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People, Taxation, and Trade in Mughal India
People, Taxation, and Trade in Mughal India
Description
Preface

The present volume that I offer to (I hope) an indulgent readership contains papers that in their original from appeared in different journals or collaborative volumes. They have this in common that they deal with various aspects of the economic life and institutions of Mughal India. Since they appeared at various times, I found it necessary, before their inclusion in this volume, to revise them carefully and update the references; I have also taken the liberty of making changes and additions to take into account new questions and fresh evidence. The result is that in many cases the chapters in this volumes are practically new versions of the original papers; even the titles of some have been modified. In the Introduction I have endeavoured to focus attention on some larger issues of debate.

The opportunity has been taken to make spellings of names and terms as uniform as possible. For diacritical marks the system followed in Steingass's Persian-English Dictionary has been adopted with a few changes introduced for reasons of simplification.

Professor Irfan Habib has been liberal with guidance, advice and encouragement (including the encouragement to differ!). I have, throughout the preparation of the original papers and in the course of their revision for this volume, obtained unstinted help from the members of the staff of the library of the Department of History (AMU) at all odd times. I am especially grateful to Mr. Arshad Ali, Mr. Bansi Dhar Sharma and Mr. Salman Ahmad.

The processing of the text has been carried out under the aegis of the Aligarh Historians Society, mainly by Mr. Muneer Uddin Khan. Mr Sajid Islam has also borne part of the burden.

It was good to work with Oxford University Press again. It has been a special pleasure to have worked with the editorial team at the Oxford University Press.

From the Jacket

PEOPLE, TAXATION, AND TRADE IN MUGHAL INDIA

India in the Seventeenth century was one of the great economic powers of the world – a position it later lost following the British conquest and the European Industrial Revolution. Bringing together four decades of intensive research, this unique collection examines the functioning of the economy within the political framework provided by the Mughal Empire.

Shireen Moosvi studies specific issues like state revenues, prices, interest rates, and maritime economy, using much new source material. She explores areas that have received little attention in the literature on Mughal history – ecology and settlement pattern, vital statistics as well as work and gender.

In the introduction, the author discusses issues widely debated among the historians of Mughal India. Wide-ranging and comprehensive, this book is essential reading for teaches, scholars, and students of Mughal history. General readers keen to know what India was like before British rule will also find the book interesting.

About the Author

Shireen Moosvi is Professor at the Centre of Advanced Study in History, Aligarh Muslim University where she has been teaching since 1970. She is a leading member of what is now known as the Aligarh school of historians who aim at combining critical rigour with evolving vision of History.

With a background in both statistics and history, she has worked with primary documents for her with primary documents for her wide-raging researches in economic and social history of Mughal India. Her book Economy of the Mughal Empire, c.1995 – a Statistical Study (OUP, 1987) is an attempt at quantitative analysis of Mughal economy, while Episodes in the Life of Akbar (1994) brings history to life by giving extracts from contemporary sources.

