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THE PHILOSOPHY OF BHEDABHEDA

THE PHILOSOPHY OF BHEDABHEDA

Specifications

Item Code: IDG118

by P. N. SRINIVASACHARI

Hardcover (Edition: 1996)

THE ADYAR LIBRARY AND RESEARCH CENTRE
ISBN 8185741207

Language: English
Size: 8.8" X 5.7"
Pages: 311
Weight of the Book: 522 gms
Price: $25.00   Shipping Free
Viewed times since 26th May, 2013

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PREFACE:

THIS book is an amplification of the Honorary Reader-ship Lectures on 'The Philosophy of Bhaskara' delivered by me under the auspices of the University of Madras. The philosophy of Bhedabheda claims, like all other Vedantic schools, the authority of immemorial tradition; but it has become a forgotten chapter in the history of Vedantic thought. Bhedabheda exhibits two distinct types represented mainly by the systems of Bhaskara and Yadavaprakasa. It is midway, logically and chronologically, between the Advaita of Samkara and the Visistadvaita of Ramanuja. It is not in line with the accepted expositions of Vedanta and is rejected mainly on the ground that it is a system built on the self-contradiction of bheda and abheda. The philosophy of identity-in-difference has, however, a strange fascination for certain temperaments interested in the meeting of the extremes of monism and pluralism.

The book is divided into two portions. The first sets out the metaphysical, moral and mystical implications of the Bhedabheda of Bhaskara. The first part of the second portion presents the Vedanta of Yadavaprakasa and certain allied schools. Bhaskara's Commentary on the Brahma-sutra-s is published in the Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series, Benares; but no extant edition of Yadavaprakasa's commentary is available. The drift of his teaching is, however, gathered from the criticisms levelled against it by the expositors of other systems like Ramanuja and Vedanta Desika. In the second part, a critical estimate of Bhedabheda is attempted and this is followed by a comparison of this school of Vedanta with similar lines of thought in the West. The concluding chapter indicates the direction in which the varieties of Vedantic thought may benefit by mutual and sympathetic criticism and thus supplement the method of Siddhanta by a synthetic insight into the fundamental features of the philosophic thought enshrined in the Upanisad-s. It will be observed that, in summarizing the philosophies considered in the course of the work, I have tried to adopt the language of their authors.

My grateful thanks are due to my esteemed friends and fellow-students who have encouraged me in the publication of this book. I am indebted to Pandit Kumaravadi Srinivasachariar who helped me to go through the Bhasya of Bhaskara. I owe a deep debt of gratitude to Mahamahopadhyaya Prof. S. Kuppuswami Sastrigal for kindly reading the book in its proof stage and making valuable suggestions. Prof. M. Hiriyanna and S. Vasudevachariar rendered great help to me by pointing out errors and suggesting improvements. I have been profited by discussions with S. Gopalaswami Aiyanagar on the philosophical relationship between Visistadvaita and Bhedabheda.

I am under great obligation to G. K. Rangaswami Aiyangar and M. R. Rajagopala Aiyangar for the considerable help they rendered to me in various ways. I should not omit to mention the aid given me by Jiyappa Aiyangar and Dr. K. C. Varadachariar in the preparation of the manuscripts. My special thanks are due to Professor Hiriyanna for his kindness in having written a Foreword to this book.

