Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
Your interests (Optional)
This will help us make recommendations and send discounts and sale information at times.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
.
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address info@exoticindia.com.

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
|6
Your Cart (0)
Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend
Books > Hindu > The Physics of Vaisesika
Displaying 238 of 7245         Previous  |  NextSubscribe to our newsletter and discounts
The Physics of Vaisesika
Pages from the book
The Physics of Vaisesika
Look Inside the Book
Description
About the Book

The origin of basic classical physical is usually attributed to the west from about 16th or 17th Century A.D. However, the great monuments all over the world provide the evidence which demonstrates the knowledge of basic classical physics it is not possible to execute such engineering feats.

What was the basic framework of classical physics of ancient Indian origin? The earliest reference to the principals of Physics is found in Vaiseshika Darshana, one of the six schools of India philosophy known as the Six Darshanas. The vaiseshika sutras of Kanada are the earliest khown source of discussion and analysis on the basic principles of classical physics. In this book an attempt is made to bring out the clear exposition of ancient classical physics, in terms of the three states of matter and various forms of energy with the qualitative description of their properties. The description of various laws of physics, as various types of motion, gravitation, electricity, magnetism and other force are all available in vaiseshika. The atomic theory of kanada is his highest contribution to ancient physics.

Introduction

Vaisesika of Kanada, one of the six schools of Indian philosophical thought (the other five being Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Purvamimamsa and Uttaramimamsa or Vedanta), concerns itself with the Physical Reality. It deals with the characteristics of the physical entities, their properties, their interactions, including forces and motions of various types. Vaisesika is called Padarthasastra or the Science of substances or material entities. It concerns itself with the modelling of the physical world in terms of its own laws of - fundamental physical entities, physical behaviour, finally culminating in the Atomic theory of the Universe. As basic Physics, Vaisesika formed the foundation of ancient applied sciences as Ayurveda (Medicine) and Silpasistra (Engineering).

Modem Science or Western Science, originating in Europe during 17th Century comprises many branches. Among the large number of branches of Science, Physics is commonly identified as the most exact. Physics is the study of the physical world, in all its forms and manifestations. Physics depends largely on Mathematics, as a tool for analysis. The quantitative aspects of the physical world are expressed in mathematical form - thereby enabling Physics to describe the physical phenomena in the most exact manner. Thus, Physics is the most exact of all the sciences.

Physics deals with the most fundamental entities of the physical world - Matter, Energy, Space and Time. All the sciences concern themselves with the physical world, whose building blocks (e.g. molecules, atoms, particles) are the subject of Physics. Thus, Physics is the most fundamental and exact of all sciences in the modem times. Physics has two parts: the Classical Physics and the Modem Physics. In the present context we are largely focusing only on the Classical Physics, on historical grounds.

While the Vedas contained knowledge of all subjects, Vaisesika is the branch of knowledge (Veda) corresponding to the physical world in the ancient times. Vaisesikadarsana is the oldest known text of a science which deals with physical world - in other words "Physics". Physics is the science of the physical world of the modem times and Vaisesikadarsana is the science of the physical world of the ancient times. Both Physics and Vaisesikadarsana have a single common interest i.e., the physical world. The constituent entities of the physical world, their qualitia (or properties) and their interactions (including force and motion) - these are the subjects common to Physics on one hand and the Vaisesikadarsana on the other. The title of the book "The Physics of Vaisesika" indicates that this book concerns itself with those aspects of Vaisesika system, which are concerned with the science of the physical world i.e., Physics.

As the first step in the development of any science is the identification of fundamental categories, Vaiseikasutras of kanada model the Physical Reality in terms of six fundamental categories of substances or entities: (l) Dravyas (physical substances in their atomic form); (2) Gunas (their properties) and (3) Karma (Motion) along with associated fundamental abstractions of (4) Samanya (generalization); (5) Visesa (specialization) and (6) Samavaya (Inherence) (though later scholars enhanced upto 7 or even 10 categories). Thus, "The Physics of Vaisesika" brings out the Physics in Vaisesikadarsana. Among 10 chapters of the Vaisesikadarsana only the first five, which are dealing with the subject of interest to Physics are covered in this book (in the fifth chapter we stop at a point where the discussions relating to the phenomena of the physical world end).

