinsic connection between the physical and psychic and the importance of it. The sanctity of and the powerful communication achieved through the human body was understood by him before he embarked on a detailed description of the body movements in his 13th Century text. Nrtta Ratnavali,

In this treatise of eight chapters. the former four chapters enumerate the nuances of expression through the body under the name Marga, as mentioned by Bharata in the Natyasastra and other treatises. The latter chapters are a graphic description of the dance prevalent during the Kakatiya reign, under the name Desi. Foot movements, movements of the shank and hip in tandem with each other, twirls, leaps, the graceful moves. rhythmic patterns. instrumentation and even training systems in the desi style are discussed. Description of about fifteen provincial group dances like Perani and Dandarsaka find place in the Nrtta Ratnavali. Besides these Jayana goes further and describes the qualities required from each member in the group of artistes. the Sabhapati or President of the gathering and even the preksaka or spectator. Beginning from when and who learns dance he details every aspect of the art including the patron's protocol with respect to the danseuse!

Nrtta Ratnavali is a wealth of knowledge to teachers. choreographers. performing artistes and scholars alike.

 

About the Author

Dr. Pappu Venugopala Rao, (born 1948) a well-known scholar. poet, musicologist. Sanskritist, dance expert. writer and orator has more than 20 books on various subjects to his credit.

The most recent of his books that have received acclaim are 'Flowers at His Feet', 'Science of Sricakra', 'Rasamanjari' and 'Bunch of Javalis'. Still a dedicated student of lndology, Religion and Philosophy, he has presented and published over 100 research papers.

After 32 years of service as academic administrator with the American Institute of Indian Studies, Dr. Rao now holds many important portfolios in prominent institutions,

• Visiting Professor Radhakrishnan Chair, University of Hyderabad
• Visiting Professor, Tumkur University, Karnataka • Member, Sangeet Natak Akademi, New Delhi, • Member of Experts' Committee and Secretary, The Music Academy, Madras, • Member of the Academic Council, Kalakshetra Foundation. Chennai , etc. His lectures on music, dance and literature and workshops on Natya Sastra given all over the world, particularly at the Harvard University, have received high critical acclaim and an equal amount of appreciation from artistes and rasikas.

• He is an adjudicator of Doctoral dissertations in dance, music, Theatre Arts and literature for a number of Universities across the globe.

• Some Recent Awards: • Artiste of the Year 2012 from Bangalore Gayana Samaja • Nritya Kala Saagara from Cleveland Thygaraja Aradhana 2012 • Musicologist Award, Music Forum, Mumbai Dr. Yashoda Thakore's forte is undeniably her 'innovative classicism.' Accomplished in both Kuchipudi and Vilasini Natyam, her impeccable style is a boon bestowed on her by the two stalwarts she has studied with - Padma Shri awardee Smt. Sobha Naidu for Kuchipudi and Padma Bhushan awardee Swapna Sundari for Vilasini Natyam. Taking the tradition forward, Yashoda established the Rinda Saranya Kuchipudi Dance Academy in 1997.

She is also Guest Faculty at the Study in India Program, University of Hyderabad and Adjunct Faculty of Dance at BITS- Pilani, Hyderabad. To add, Yashoda is a qualified teacher of the theory and practice of Yoga. Yashoda has enthralled world audiences with her consummate artistry. Konark, Mudra, Kalamandalam, Nishagandha Festivals, The Sri Krishna Gana Sabha and Madras Music Academy (in the Chennai Music Season) and many other stages have played host to Yashoda in India. She has been showered with praise for her performances in the European Telugu Association Convention, Manchester, The Regent's College & The Nehru Centre, London, The Indian High Commission, Dubai, the Sanskrit Theatre Symposium. Dhaka, the International Kuchipudi Dance Convention, California, the Volos International Festival, Greece and the St.Petersburg Festival, Russia (2012) amongst others.

 

Dr. Yashoda Thakore's forte is undeniably her 'innovative classicism.' Accomplished in both Kuchipudi and Vilasini Natyam, her impeccable style is a boon bestowed on her by the two stalwarts she has studied with - Padma Shri awardee Smt. Sobha Naidu for Kuchipudi and Padma Bhushan awardee Swapna Sundari for Vilasini Natyam. Taking the tradition forward, Yashoda established the Rinda Saranya Kuchipudi Dance Academy in 1997.

