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The Nyaya Sutras of Gotama
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The Nyaya Sutras of Gotama
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About the Book:

The Nyaya Sutra of Gotama is an important treatise on Indian logic and is regarded as the earliest work of Nyaya philosophy. Written in the aphoristic style, it is believed to have been comprised by Gotama, Gautama or Aksapads who is also considered to be the founder of the Nyaya system of philosophy. That the Nyaya sutra was an important work is also evident from the numerous commentaries on the text which were written through centuries. The Nyaya Sutra is divided into five books, each containing two chapters called ahnikas or Diurnal portions. Originally, this system only propounded the rational system of philosophy as means of valid knowledge, entirely shown of scriptural dogmas. In course of time, however, this system of philosophy also recognized and assimilated the other system of philosophy such as the Vaisesika, Yoga, Mimamsa, Samkhya, etc.

In the present translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Goutama, Mahamahopadhyaya Satisa Chandra Vidyabhusana has not only given an accurate rendering of this difficult text, but has also defined each term along with detailed explanation of the meaning underlying them in modern parlance. Apart from the translation, the present edition also contains a detailed introduction in which is given an account of the historical background of the text and its author, an alphabetical index to the Sutras, an index of words in English and a word index to the Nyaya Sutras, thus enhancing its value for the scholars interested in the subject.




 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

 

BOOK I, CHAPTER I.

The Sixteen categories
Release
Means of knowledge
Perception defined
Inference defined
Comparison defined
Word or verbal testimony defined
Objects of Knowledge
Soul defined
Body defined
Sense defined
Element defined
Qualities of earth etc
Intellect defined
Mind defined
Activity defined and explained
Fault defined
Transmigration defined
Fruit defined
Pain defined
Release defined
Doubt defined and explained
Purpose defined
Example or familiar instance
Tenet defined
A dogma of all the Schools
A dogma peculiar to some School
A hypothetical dogma
An implied dogma
Members of a syllogism
Proposition
Reason
Homogeneous or affirmative reason
Heterogeneous or negative reason
Example
Homogeneous or affirmative example
Heterogeneous or negative example
Application, affirmative and negative
Conclusion
Confutation
Ascertainment

BOOK I, CHAPTER II.

Discussion
Wrangling
Cavil
Fallacies of reason
The erratic
The contradictory
The controversial or equal to the question
The reciprocal or unproved
The mistimed
Quibble
Quibble in respect of a term
Quibble in respect of a genus
Quibble in respect of a metaphor
Futility
An occasion for rebuke

BOOK II, CHAPTER I.

Doubt examined
The means and objects of knowledge examined
Perception examined
Special kinds of knowledge
The relation of perception and inference
The whole and its part
Inference examined
The time present, past and future
Comparison examined
Word or verbal testimony examined
The Veda examined
Injunction
Persuasion
Praise
Blame
Warning
Prescription
Reinculcation
Tautology
The Medical Science

BOOK II, CHAPTER II.

Means of knowledge examined
Rumour
Presumption
Probability
Non-existence
The nature of sound examined
Otherness
Letters, their modifications and substitutes
Word
Individual
Form
Genus

BOOK III, CHAPTER I.

Sense is not soul.
Body is not soul
Duality of the eye
Remembrance
Mind is not soul
The soul established
The body is earthly
The eye-ball is material
The senses are material
The eye and its ray
The senses are more than one
Touch
The senses are five
The qualities of the elements

BOOK III, CHAPTER II.

Intellect or knowledge is not eternal
Knowledge is not momentary
The nature of the knowledge
Recollection
Desire and aversion
The mind is not the seat of knowledge
Memory and its causes
Knowledge is not a natural quality of the body
Non-simultaneousness of knowledge
The mind is atomic
Desert producing the body

BOOK IV, CHAPTER I.

Activity
Faults
Stupidity
Transmigration
Entity does not arise from non-entity
God
Production from no-cause
All are not non-eternal
All are not eternal
All are not distinct
Self-existence and relative non-existence
No fixity of number
Fruit examined
Pain examined
Release examined
Debts and troubles

BOOK IV, CHAPTER II.

The rise of true knowledge
The whole and its parts
Atom
The non-reality of things
False apprehension
Meditation
Discussion, wrangling and cavil

BOOK V, CHAPTER I.

Futility
Balancing the homogeneity
Balancing the heterogeneity
Balancing an addition
Balancing a subtraction
Balancing the questionable
Balancing the unquestionable
Balancing the alternative
Balancing the reciprocity
Balancing the co-presence
Balancing the mutual absence
Balancing the infinite regression
Balancing the counter-example
Balancing the non-produced
Balancing the doubt
Balancing the controversy
Balancing the non-reason
Balancing the presumption
Balancing the non-difference
Balancing the demonstration
Balancing the perception
Balancing the non-perception
Balancing the non-eternal
Balancing the eternal
Balancing the effect
Admission of an opinion
Six-winged disputation

BOOK V, CHAPTER II.

Occasions for rebuke
Hurting the proposition
Shifting the proposition
Opposing the proposition
Renouncing the proposition
Shifting the reason
Shifting the topic
The meaningless
The unintelligible
The inopportune
Saying too little
Saying too much
Repetition
Silence
Ignorance
Non-ingenuity
Evasion
Admission of an opinion
Overlooking the censurable
Censuring the non-censurable
Fallacies of a reason.