In five chapters, Vaisesika's view of the physical world is brought out clearly. It comprises the fundamental entities (Matter, Energy, Space and Time), their interactions through various forces (gravitation, electricity, magnetism, etc.), various types of motion in various states of matter. Vaisesika models the physical world in terms of the eternal atoms as the ultimate building blocks of the Universe - Atomic theory which continued till 18th century.

While historians of science were generally unaware of the contribution of ancient India to Physics, historically Vaisesika was merged, quite unfairly, with Nyaya (or Logic). While it is true that they both together have a lot in common, Vaisesika, the science of the physical world or Physics itself of the ancient world, had its own independent and exclusive status, which had been sometimes denied by the logicians (especially of the middle ages). While Nyaya concerns itself with epistemology or the earls of acquisitin of valid know- ledge, Vaisesika concerns itself with the ontological aspects- the constituents of the Universe itself. Sankhya also deals with the fundamental categories (as they arise in the space of mind) and therefore has some correspondence with Vaisesika (in the physical world).

While the Vaisesikasutras of Kanada are of very great antiquity of a period of very remote time (belonging to post Vedic but Pre-Puranic age), what is usually known as the "sutra Period", its extant commentaries belong to a period of recent origin (in the last two thousands of years only). Even though the time period of Kanada's Vaisesikasutras is not known with certainity, a Chinese tradition describes Kanada being of great antiquity of atleast about a millennium before Buddha.

Unfortunately, the series of successive commentaries of the earlier periods are not available to us anymore. There was a large time interval between original Vaisesikasutras of Kanada and the commentaries starting with Prasastapada (estimated 5th Century A.D.) (Who also had names as Prasasta Mati, Prasasta Deva, Prasastakara Deva, etc.). While we lost, most of the early commentaries (including one "Katandi", one Vrtti by Bharadwaja and one commentary by Ravana), the earliest text we have with us today is Prasastapada's own text known as "Padartha Dharma Sangrahah".

Foreword

It is with great pleasure that I am writing this foreword to C.S.R. Prabhu's The Physics of Vaisesika. It consists of the translation of Kanada's sutras together with a commentary. This book fulfills the great need since the Vaisesika, which represents the earliest physics, is not well known to the Indian scientific community. The Vaisesika is a starting point that is somewhat different from Western physics in as much that it includes the observer in the framework.

In the Indian tradition, the six Darsanas are the cognitive windows through which one perceives reality. Of these, two are atomic perspectives of logic (Nyaya) and matter (Vaisesika); a further two are analysis and synthesis of creation at the physical (Sankhya) and psychological levels (Yoga); and the last two are analysis of lived life (Mimamsa) and the cosmos (Vedanta).

The Vaisesika defines seven categories of experience: substance, quality, action, universality, particularity, relation, and nonexistence. Each atom in the Vaisesika possesses size and mass and is distinct from every other atom. Atoms can vibrate in groups and form dyads, triads and so on, until the combinations reach a diameter of one-millionth of an inch, at which state the substances can be identified as earth, or air, or fire, or water. The atom is point-like, for it could be sub-divided otherwise.

The Vaisesika has categories not only for space-time- matter but also for attributes related to perception of matter. It starts with six nameable and knowable categories (Padarthas). The categories are: Dravya (substance), Guna (quality), Karma (motion), Samanya (Universal), Visesa (particularity), and Samavaya (inherence). The first three of these have objective existence and the last three are a product of abstraction and intellectual discrimination.

The Universals (Samanya) are recurrent generic properties in substances, qualities, and motions. The particularities (Visesa) reside exclusively in the eternal, non-composite substances, that is, in the individual atoms, souls, and minds, and in the unitary substances ether, space, and time. Samavaya is the relationship between entities that exist at the same time. It is the binding amongst categories that makes it possible for us to synthesize our experience.

The mind associates the non-substance categories with the substance. By doing so, it makes the observer central to the scheme. If there were no sentient beings in the universe then there would be no need for these categories.

Sample Pages









The Physics of Vaisesika

Item Code:
NAJ101
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2014
ISBN:
9789381887264
Language:
Sanskrit Text With Word-to-Word Meaning English Translation
Size:
8.5 inch X 5.5 inch
Pages:
148
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 200 gms
Price:
$25.00
Discounted:
$20.00   Shipping Free
You Save:
$5.00 (20%)
Look Inside the Book
Add to Wishlist
Send as e-card
Send as free online greeting card
The Physics of Vaisesika

Verify the characters on the left

From:
Edit     
You will be informed as and when your card is viewed. Please note that your card will be active in the system for 30 days.