She is also Guest Faculty at the Study in India Program, University of Hyderabad and Adjunct Faculty of Dance at BITS- Pilani, Hyderabad. To add, Yashoda is a qualified teacher of the theory and practice of Yoga. Yashoda has enthralled world audiences with her consummate artistry. Konark, Mudra, Kalamandalam, Nishagandha Festivals, The Sri Krishna Gana Sabha and Madras Music Academy (in the Chennai Music Season) and many other stages have played host to Yashoda in India. She has been showered with praise for her performances in the European Telugu Association Convention, Manchester, The Regent's College & The Nehru Centre, London, The Indian High Commission, Dubai, the Sanskrit Theatre Symposium. Dhaka, the International Kuchipudi Dance Convention, California, the Volos International Festival, Greece and the St.Petersburg Festival, Russia (2012) amongst others.

Preface

India is the land of rich and varied heritage. Though there are many classical texts within almost every Indian language, most of our treatises are in Sanskrit. It is necessary that these books be translated to English so that the scholars in other regions experience the underlying cultural synthesis in our country.

Jayana's Nrtta Ratnavali authored in 1253 A.D completes 810 years this year and the Ramappa temple in Palampet that is supposed to have inspired him completes 800 years. Kakatiya Foundation and Kakatiya Heritage Trust are doing a commendable job in making known the aesthetics, profundity and the invaluable nature of the ancient monuments and treatises by publishing some of the works belonging to the Kakatlya period.

We are happy that Sri Papa Rao and Sri Panduranga Rao entrusted us with the responsibility of transliterating and translating to English Nrtta Ratnavali, one of the finest treatises produced during this period.

We are indebted to the earlier scholars who worked on this treatise and on whom we depended heavily for this translation. Prof. V. Raghavan, whose critical edition of Nrtta Ratnavali of Jayasenapati was published by GOML in 1965 and to Prof. PSR Appa Rao and Rallapalli Anantha Krishna Sarma who have translated Nrtta Ratnavali to Telugu, a publication of Potti Sri Ramulu Telugu University, with a previous edition of the same name by Andhra Pradesh Sangeet Natak Academy take a major share of our gratitude.

We had the co-operation of many in this endeavour. The cover page was illustrated by Sri Bapu. The photographs in this book are shot by Mr. Ravi. Drawings are shared by my disciple Anita Vallabh. The ambience of University of Hyderabad where I have been offered the distinguished Dr. Radhakrishnan Chair Visiting Professorship added to my concentration in finalising the text. Five scholars have helped us in transliteration into English and Sanskrit. Sampreeti and Sindhuja, both Kucipudi danseuses, Akhila Maddukuri, an engineering student from BITS, Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Madhura Godbole and Meenal Kulkarni of AIlS, Pune. There are many others like Lakshmi Valli Kona, Dr. Jaya Venugopal and Prandeep Thakore who helped us with the logistics and extended support at various stages.

We are grateful to Compuprint, Mr. Diwakar and Ms. Maheswari who went out of their way and spent time and energy in the making of this book. We hope the readers find the book useful.

Nandanama samvatsara, Pusya Suddha Pancami

 

Introduction

(Thousand pillar mantapa inscription 1162, fourth verse) Kakattyas have been the second major dynasty of the Andhra region after the Satavahanas. They made a lasting contribution not only to the political history, but also in protecting and promoting various sculptural and religious aspects during that time. The above verse indicates that their kingdom spread upto Bay of Bengal in the east, Srisailam in the south, the Malyavanta Mountains in the north and Kalyani in the west. Historians believe that this dynasty started with Prolaraju-I 1050 AD and lasted up to Prataparudra who ruled the kingdom between 1290-1396 AD. Inscriptional evidences help us in understanding, religious, political, economic and social conditions of that period. The Kakattya period also produced many Sanskrit and Telugu scholars whose works reflect the glory of that time.

Who were the Ktikatiyas, is a question that leads us to two interesting episodes without any authentic documentary evidence. In the Prataparudrtyam of Vidyanatha it is said that a goddess known as Kakati was the presiding deity of their dynasty after whose name the dynasty was known. The second anecdote is from Krtdabhiramam of Vinukonda Vallabharaya which mentions that Kakati means a creeper of the pumpkin. Once, during an invasion on the harem of a kingdom, while all others were killed, a young prince was rescued as he fell down from the palace into a pumpkin creeper. Therefore that dynasty came to be known as the Kakati dynasty.

Most historians begin the history of the Kakattya dynasty with Prolaya-Il but later inscriptions reveal the existence of a Prolaraju-I. This treatise Nrtta Ratnavalt by Jayasenapati on classical and regional dance forms during the Kiikatiyii rule is a very significant contribution in the field of art. It caters to not only students of dance, but also to those of history, sociology and anthropology. Like Bharata's Natyasastrawhich gives glimpses of voice culture, Nrtta Ratndvali throws light on Kinesiology.