Sample Page


The Nyaya Sutras of Gotama

Item Code:
IDD829
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2003
Publisher:
Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN:
81-215-1096-1
Language:
English
Size:
9.8" X 6.5"
Pages:
237
Other Details:
weight of book 513 gms
Price:
$31.00   Shipping Free
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About the Book:

The Nyaya Sutra of Gotama is an important treatise on Indian logic and is regarded as the earliest work of Nyaya philosophy. Written in the aphoristic style, it is believed to have been comprised by Gotama, Gautama or Aksapads who is also considered to be the founder of the Nyaya system of philosophy. That the Nyaya sutra was an important work is also evident from the numerous commentaries on the text which were written through centuries. The Nyaya Sutra is divided into five books, each containing two chapters called ahnikas or Diurnal portions. Originally, this system only propounded the rational system of philosophy as means of valid knowledge, entirely shown of scriptural dogmas. In course of time, however, this system of philosophy also recognized and assimilated the other system of philosophy such as the Vaisesika, Yoga, Mimamsa, Samkhya, etc.

In the present translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Goutama, Mahamahopadhyaya Satisa Chandra Vidyabhusana has not only given an accurate rendering of this difficult text, but has also defined each term along with detailed explanation of the meaning underlying them in modern parlance. Apart from the translation, the present edition also contains a detailed introduction in which is given an account of the historical background of the text and its author, an alphabetical index to the Sutras, an index of words in English and a word index to the Nyaya Sutras, thus enhancing its value for the scholars interested in the subject.




 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

 

BOOK I, CHAPTER I.

The Sixteen categories
Release
Means of knowledge
Perception defined
Inference defined
Comparison defined
Word or verbal testimony defined
Objects of Knowledge
Soul defined
Body defined
Sense defined
Element defined
Qualities of earth etc
Intellect defined
Mind defined
Activity defined and explained
Fault defined
Transmigration defined
Fruit defined
Pain defined
Release defined
Doubt defined and explained
Purpose defined
Example or familiar instance
Tenet defined
A dogma of all the Schools
A dogma peculiar to some School
A hypothetical dogma
An implied dogma
Members of a syllogism
Proposition
Reason
Homogeneous or affirmative reason
Heterogeneous or negative reason
Example
Homogeneous or affirmative example
Heterogeneous or negative example
Application, affirmative and negative
Conclusion
Confutation
Ascertainment

BOOK I, CHAPTER II.

Discussion
Wrangling
Cavil
Fallacies of reason
The erratic
The contradictory
The controversial or equal to the question
The reciprocal or unproved
The mistimed
Quibble
Quibble in respect of a term
Quibble in respect of a genus
Quibble in respect of a metaphor
Futility
An occasion for rebuke

BOOK II, CHAPTER I.

Doubt examined
The means and objects of knowledge examined
Perception examined
Special kinds of knowledge
The relation of perception and inference
The whole and its part
Inference examined
The time present, past and future
Comparison examined
Word or verbal testimony examined
The Veda examined
Injunction
Persuasion
Praise
Blame
Warning
Prescription
Reinculcation
Tautology
The Medical Science

BOOK II, CHAPTER II.

Means of knowledge examined
Rumour
Presumption
Probability
Non-existence
The nature of sound examined
Otherness
Letters, their modifications and substitutes
Word
Individual
Form
Genus

BOOK III, CHAPTER I.

Sense is not soul.
Body is not soul
Duality of the eye
Remembrance
Mind is not soul
The soul established
The body is earthly
The eye-ball is material
The senses are material
The eye and its ray
The senses are more than one
Touch
The senses are five
The qualities of the elements

BOOK III, CHAPTER II.

Intellect or knowledge is not eternal
Knowledge is not momentary
The nature of the knowledge
Recollection
Desire and aversion
The mind is not the seat of knowledge
Memory and its causes
Knowledge is not a natural quality of the body
Non-simultaneousness of knowledge
The mind is atomic
Desert producing the body

BOOK IV, CHAPTER I.

Activity
Faults
Stupidity
Transmigration
Entity does not arise from non-entity
God
Production from no-cause
All are not non-eternal
All are not eternal
All are not distinct
Self-existence and relative non-existence
No fixity of number
Fruit examined
Pain examined
Release examined
Debts and troubles

BOOK IV, CHAPTER II.

The rise of true knowledge
The whole and its parts
Atom
The non-reality of things
False apprehension
Meditation
Discussion, wrangling and cavil

BOOK V, CHAPTER I.

Futility
Balancing the homogeneity
Balancing the heterogeneity
Balancing an addition
Balancing a subtraction
Balancing the questionable
Balancing the unquestionable
Balancing the alternative
Balancing the reciprocity
Balancing the co-presence
Balancing the mutual absence
Balancing the infinite regression
Balancing the counter-example
Balancing the non-produced
Balancing the doubt
Balancing the controversy
Balancing the non-reason
Balancing the presumption
Balancing the non-difference
Balancing the demonstration
Balancing the perception
Balancing the non-perception
Balancing the non-eternal
Balancing the eternal
Balancing the effect
Admission of an opinion
Six-winged disputation

BOOK V, CHAPTER II.

Occasions for rebuke
Hurting the proposition
Shifting the proposition
Opposing the proposition
Renouncing the proposition
Shifting the reason
Shifting the topic
The meaningless
The unintelligible
The inopportune
Saying too little
Saying too much
Repetition
Silence
Ignorance
Non-ingenuity
Evasion
Admission of an opinion
Overlooking the censurable
Censuring the non-censurable
Fallacies of a reason.

Sample Page


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