Viewed 1036 times since 7th Aug, 2017
About the Book

The origin of basic classical physical is usually attributed to the west from about 16th or 17th Century A.D. However, the great monuments all over the world provide the evidence which demonstrates the knowledge of basic classical physics it is not possible to execute such engineering feats.

What was the basic framework of classical physics of ancient Indian origin? The earliest reference to the principals of Physics is found in Vaiseshika Darshana, one of the six schools of India philosophy known as the Six Darshanas. The vaiseshika sutras of Kanada are the earliest khown source of discussion and analysis on the basic principles of classical physics. In this book an attempt is made to bring out the clear exposition of ancient classical physics, in terms of the three states of matter and various forms of energy with the qualitative description of their properties. The description of various laws of physics, as various types of motion, gravitation, electricity, magnetism and other force are all available in vaiseshika. The atomic theory of kanada is his highest contribution to ancient physics.

Introduction

Vaisesika of Kanada, one of the six schools of Indian philosophical thought (the other five being Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Purvamimamsa and Uttaramimamsa or Vedanta), concerns itself with the Physical Reality. It deals with the characteristics of the physical entities, their properties, their interactions, including forces and motions of various types. Vaisesika is called Padarthasastra or the Science of substances or material entities. It concerns itself with the modelling of the physical world in terms of its own laws of - fundamental physical entities, physical behaviour, finally culminating in the Atomic theory of the Universe. As basic Physics, Vaisesika formed the foundation of ancient applied sciences as Ayurveda (Medicine) and Silpasistra (Engineering).

Modem Science or Western Science, originating in Europe during 17th Century comprises many branches. Among the large number of branches of Science, Physics is commonly identified as the most exact. Physics is the study of the physical world, in all its forms and manifestations. Physics depends largely on Mathematics, as a tool for analysis. The quantitative aspects of the physical world are expressed in mathematical form - thereby enabling Physics to describe the physical phenomena in the most exact manner. Thus, Physics is the most exact of all the sciences.

Physics deals with the most fundamental entities of the physical world - Matter, Energy, Space and Time. All the sciences concern themselves with the physical world, whose building blocks (e.g. molecules, atoms, particles) are the subject of Physics. Thus, Physics is the most fundamental and exact of all sciences in the modem times. Physics has two parts: the Classical Physics and the Modem Physics. In the present context we are largely focusing only on the Classical Physics, on historical grounds.

While the Vedas contained knowledge of all subjects, Vaisesika is the branch of knowledge (Veda) corresponding to the physical world in the ancient times. Vaisesikadarsana is the oldest known text of a science which deals with physical world - in other words "Physics". Physics is the science of the physical world of the modem times and Vaisesikadarsana is the science of the physical world of the ancient times. Both Physics and Vaisesikadarsana have a single common interest i.e., the physical world. The constituent entities of the physical world, their qualitia (or properties) and their interactions (including force and motion) - these are the subjects common to Physics on one hand and the Vaisesikadarsana on the other. The title of the book "The Physics of Vaisesika" indicates that this book concerns itself with those aspects of Vaisesika system, which are concerned with the science of the physical world i.e., Physics.

As the first step in the development of any science is the identification of fundamental categories, Vaiseikasutras of kanada model the Physical Reality in terms of six fundamental categories of substances or entities: (l) Dravyas (physical substances in their atomic form); (2) Gunas (their properties) and (3) Karma (Motion) along with associated fundamental abstractions of (4) Samanya (generalization); (5) Visesa (specialization) and (6) Samavaya (Inherence) (though later scholars enhanced upto 7 or even 10 categories). Thus, "The Physics of Vaisesika" brings out the Physics in Vaisesikadarsana. Among 10 chapters of the Vaisesikadarsana only the first five, which are dealing with the subject of interest to Physics are covered in this book (in the fifth chapter we stop at a point where the discussions relating to the phenomena of the physical world end).