There is an interesting history and bond between the author Jayana and his patron Ganapati Deva. Jayana belongs to the Ayyana dynasty. His ancestors hail from Yelanddu area, Kroyyuru. History tells us that his ancestors were at service with the Cola rulers when they were ruling Velanadu with Candavolu as their capital. Jayana's grandfather, Narayana Nayaka built a township in an island near the place where River Krsna merges into the Bay of Bengal. In 1203 AD when Jayana's father Pinnacoda Nayaka was ruling the island, Ganapati Deva invaded it, and defeated Jayana's father. With appreciation for his valor, Ganapati Deva entered into a bond with Narayana Nayaka by marrying both his daughters Narama and Perama. Jayana was a small boy then. Ganapati Deva took him under his care and got him educated. He made Jayana rule Tarnarapuri according to an inscription in 1213 AD. We find in Nrtta Ratnavali many a mention of Jayana's loyalty and respect for Ganapati Deva.

preksya prajnamatisayavatim svamibhaktim ca harsad
akaumarad ganapatinrpo jayanam yam samarcya I
gundamatye sakalasumanassevyamane jayantam
vacain patyau haririva kalaslaghaniyam vyanaisit ll

He in whom Ganapatibhupala noted great talent and loyalty (towards patron) and entrusted him to the care of the much sought after Gundamatya, just as Indra entrusted Jayanta to Brhaspati and had the meritorious art taught.

This also gives us information that Jayana was entrusted to Gundamatya and learnt fine arts under his tutelage. Jayana describes himself as gajasadhanika and senapati of Ganapati Deva.

lti srimanmaharajadhiraja - ganapatideva- gajasddhanika-jayasenapati-
viracitayam nrttaratnavalyam nartanaviveko nama prathamofdhyavah

This is the first chapter 'Nartana Vivekam', in Nrtta Ratnavali authored by Jayasenapati, the chief of the elephant forces of Ganapatideva, the superior king of kings.

Prof. Raghavan mentions that it is not possible that Jayana was entrusted to the tutelage of the famous Gundamatya of Prataparudra's time. There may be another. There are also epigraphical evidences of Jayana coming under the care of Ganapati Deva.

(Epi.Ind.III, page 84, V, page 142, 143 and VI page 38)

The verse from the inscriptions reads as follows.

Tadanujamatisaumyakaramakaralaksyaih
Suvinayanayadaksyasthairyagambhiryasauryaih l
sisumapi garimanam prapitam jayanakhyam
narapatiraminandhya svanucarye nyayuktam //

The king then took their brother Jayana into his service, though he was just a child. He found him to be very gentle, humble, polite, confident, graceful and valorous We find that Jayana always mentions Ganapati Deva's name with respect. In the beginning of chapter 5, where he begins to talk of the desi styles, he mentions:

tairyatritayavijnarahastattvavisarade l
margadesivibhagasya vivecanavicaksane ll

maharajadhirajefsmin ganapatyavanisvare l
samudramekhalamenam bahuna raksati ksamam ll

ya desi vartate lake sasmabhih kathyatesphutam l
nirupyatefdhuna desyam sthanakani yathakramam ll

We shall elaborate that dance which is prevalently practiced in the world, Right now, I shall describe Desi sthiinakas in order. I shall describe that provincial abstract dance prevalent in the reign of the king of kings, Ganapati Bhupala who is the moon of fame which makes the lotus of the earth blossom, who consumes in flames the hearts of the enemies with sunlight valor, who wields an intoxicated sword akin to a snake that sucks the life-energy of the enemies, who surpasses Karna, Kamadhenu (the divine cow) and kalpavrksa (wishing tree) in sacrifice, who puts to shame Manmadha, the god of love in form, grace and prosperity, who is well versed in nuances of song and instrumental music and an expert at differentiating between classical and provincial styles, Right now I shall describe Desisthanakas in order.

It is here that he states the most significant information of the date of the book:

kalau yate tu varsesu bhutabanagnisagaraih
mitesvanandasamjnefbde jagadanandadayini ll

sasvatkuvalayollasiyasahpraleyarocisi l

pratapatapanapraudhi tapitaratimanase ll

Now, in Bharatavarsa, the period of vaivasvata manvantara, Kaliyuga, after 4355 years during this period, in the year Ananda which gives joy to the world. (which is equal to 1253 AD.)

Ganapati Deva ruled between 1198 and 1261 AD. He passed away in 1262 AD. It is interesting to note that while he was still ruling, he made his daughter Rudramamba a joint ruler from 1258 AD. We find a last official record of Ganapati Deva jointly with his daughter in 1261 AD.