P. N. SRINIVASACHARI

February 1934

CONTENTS

PAGES
FOREWORDV
PREFACEIX
BOOK I
THE PHILOSOPHY OF BHASKARA
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION3-10
The Vedanta as a philosophy of religion--
Spiritual realization as a true test-Reason
and revelation reconciled-Threefold aspect
of Vedanta: Metaphysics, Morality and
Mysticism-The age of Bhaskara-His
works-Bhedabheda of Yadava and Bhas-
Kara compared-His philosophy marks a
transition from Samkara to Ramanuja-His
central teaching and method-Criticism of
other philosophical systems, especiallymaya-
vada
--The subject-matter of the Vedanta-
sutra-s.
II. BHASKARA'S EPISTEMOLOGY11-26
Brahman is knowable--Sastra, the ultimate
source of spiritual knowledge-The Veda
a body of eternal, impersonal and in-
fallible truths--Sruti and smrti--Mimamsaka
principles of interpretation-The principle
of bhedabheda, as the keynote of Vedanta-
Bhedaand abheda texts reconcile-
The truth confirmed bypratyaksa and anumana
--Illustrations from the relation between
cause and effect and genus and species-
The Illusion theory criticized-Importance
of causality to Bhaskara-Satkaryavada or
the theory of immanent causality-Free
causality-Criticism of other theories of
knowledge like the Vaisesika theory of asat-
karyavada-Mayavada
--The Samkhya theory ofparinama--The Buddhistic theory of mo-
mentariness and the Jaina view of saptabhangi
--Bhedabheda reconciles idealism and
realism.
III. BHASKARA'S ONTOLOGY27-39
Sadvidya refers to Brahman as karana-atman
and karya-atman--The unconditioned be-
comes the conditioned due to upadhi-s--The
self-limitation of the Absolute-Isvara and
the Absolute identical-Criticism of the
theory of two Brahman-s, Saguna and Nirguna
--The Sadvidya refers to Brahman and
not to pradhana--Vaisesika, Buddhist, Jaina,
Mahesvara and Pancaratra theories of reality
criticized-The anandamaya of Taittiriya-
upanisad
is the Absolute which is saguna--The golden person in the sun-The akasa, the
prana and the jyotis of the Chandogya-upanisad
refer to Saguna Brahman-Bhedabheda relation
explained by the Antaryami Brahmana
in the Upanisad-Saguna Brahman as the
Vaisvanara, amrta, setu, bhuman, aksara and
paratpara-purus a-Angusthamatra-purusa.
IV. BHASKARA'S COSMOLOGY40-50
Parinama as the principle of self-differentiation
--Jiva-parinama and acetana-parinama or
bhoktr-sakti and bhogya-sakit--Theory of pralaya
andsrsti--Sadvidya and causality-Vakyakara
, Vrttikara and Sutrakara support parinamavada--Brahman transcendentally perfect
though immanent in the universe-Criticism
of rival theories of srsti; mayavada, Samkhyan
theory of prakrtiparinama, the atomic
theory of the Vaisesika and the Buddhistic
theories ofsamghata--Bhaskara's conclusion or
siddhanta.
V. BHASKARA'S CRITICISM OF
MAYA
51-72
The doctrine ofmaya cuts at the very root of
knowledge, derived from sense-perception,
inference andsastra-- Real knowledge cannot
arise from falsity-Conditionateness is not
contradiction or sublation-Bhaskara's criticism
compared with Ramanuja's--Anirvacaniyakhyati refuted--Jnana-kanda and Karma-Kanda
not opposed-Reality cannot be bare
being-The negative judgment, neti, neti in
the Upanisad denies the finitude of reality and not the finite-Brahman is formless but
not characterless-Four vies of Advaita-
Isvara neither illusory nor the logical
Highest.
Bhaskara's Idea of God: Brahman devoid of
form, but with an infinity of perfections-His
relation to the acit and thejiva--Four forms
of the Advaitic view of Brahman: Bhaskara's
criticism of Nirguna Brahman-Some
modern interpretations of Ramanuja and
Bhaskara considered.
The Theory of the upadhi-s: Isvara becomes
the finite self by his parinama-sakti and
upadhi-s--Unity and multiplicity are both
real--Upadhi-s real not illusory: the finitizing
process of the infinite-A complex of logical,
moral and aesthetic limitations-Avidya, kama, karman, and sarirendriya--Sthula-sarira