In five chapters, Vaisesika's view of the physical world is brought out clearly. It comprises the fundamental entities (Matter, Energy, Space and Time), their interactions through various forces (gravitation, electricity, magnetism, etc.), various types of motion in various states of matter. Vaisesika models the physical world in terms of the eternal atoms as the ultimate building blocks of the Universe - Atomic theory which continued till 18th century.

While historians of science were generally unaware of the contribution of ancient India to Physics, historically Vaisesika was merged, quite unfairly, with Nyaya (or Logic). While it is true that they both together have a lot in common, Vaisesika, the science of the physical world or Physics itself of the ancient world, had its own independent and exclusive status, which had been sometimes denied by the logicians (especially of the middle ages). While Nyaya concerns itself with epistemology or the earls of acquisitin of valid know- ledge, Vaisesika concerns itself with the ontological aspects- the constituents of the Universe itself. Sankhya also deals with the fundamental categories (as they arise in the space of mind) and therefore has some correspondence with Vaisesika (in the physical world).

While the Vaisesikasutras of Kanada are of very great antiquity of a period of very remote time (belonging to post Vedic but Pre-Puranic age), what is usually known as the "sutra Period", its extant commentaries belong to a period of recent origin (in the last two thousands of years only). Even though the time period of Kanada's Vaisesikasutras is not known with certainity, a Chinese tradition describes Kanada being of great antiquity of atleast about a millennium before Buddha.

Unfortunately, the series of successive commentaries of the earlier periods are not available to us anymore. There was a large time interval between original Vaisesikasutras of Kanada and the commentaries starting with Prasastapada (estimated 5th Century A.D.) (Who also had names as Prasasta Mati, Prasasta Deva, Prasastakara Deva, etc.). While we lost, most of the early commentaries (including one "Katandi", one Vrtti by Bharadwaja and one commentary by Ravana), the earliest text we have with us today is Prasastapada's own text known as "Padartha Dharma Sangrahah".

Foreword

It is with great pleasure that I am writing this foreword to C.S.R. Prabhu's The Physics of Vaisesika. It consists of the translation of Kanada's sutras together with a commentary. This book fulfills the great need since the Vaisesika, which represents the earliest physics, is not well known to the Indian scientific community. The Vaisesika is a starting point that is somewhat different from Western physics in as much that it includes the observer in the framework.

In the Indian tradition, the six Darsanas are the cognitive windows through which one perceives reality. Of these, two are atomic perspectives of logic (Nyaya) and matter (Vaisesika); a further two are analysis and synthesis of creation at the physical (Sankhya) and psychological levels (Yoga); and the last two are analysis of lived life (Mimamsa) and the cosmos (Vedanta).

The Vaisesika defines seven categories of experience: substance, quality, action, universality, particularity, relation, and nonexistence. Each atom in the Vaisesika possesses size and mass and is distinct from every other atom. Atoms can vibrate in groups and form dyads, triads and so on, until the combinations reach a diameter of one-millionth of an inch, at which state the substances can be identified as earth, or air, or fire, or water. The atom is point-like, for it could be sub-divided otherwise.

The Vaisesika has categories not only for space-time- matter but also for attributes related to perception of matter. It starts with six nameable and knowable categories (Padarthas). The categories are: Dravya (substance), Guna (quality), Karma (motion), Samanya (Universal), Visesa (particularity), and Samavaya (inherence). The first three of these have objective existence and the last three are a product of abstraction and intellectual discrimination.

The Universals (Samanya) are recurrent generic properties in substances, qualities, and motions. The particularities (Visesa) reside exclusively in the eternal, non-composite substances, that is, in the individual atoms, souls, and minds, and in the unitary substances ether, space, and time. Samavaya is the relationship between entities that exist at the same time. It is the binding amongst categories that makes it possible for us to synthesize our experience.

The mind associates the non-substance categories with the substance. By doing so, it makes the observer central to the scheme. If there were no sentient beings in the universe then there would be no need for these categories.