As mentioned, the Kakatiya dynasty has contributed immensely to the enrichment of culture in Andhradesa, They extended patronage to scholars, poets, musicians, dancers, sculptors, artists of many forms of art. The inscriptions give us ample evidence of the Kakatiyas' patronage to artistes. The Pillalamarri inscription, mentions houses constructed for temple singers, percussion artistes and dancers. The Panagallu inscription also makes a mention that musicians and dancers received contributions.

An inscription of Dharmasagara reveals that ten devadasis received land donations (corpus of inscriptions 37,36 and 1). The inscription of Ganapati Deva (Epi.Ind.vol 638) where Jayana was made ruler of Chebrolu also mentions donations to sixteen devadasis. The Malkapuram inscription of RudramaDevi describes the arrangement of ten devadasi dancers and fourteen musicians to perform in the temple. Apart from these there are temples constructed with architectural excellence which depict dance extensively. Important among these constructions are the thousand pillar temple at Warangal, the Ramappa gudi or Rudreswaralayam at Palampet and the Swayambhu Lingeswaraswamy temple inside the Warangal fort. The Ramappa temple was built by Recherla Rudradeva, chief of Army and minister of Ganapati Deva in 1213 AD. This temple is of great importance to our study of Nrtta Ratnavalt . Some scholars opine that Jayana was inspired by the temple for writing Nrtta Ratnavali.

 

Contents

 

Chapter One 1
Benediction 1
Eulogy to nrtta 2
Eulogy to the author 6
Eulogy to the text 7
Occasions for nrtta 8
Descent of ruitya 9
Qualities of natya 10
The four kinds of expressions 12
The qualities of nrtta, nrtya and natya in Marga and Desi styles 17
Qualiies of Ldsya and Tnndava 19
Parts of Lasya 20
Uddhatam 24
Chapter Two 27
Angas, pratyangas and upangas 27
Movements of the head 27
Qualities of glances 39
Actions of the pupils 49
Ways of looking 51
Actions of eyelids 52
Actions of eyebrows 54
Actions of nose 57
Movements of the lip 59
Movements of the cheek 61
Qualities of the chin 62
Qualities of the jaw 64
Actions of the tongue 65
Actions of the teeth 66
Qualities of the neck 67
Hues of the face 69
Qualities of the hand 71
Single Hand (Gestures) 77
Double hand gestures 97
The Hasta Karanas 107
Hand movements 109
Movements of the fore arm 111
The Nrtta Hastas 115
Qualities of hand movements 128
Movements of the chest 129
Movements of the sides 131
Actions of the stomach 133
Movements of the waist 134
Actions of the thighs 135
Actions of the knees 136
Actions of calves 138
Movements of the feet 140
Movements of the toes 144
Chapter Three 151
Qualities of caris 151
Positions 169
Standing Postures for men 170
Axioms 174
Carts in accordance with the axioms 176
Sleeping Postures 181
Standing Postures for Women 183
Mandalas 188
Chapter Four 207
Nrtta Karanas 207
Qualities of the hundred and eight Kararuis 214
The Angaharas 267
Qualities of outward movements 295
Chapter Five 303
Eulogy to provincial dance 303
The Twenty three Provincial Stances 306
Leaping movements 315
Qualities of Alaga 321
Qualities of Lohadi 322
Qualities of Darpasaranam 324
Qualities of Bhramari 326
Chapter Six 337
The sixteen Desi foot movements 338
Twenty eight patas 340
Desi caris 352
The forty six Desi Lasyangas 367
Qualities of Rhythmic Pattern 382
Chapter Seven 391
System of training 391
Instrumentation 396
Vicitra paddhati 399
Qualities of Perani 400
Arrangement in Perini 401
Five parts of Prerana 402
The Pattern of Prerani 406
The Provincial system 408
The pattern of Preksana 410
Two types of Suda 411
Rasakam 412
Carcari 416
Natyarasakam 417
Dandarasakam 417
Sivapriya 419
Cintunrtta 421
Kandukanrtta 422
Bhandikanrtta 424
Ghatisaninrtta 425
Carananrtta 426
Bahurapanrtta 427
Kollatanartana 429
Qualities of a danseuse 431
Qualities of a dancer 434
Qualities of Mukhari 436
Qualities of Pratimukhari 438
Qualities of musicians 438
Qualities of the main singer 439
Qualities of the group 440
Qualities of traditional artistes 442
Qualities of the stage 446
Qualities of the president of the gathering 451
Decorum of the audience 452
Chapter Eight 457
Arrangement of seats for the president and audience 457
The makeup of the chief danseuse 464
Arrangement of the group 468
Group of musicians 470
Music devoid of the word 472
Bibliography 479
Sample Pages
















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