andSaksma-saira-Upadhi, beginningless but not endless.
VI. BHASKARA'S PSYCHOLOGY73-83
The jiva as an amsa of Isvara-As bhedabheda
relation-Brahman s a finite centre conditioned
by upadhi-s--The jiva as a self-
conscious entity, morally free-Abnormal
psychology-The psychology of sleep;
drams not illusory but psychic experiences
--Conscious states continuous but not
contradictory-Carvaka, Buddhist, Jaina
Samkhya, Vaisesika, Pancaratra and Maya-
vada views of the finite self criticized-a
The Sutra-s support bhedabheda relation
between Brahman and the Jiva, abheda real
and bheda adventitious.
VII. THE ETHICS OF BHASKARA84-104
Vedantic ethics makes no distinction between
morality and metaphysics-The jiva as mumuksu-The
need forvairagya-Jnanaand Karman:
co-ordinate and not contradictory-Jnana-
karma-samuccaya
as the chief means to mukti
--It avoids the extremes of intellectualism
and activism-Criticism ofniyogavada-Raga
sublimated--Visaya-ragatransformed into
paramatma-raga--Divine determinism not in-
compatible with individual freedom-The
divine will works through the will of the finite self-Paramatman eternally pure and
perfect though associated with samsara-The supreme end of man is the attainment
of Brahman-The views of the
Mimamsaka and the Dhyananiyogavadin
about the relative value ofkarman and jnanarefuted-Desire spiritualized and
not suppressed or sublated-Renunciation
is not karmatyaga butniskama-karman
VIII. THE RELIGION OF BHASKARA105-40
The errors and evils of avidya-karman over-
come by philosophic insight and moral
endeavour-The mumuksu as a mystic-The
unitive consciousness of Brahman-The nature of dhyana: meditation on Brahman
as the formless or nirakara but not as characterless ornirguna--Mukti as release from
the upadhi-s or freedom from embodiment
and not in embodiment orjivanmukti as
Samkara says-Criticism of the theory of
jivanmukti--The Upanisadic meditations-t
The theories ofaikya-jnana, dhyananiyoga-vada
and nisprapancikarananiyogavada criticized-
Meditation on Brahman destroys
samcita-karman at once and prarabdha-karman
only at death.
Utkranti or ascent to the Absolute: The
theory of ascent to Karya Brahman or
effected Brahman as held by Badari refuted
--Two kinds of mukti: sadyo-mukti and krama-mukti
or immediate and progressive realization
of Brahman-Mukti as self-realization
by self-transcendence-eEkibhava not
svarupa-aikya or identity or visista-aikya or
inseparability-The nature of mukti explained
in terms of cognition, conation and feeling
--Comparison with western mysticism.
BOOK II
PART I. OTHER SCHOOLS OF BHEDABHEDA
I. THE PHILOSOPHY OF YADAVAPRAKASA143-51
His bhasya on the Sutra-s lost-References
to it by Ramanuja and Vedanta Desika-
The two schools of Bhedabheda of Bhaskara
and Yadava compared: the former is aupadhika
and the latter svabhavika-- Identity and
difference equally real and eternal as
in the causal and generic relation-His
ontology-Reality is bhinnabhinna-Brahman
or Being is-The Absolute is God and the
finite centres-Creation is the self-expression
of Brahman: Brahmaparinama-Thought immanent,
He is transcendental-Bondage
due to bodily feeling and sense of finitude
-jnana-karma-samuccaya, the chief means to
mukti-is the return of the finite to the infinite, in which it sheds its exclusiveness
and becomes an eternal element of Brahman
in the bhedabheda relation and not one with
Brahman as in Bhaskara
II. THE PHILOSOPHY OF BHARTRPRAPANCA152-54
Reality is bhedabheda as substance and modes
-Brahman is Isvara, the Jiva and the
physical world-Dvaitavada reconciles pluralism
and monism-aParinamavada-jnana-
karma-samuccaya,
the chief meant to mukti-
The modal manifestations of the Absolute
as Isvara, the jiva and matter-mukti is the
apprehension of Brahman and attaining unity
with Him
III. THE PHILOSOPHY OF NIMBARKA 155-63
It is midway between the Svabhavika Bhedabheda
of Yadava and Ramanuja's Visista-
dvaita-In its abheda aspect Brahman is