Sample Pages









Post a Comment
 
Post Review
Post a Query
For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy

Related Items

Quotations from Nyaya Vaisesika Texts (Sanskrit Text with English Translation) - Arranged Subjectwise
by Dr. Shashi Prabha Kumar
Hardcover (Edition: 2001)
Delhi Sanskrit Academy
Item Code: NZA098
$40.00$32.00
You save: $8.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Vaisesika Sutra of Kanada (Sanskrit Text with Transliteration and English Translation)
Item Code: NAF255
$10.00$8.00
You save: $2.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Vaiseshika Aphorisms of Kanada
Item Code: NAG312
$40.00$32.00
You save: $8.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Our Family Business (The Great Art of Distributing Srila Prabhupada's Books)
by Vaisesika Dasa
Hardcover (Edition: 2016)
The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
Item Code: NAN983
$30.00$24.00
You save: $6.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies (Set of 20 Books)
Item Code: NAL124
$995.00$796.00
You save: $199.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Arthasamgraha of Laugaksi Bhaskara
Item Code: IDJ551
$25.00$20.00
You save: $5.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Tarkasangraha of Annambhatta (Sanskrit Text, Transliteration, English Translation with Detailed Explanation)
by V N Jha
Paperback (Edition: 2010)
Chinmaya International Foundation
Item Code: NAC895
$20.00$16.00
You save: $4.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Tattva Dipika of Baladeva Vidyabhushan (Light on The Truth)
Item Code: NAL297
$20.00$16.00
You save: $4.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Vedic Physics: Towards Unification of Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity
Item Code: NAB849
$55.00$44.00
You save: $11.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Classical Indian Ethical Thought - A Philosophical Study of Hindu, Jaina and Bauddha Morals
Item Code: IDK360
$30.00$24.00
You save: $6.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
India's Intellectual Traditions
by Radhavallabh Tripathi
Paperback (Edition: 2016)
Sahitya Akademi
Item Code: NAK272
$30.00$24.00
You save: $6.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Jainism: A Concise Encyclopedia
Item Code: NAF306
$70.00$56.00
You save: $14.00 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Hindu Philosophy
Item Code: IDD308
$18.00$14.40
You save: $3.60 (20%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now

Testimonials

Very grateful for this service, of making this precious treasure of Haveli Sangeet for ThakurJi so easily in the US. Appreciate the fact that notation is provided.
Leena, USA.
The Bhairava painting I ordered by Sri Kailash Raj is excellent. I have been purchasing from Exotic India for well over a decade and am always beyond delighted with my extraordinary purchases and customer service. Thank you.
Marc, UK
I have been buying from Exotic India for years and am always pleased and excited to receive my packages. Thanks for the quality products.
Delia, USA
As ever, brilliant price and service.
Howard, UK.
The best and fastest service worldwide - I am in Australia and I put in a big order of books (14 items) on a Wednesday; it was sent on Friday and arrived at my doorstep early on Monday morning - amazing! All very securely packed in a very strong cardboard box. I have bought several times from Exotic India and the service is always exceptionally good. THANK YOU and NAMASTE!
Charles (Rudra)
I just wanted to say that this is I think my 3rd (big) order from you, and the last two times I received immaculate service, the books arrived well and it has been a very pleasant experience. Just wanted to say thanks for your efficient service.
Shantala, Belgium
Thank you so much EXOTIC INDIA for the wonderfull packaging!! I received my order today and it was gift wrapped with so much love and taste in a beautiful golden gift wrap and everything was neat and beautifully packed. Also my order came very fast... i am impressed! Besides selling fantastic items, you provide an exceptional customer service and i will surely purchase again from you! I am very glad and happy :) Thank you, Salma
Salma, Canada.
Artwork received today. Very pleased both with the product quality and speed of delivery. Many thanks for your help.
Carl, UK.
I wanted to let you know how happy we are with our framed pieces of Shree Durga and Shree Kali. Thank you and thank your framers for us. By the way, this month we offered a Puja and Yagna to the Ardhanarishwara murti we purchased from you last November. The Brahmin priest, Shree Vivek Godbol, who was visiting LA preformed the rites. He really loved our murti and thought it very paka. I am so happy to have found your site , it is very paka and trustworthy. Plus such great packing and quick shipping. Thanks for your service Vipin, it is a pleasure.
Gina, USA
My marble statue of Durga arrived today in perfect condition, it's such a beautiful statue. Thanks again for giving me a discount on it, I'm always very pleased with the items I order from you. You always have the best quality items.
Charles, Tennessee
TRUSTe
Language:
Currency:
All rights reserved. Copyright 2017 © Exotic India