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The Philosophy of the Upanishads

The Philosophy of the Upanishads


Item Code: IDE423

by Paul Deussen

Hardcover (Edition: 1979)

Oriental Books Reprint Corporation

Language: English
Size: 8.8" X 5.8"
Pages: 433
Price: $22.50   Shipping Free
Viewed times since 2nd Oct, 2008


From the Jacket:

What is that by knowing which everything in this vast universe is known? This question has something or other agitated all thinking persons. The hoary sages of ancient India, after deep and prolonged meditation, discovered the answer that by knowing Atman, the sole reality that sustains the universe, all is known; for the atman creates this universe and enters into it as soul. Atman also termed Brahman, the creator is the supreme soul; atman the created is the individual soul. The entire esoteric fabric of the Upanishads, which number more than a hundred, is woven around two concepts - that of the Brahman and the atman They urge the earnest seeker to strive for Brahma-atma-aikyam (unity of the Brahman and the Atman). As the path to this knowledge is best with perils and sharp as a razor's edge, the adept teachers commencing from such an insignificant trifle as a fig take their pupils through theology, cosmology, psychology and eschatology to that destination where all illusions vanish and the purport of laconic but profound statements like tat tvam as (that art thou), aham brahma asmi (I am Brahman) are realized. Countless philosophers, noteable being Badarayana the author of Brahma-sutras, have sought inspiration from the Upanishads for their system of philosophy.

The unabating popularity of Paul Deussen's The Philosophy of the Upanishads ever since its first publication in 1906 attests to the quality of its contents. This second edition is brought out to reach a wider circle of readers who desire to have a close acquaintance with the philosophy of the Upanishads.


The Second Period of Indian Philosophy, or The Continuance and Close of the Times of the Brahman
Introduction to the Philosophy of The Upanishads
I. The Place of the Upanishads in the Literature of the Veda 1-15
1. The Veda and its Divisions1
2. Brahman, Aranyaka, Upanishad 2
3. The Upanishads of the three older Vedas5
4. The Upanishads of the Atharvaveda7
5. On the Meaning of the word Upanishad 10
II. Brief Summary of the History of the Upanishads16-38
1. The earliest Origin of the Upanishads16
2. The extant Upanishads22
3. The Upanishads in Badarayana and Sankaras26
4. The most important Collection of Upanishads33
III. The Fundamental Conception of the Upanishads and its Significance.38-50
1. The Fundamental Conception of the Upanishads38
2. The Conception of the Upanishads in its relation to Philosophy50
3. The Conception of the Upanishads in its relation to Religion44
First Part : Theology, or the Doctrine of Brahman
On the Possibility of Knowing Brahman54-85
1. Is the Veda the Source of the Knowledge of Brahman?54
2. Preparatory Means to a Knowledge of Brahman60
3. Sacrifice61
4. Asceticism (tapas)65
5. Other Preliminary Conditions70
6. The Standpoint of Ignorance, of Knowledge, and of superior Knowledge in relation to Brahman74
The Search for Brahman85-99
1. The Atman (Brahman) as the Unity85
2. Balaki's Attempts at Explanation87
3. Sakalya's Attempts at Explanation 88
4. Six inadequate Definitions89
5. Definition of the Atman Vaisvanara90
6. Narada's gradual Instruction92
7. Three different Atmans94
8. Five different Atmans97
III. Symbolical Representations of Brahman99-125
1. Introduction and Classification99
2. Brahman as Prana and Vayu101
3. Other Symbols of Brahman111
4. Attempts to interpret the symbolical Representations of Brahman117
5. Interpretations of and Substitutes for Ritual Practice119
IV. The Essential Brahman126-157
1. Introduction126
2. Brahman as Being and not-Being, Reality and not-Reality128
3. Brahman as Consciousness, Thought132
4. Brahman as Bliss (ananda)140
5. Negative Character and Unknowableness of the essential Brahman 146
V. Brahman and the Universe157-179
1. Sole Reality of Brahman157
2. Brahman as the cosmical Principle159
3. Brahman as the psychical Principle166
4. Brahman as a Personal God (isvara)172
Second Part: Cosmology, or the Doctrine of the Universe
VI. Brahman as Creator of the Universe180-201
1. Introduction to the Cosmology180
2. The Creation of the Universe and the Doctrine of the Atman182
3. The Creation of Inorganic Nature186
4. Organic Nature 195
5. The Soul of the Universe (Hiranyayarbha, Brahman)198
Brahman as Preserver and Ruler202-219
1. Brahman as Preserver of the Universe202
2. Brahman as the Ruler of the Universe206
3. Freedom and Constraint of the Will208
4. Brahman as Providence211
5. Cosmography of the Upanishads214
VIII. Brahman as Destroyer of the Universe219-226
1. The Kalpa Theory of the later Vedanta219
2. Return of Individuals into Brahman221
3. Return of the Universe as a Whole into Brahman223
4. On the Origin of the Doctrine of the Dissolution of the Universe in Brahman225
IX. The Unreality of Universe226-239
1. The Doctrine of Maya as the Basis of all Philosohy226
2. The Doctrine of Maya in the Upanishads228
3. The Doctrine of Maya as it is presented under empirieal Forms235
X. The Origin of the Saskhya System239-255
1. Brief Survey of the Doctrine of the Sankhya239
2. Origin of Dualism244
3. Origin of the Evolutionary Series246
4. Origine of the Doctrine of the Gunas250
5. Origin of the Doctrine of Emancipation253
Third Part: Psychology, or the Doctrine of the Soul
XI. The Supreme and the Individual Souls256-263
1. The Theory of the later Vedanta256
2. Originally only one Soul257
3. The Individual Souls by the side of the Supreme258
4. Reasons for the Assumption of Bodily Form261
The Organs of the Soul263-296
1. Later View 263
2. The Atman and the Organs265
3. Manas and the ten Indriyas271
4. The Prana and its five Varieties274
5. The Subtle Body and its ethical Qualification280
6. Physiological Conclusion from the Upanishads283
XIII. The States of the Soul296-312
1. The Four States296
2. The Waking State300
3. Dream-sleep302
4. Deep Sleep 305
5. The Turya309
Fourth Part: Eschatology, or the Doctrine of Transmigration and Emancipation, Including the Way Thither (Practical Philosophy)
XIV. Transmigration of the Soul313-338
1. Philosophical Significance of the Doctrine of Transmigration313
2. Ancient Vedic Eschatology317
3. The Germs of the Doctrine of Transmigration324
4. Origin of the Doctrine of Transmigration328
5. Further Development of the Doctrine of Transmigration332
XV. Emancipation338-361
1. Significance of the Doctrine of Emancipation338
2. Origin of the Doctrine of Emancipation340
3. The Knowledge of the Atman is Emancipation. Characteristics of those who are emancipated344
4. The Doctrine of Emancipation in Empirical Form355
Practical Philosophy361-395
1. Introduction 361
2. Ethics of the Upanishads364
3. The Sannyasa373
4. The Yoga 382
XVII. Retrospect of the Upanishads and their Teaching396-412
1. Introduction396-412
2. Idealism as the fundamental Conception of the Upanishads398
3. Theology (Doctrine of Brahman or the Atman)401
4. Cosmology and Psychology405
5. Eschatology (Transmigration and Emancipation)408
Index I. Subjects413
Index II. References418

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