self-related and in the bheda aspect it is the
jiva or bhoktr or the subject of experience
and acit or the bhogya or the object of experience
--His sakti emanates into the universe
without losing its perfection-Brahman,
the Absolute, or Radha-Krsna, the God of
bhakti-The jiva as an amsa of Brahman or an entity or mode in the relation of bhinnabhinna with Him-Prakrti has an immaterial
or aprakrta form in Paramapada as in Ramanuja
-Bhakti and prapatti the chief means to
mukti; in mukti the jiva attains brahmabhava
or samya and there is abhinna in essence
and bhinna in existence
IV. ACINTYA BHEDABHEDA OF SRI
KRSNA CAITANYA
164-66
Nearer theism than the previous schools
of Bhedabheda-Brahman is Radhakrsna
and is and has infinite auspicious qualities,
sakti-s and bewitching form of Beauty owing
to the relation of bhedabheda between substance
and qualities and dehin and deha-
By His sakti He becomes cit and acit and
by His chief sakti called hiddini-sakti He
imparts His beauty and bliss to the devotee,
His beloved-The world, the eternal sport
of Krsna-The chief means to mukti is
madhurabhava and the goal of life is bhakti
rather than mukti in which the Lord of Love
and the beloved are one in essence or bliss
though dual in existence-Bhedabheda is
thus eternal though logically inconceivable,
acintya.
V. SAKTAISM167-72
As the philosophy of Siva-Sakti, it harmonizes
monism and pluralism in terms of
Bhedabheda-Sakti the finitizing principle
of Siva, is inherent in Him. Siva is static
and Sakti is dynamic and the One becomes
the many. The whole is the part and yet is
the whole-Sakti sleeps in the stone and wakes
up in the mumuksu. Dust becomes deity
by yoga-The goal of life is the attainment
of Siva-Sakti which is Dvaitadvaita, midway
between Samkara's Advaita and Ramanuja's
theism. The logical highest in the intuitional
Highest-Saktaism opposed to the pan-illusionism
and the pan-realism of other Vedantin-s.
Its affinity to Bhedabheda
VI. A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE
SUTRA-S
173-85
Varieties of Vedantic philosophy based on the
Sutra-s and the teachings of Vedantin-s
referred to in them-Crucial texts dealing
with the sat, anandamaya, ananyatva, avasthiteh,
amsa, ubhayalinga
and avibhagaexpounded
by each Acarya in his own way-Advaita
of Samkara deals with Nirguna Brahman,
vivartavada, jnanayoga and jivanmukti--Visista-
dvaita of Ramanuja treats of aprthaksiddha-
visesana, satkaryavada,
Brahman as saririn, bhakti
and prapatti and arciradi-gati-Aupadhika
Bhedabhedavada of Bhaskara expounding
the nature of Saguna Brahman, upadhi-s,
brahmaparinama, jnana-karma-samuccaya
and ekibhava and sadyo-mukti-Svabhavika Bhedabheda
of Yadava and Nimbarka and also
of Bhartrprapanca, Acintya Bhedabheda of
Caitanya: Saktaism-The different interpretations
of certain important Adhikarana-s
of the Vedanta-sutra-s.
VII. MODERN INTERPRETATIONS OF
THE VEDANTA
186-96
Deussen, Thibaut and Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
deal with it as philosophy and not theology.
Deussen's view of Advaita as paravidya or esoteric Vedanta expounding Nirguna Brahman,
maya and jivanmukti. His theory of
upadhi-s, monism and the synthesis of
Vedantic monism and Christian ethics and
mystic union is more allied to Bhedabheda
than to Advaita-Thibaut claims to be an
unbiassed expositor of Sutra-s and concludes
that the Sutra-s support Ramanuja and that
the Upanisad-s support Samkara. His view
of the self emanating from Brahman and
merging into it fits in with Bhedabheda.
Dissatisfied with Samkara and Ramanuja he
drifts into Bhedabheda-Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
supports Samkara but rejects the illusion
theory and monistic identity. Advaita denies
difference but does not affirm identity.
Brahman underlies all things from dust to
deity. It is the real in itself, the intuitional
Highest; not the real for thought
or the logical Highest of Ramanuja and