Contents
Preface xi
Original Sites of Publication xiii
Abbreviationsxv
Introduction xvii
THE ECONOMIC EXPERIENCE
1.The Indian Economic Experience, 1600-1900: A Quantitative Study 1
2.The Silver Influx, Money Supply, Prices and Revenue-Extraction in Mughal India 35
3.A Note on Interest Rates in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries 81
ECOLOGY, DEMOGRAPHY AND GENDER
4. Ecology, population Distribution and Settlement Pattern in Mughal India 89
5. Data on Mughal-Period Vital Statistics A Preliminary Survey of Usable Information 103
6. Urban Population in Pre-Colonial India 119
7.Work and Gender in Mughal India 135
TAXATION AND IMPERIAL FINANCE
8.Problem of Mughal Revenue Administration Todarmal's Original Memorandum, March 1582 159
9.Reforming Revenue Administration Aurangzeb's Farman to Rasikdas. 1665 175
10.A Programme of Reliefs for the People of Kashmir: An Imperial Edict of Shahjahan 186
11.Expenditure on Buildings under Shahjahan: A Chapter of Imperial Financial History 199
12.The Mughal Empire and Deccan Economic Factors and Consequences213
13.Scarcities, Prices and Exploitation: 'The Agrarian Crisis', 1658-70 229
SHIPPING AND PORTS
14.Shipping and Navigation under Akbar 243
15.Mughal Shipping at Surat in the First Half of Seventeenth Century 257
16.Travails of a Mercantile Community Aspects of Social Life at the Port of Surat (Earlier Half of the Seventeenth Century) 275
17.Gujarat Ports and their Hinterland: The Economic Relationship288
INDEX
Maps
Map 4.1 (a)Uttar Pradesh: Extent of Gross Cultivation in 1595 (As % of Cross Cultivation in 1909-10)90
Map 4.1 (b)Gujarat: Extent of Gross Cultivation in 1595 (As % of Gross Cultivation in 1903-4) 91
Map 4.1 (c)Panjab: Extent of Gross Cultivation in 1595 (As % of Cross Cultivation in 1909-10) 91
Map 4.2 Upper & Middle Gangetic Basin: Forest & Scrub (Excluding Himalayan Forests), 17th Century 94
Map 4.3Upper & Middle Gangetic Basin: Forest & Scrub (Excluding Himalayan Forests) 195195
Map 4.4 Wild Elephants and Cheetahs c. 160097
Map 17.1 Routes into the Hinterland293
Figures
Fig. 2.1Mughal Rupees (North Indian Mints) Quinquennial Histogram Based on U.P. Coin Finds 40
Fig. 2.2Mughal Rupees (North Indian Mints) Quinquennial Histogram Based on catalouged coins (Aziza Hasan) 41
Fig. 2.3The Silver Value of Gold (Rupees per Muhr) 51
Fig. 3.1Interest Rates82
Fig. 6.1Circulation of the Rural Surplus121
Fig. 7.1Women at well; women fetching water from well, Line-drawing from Hamzanama Painting, Victorial and Albert Museum, London 139
Fig. 7.2Women spinning 143
Fig. 7.3Women breaking stones and sieving material in lime-making, Fatehpur Sikri 147
Fig. 7.4Women Carrying bitumen, construction of Agra Fort147
Fig. 7.5A Girl at School153
Fig. 7.6A Princess reading a poem154
Fig. 7.7Women dancer performing at a Royal wedding156

People, Taxation, and Trade in Mughal India

Item Code:
IDK151
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2008
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
ISBN:
0195693159
Size:
8.7 X 6.0"
Pages:
340 (6 B/W Illustration & 7 Maps)
Price:
$45.00   Shipping Free
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Preface

The present volume that I offer to (I hope) an indulgent readership contains papers that in their original from appeared in different journals or collaborative volumes. They have this in common that they deal with various aspects of the economic life and institutions of Mughal India. Since they appeared at various times, I found it necessary, before their inclusion in this volume, to revise them carefully and update the references; I have also taken the liberty of making changes and additions to take into account new questions and fresh evidence. The result is that in many cases the chapters in this volumes are practically new versions of the original papers; even the titles of some have been modified. In the Introduction I have endeavoured to focus attention on some larger issues of debate.

The opportunity has been taken to make spellings of names and terms as uniform as possible. For diacritical marks the system followed in Steingass's Persian-English Dictionary has been adopted with a few changes introduced for reasons of simplification.

Professor Irfan Habib has been liberal with guidance, advice and encouragement (including the encouragement to differ!). I have, throughout the preparation of the original papers and in the course of their revision for this volume, obtained unstinted help from the members of the staff of the library of the Department of History (AMU) at all odd times. I am especially grateful to Mr. Arshad Ali, Mr. Bansi Dhar Sharma and Mr. Salman Ahmad.

The processing of the text has been carried out under the aegis of the Aligarh Historians Society, mainly by Mr. Muneer Uddin Khan. Mr Sajid Islam has also borne part of the burden.

It was good to work with Oxford University Press again. It has been a special pleasure to have worked with the editorial team at the Oxford University Press.

From the Jacket

PEOPLE, TAXATION, AND TRADE IN MUGHAL INDIA

India in the Seventeenth century was one of the great economic powers of the world – a position it later lost following the British conquest and the European Industrial Revolution. Bringing together four decades of intensive research, this unique collection examines the functioning of the economy within the political framework provided by the Mughal Empire.

Shireen Moosvi studies specific issues like state revenues, prices, interest rates, and maritime economy, using much new source material. She explores areas that have received little attention in the literature on Mughal history – ecology and settlement pattern, vital statistics as well as work and gender.