Hegel. Mukti is not the abolition of plurality
but the abolition of the sense of plurality and
egoistic outlook. In his criticism of illusionism
and theism he seems to come into line
with Bhedabheda.
PART II. CRITICISM AND WESTERN PARALLELS
VIII. ADVAITIC CRITICISM OF
BHEDABHEDA
199-206
In its attempt to mediate between Advaita
and Dvaita, it has antagonized both.
Bhamati's criticism of Bhedabheda as self-
contradictory.
IX. VISISTADVAITIC CRITICISM OF
BHEDABHEDA
207-18
Ramanuja's criticism of Bhedabheda epistemology
in Sribhasya and Vedarthasamgraha-
The bhinnabhinna relation between Brahman
and the world restated in terms of prakara-
prakarin
relation-Brahman and the world:
Yadava's view of Isvara being less than the
Absolute criticized-Bhaskara's distinction
of thesvabhavika-bheda between the acit and
Brahman and aupadhika-bheda between cit and Brahman is untenable. Brahman is
Isvara-The theory of upadhi-s is untenable
as it predicates imperfections to Brahman.
Criticism of the whole theory-Brahma-parinama
also attributes the imperfections of
samsara to Brahman-Criticism of the theory
of the jiva as an amsa of Brahman in the
relation of bhedabheda-The fatal defect of
Bhedabheda is its failure to satisfy moral
distinction-Mukti: Criticism of the theories
of mukti as ekibhava or dvaitadvaita; mukti is not absorption in the absolute or the consciousness
of identity in difference. Vedanta
Desika's refutation of the whole theory-
Bhedabheda on the horns of a dilemma. If it is abheda, it is exposed to the defects of
Advaita; if it is bheda, it is the same as
Dvaita. It should be reoriented as Visista-
dvaita which does full justice to abheda and
bheda in the logical and ethical aspect.
X-XII. PARALLELS IN WESTERN
PHILOSOPHY
219-72
Comparison of western theism, pantheism
and monism with the Vedantic schools of
thought. The essentials to philosophic under-
standing. Vedantic schools more definite
than western systems as proved in the history
of the absolutisms of the West, especially of
Neo-Platonism-Spinoza, Hegel and the
Hegelians-Neo-Platonism with its theories
of emanation and ecstasy as interpreted by
Dr. Caird, Dean Inge, Frank Thilly and
Paul Shorey leans towards bhedabheda of
Bhaskara shading into Visistadvaita-Spinoza's
philosophy of substance, modes as
expounded by John Caird, Joachim, Pollock
and others has more affinities with Yadava's
than with Samkara's or Ramanuja's-Hegelianism
or Panlogism not much allied to
Vedanta and is different from Ramanuja's
view with which it is at times identifies-
Bradley's view of Reality and Appearance
differs from the Vedanta ideas of Brahman
and the intuition of Brahman, though his
method is utilized in destroying theism
and thought-Bosanquet's view of the Absolute
allied to that of Yadava-The Pantheism
of Fichte bears comparison with Bhedabheda
-- Vedanta on the whole different from Pantheism,
Panlogism and absolutism as it posits
the eternity of atman>/i>, the evils ofsamsara and stresses the spiritual relation between
Brahman and atman more than that between
Brahman and the world.
XIII. CONCLUSION273-85
Vedanta as a philosophy of religion avoids
agnosticism and dogmatism. It correlates the
metaphysically supreme with the highest
of ethical religion-Each school has its own
individuality and claims to be the true exposition
of the Brahma-sutra-s--Practical
Advaita is more akin to Visistadvaita than
pure Advaita. The merit of Bhedabheda,
especially of Bhaskara as a corrective to the
subjectivistic tendencies of theism-Its
main defect, the attribution of imperfections
to Brahman-Logical and chronological
transition from Bhaskara and Yadava to
Ramanuja-Vedanta as the fulfilment of
true philosophy and religion brought out in
the Gita.
APPENDIX
I. DIFFERENCE OF INTERPRETATION
OF CERTAIN VEDANTA-SUTRA-S
BY SAMKARA, BHASKARA AND
RAMANUJA
287- 92
II. GLOSSARY293-303
INDEX305-11

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