In the introduction, the author discusses issues widely debated among the historians of Mughal India. Wide-ranging and comprehensive, this book is essential reading for teaches, scholars, and students of Mughal history. General readers keen to know what India was like before British rule will also find the book interesting.

About the Author

Shireen Moosvi is Professor at the Centre of Advanced Study in History, Aligarh Muslim University where she has been teaching since 1970. She is a leading member of what is now known as the Aligarh school of historians who aim at combining critical rigour with evolving vision of History.

With a background in both statistics and history, she has worked with primary documents for her with primary documents for her wide-raging researches in economic and social history of Mughal India. Her book Economy of the Mughal Empire, c.1995 – a Statistical Study (OUP, 1987) is an attempt at quantitative analysis of Mughal economy, while Episodes in the Life of Akbar (1994) brings history to life by giving extracts from contemporary sources.

Contents
Preface xi
Original Sites of Publication xiii
Abbreviationsxv
Introduction xvii
THE ECONOMIC EXPERIENCE
1.The Indian Economic Experience, 1600-1900: A Quantitative Study 1
2.The Silver Influx, Money Supply, Prices and Revenue-Extraction in Mughal India 35
3.A Note on Interest Rates in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries 81
ECOLOGY, DEMOGRAPHY AND GENDER
4. Ecology, population Distribution and Settlement Pattern in Mughal India 89
5. Data on Mughal-Period Vital Statistics A Preliminary Survey of Usable Information 103
6. Urban Population in Pre-Colonial India 119
7.Work and Gender in Mughal India 135
TAXATION AND IMPERIAL FINANCE
8.Problem of Mughal Revenue Administration Todarmal's Original Memorandum, March 1582 159
9.Reforming Revenue Administration Aurangzeb's Farman to Rasikdas. 1665 175
10.A Programme of Reliefs for the People of Kashmir: An Imperial Edict of Shahjahan 186
11.Expenditure on Buildings under Shahjahan: A Chapter of Imperial Financial History 199
12.The Mughal Empire and Deccan Economic Factors and Consequences213
13.Scarcities, Prices and Exploitation: 'The Agrarian Crisis', 1658-70 229
SHIPPING AND PORTS
14.Shipping and Navigation under Akbar 243
15.Mughal Shipping at Surat in the First Half of Seventeenth Century 257
16.Travails of a Mercantile Community Aspects of Social Life at the Port of Surat (Earlier Half of the Seventeenth Century) 275
17.Gujarat Ports and their Hinterland: The Economic Relationship288
INDEX
Maps
Map 4.1 (a)Uttar Pradesh: Extent of Gross Cultivation in 1595 (As % of Cross Cultivation in 1909-10)90
Map 4.1 (b)Gujarat: Extent of Gross Cultivation in 1595 (As % of Gross Cultivation in 1903-4) 91
Map 4.1 (c)Panjab: Extent of Gross Cultivation in 1595 (As % of Cross Cultivation in 1909-10) 91
Map 4.2 Upper & Middle Gangetic Basin: Forest & Scrub (Excluding Himalayan Forests), 17th Century 94
Map 4.3Upper & Middle Gangetic Basin: Forest & Scrub (Excluding Himalayan Forests) 195195
Map 4.4 Wild Elephants and Cheetahs c. 160097
Map 17.1 Routes into the Hinterland293
Figures
Fig. 2.1Mughal Rupees (North Indian Mints) Quinquennial Histogram Based on U.P. Coin Finds 40
Fig. 2.2Mughal Rupees (North Indian Mints) Quinquennial Histogram Based on catalouged coins (Aziza Hasan) 41
Fig. 2.3The Silver Value of Gold (Rupees per Muhr) 51
Fig. 3.1Interest Rates82
Fig. 6.1Circulation of the Rural Surplus121
Fig. 7.1Women at well; women fetching water from well, Line-drawing from Hamzanama Painting, Victorial and Albert Museum, London 139
Fig. 7.2Women spinning 143
Fig. 7.3Women breaking stones and sieving material in lime-making, Fatehpur Sikri 147
Fig. 7.4Women Carrying bitumen, construction of Agra Fort147
Fig. 7.5A Girl at School153
Fig. 7.6A Princess reading a poem154
Fig. 7.7Women dancer performing at a Royal wedding156
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