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The Poems of Tukarama
The Poems of Tukarama
Description
From the Book

Born in the little village of Dehu. Sixteen miles north-west of Poona, probably in the year 1608 A.D., the poet Tukaram was by caste a Sudra and by occupation a corn retailer.

After a famine brought distress and bankruptcy, he devoted himself to the family God, Vitthoba of Pandharpura. He soon became a well known teacher, and crowds of people were attracted to his Kathas and Bhajans

The circumstances of his death are unknown. The popular account states that he ascended into Heaven in the car of Visnu; a note on the Dehu manuscript of his poems says that Tukoba started on pilgrimage: - and was, apparently, seen no more.

Preface

The translation here offered to the public aims at presenting Tukarama’s poetry in readable English; and accordingly it has not been made on strictly “scientific” principles. Literal translation has often been replaced by accurate paraphrase; and religious expressions peculiar to the Hindu system have been rendered by the nearest equivalents. It is believed this will not mislead a scholar, while others, who might not mislead a scholar, while others, who might take a passing interest in Tuka’s spiritual experiences, will not be repelled from this version by unnatural English.

No attempt has been made to settle the text of Tuka. We have simply followed the edition of S.P. Pandit, published at the Indu Prakash Press in 1869, occasionally preferring an alternative reading in the foot-notes.

The life of Tuka is an abstract of that printed in the same edition. Should I be able to do so, I hope to collect some day all accessible information regarding him, and to publish it along with a study of his poetry. In the meantime I may say, for myself and my collaborator, that we hope critical readers will pardon occasional mistakes in our translation and will treat with consideration cases where they will find we have chosen a rendering which they would have rejected. The many difficulties and obscurities of Tuka’s old Marathi leave ample room for error and difference of opinion.

Contents

THE LIFE OF TUKARAMA 1
I. Autobiography-
(i) Thoughts about the world1 5
(ii) Humility, sin, and misery 13 9
(iii) Prayers19 12
(iv) How he awoke30 16
(v) His own disqualifications38 18
(vi) His motives46 21
(vii) The nature of his mission53 22
(viii) Appeals58 24
(ix) His sense of authority and assurance65 27
(x) A prayer for a pupil 7229
(xi) Consolation and happiness in God74 29
(xii) Admonitions to himself98 38
(xiii) Some incidents in his life101 39
II. DESCRIPTIONS AND INVOCATIONS127 48
III. PANDHARI152 57
IV. DEHU171 64
V. THE NATURE OF GOD-
(i) In Himself172 65
(ii) His relation to the world177 66
(iii) Union with God necessary184 68
(iv) Distinction from God necessary203 74
(v) The all-pervading character of God.214 77
(vi) The universality of God’s grace228 82
(vii) The power237 85
(viii) The power of God’s name259 93
(ix) God’s generosity and condescension282 101
(x) God’s protecting love306 108
VI. THE PROBLEM OF ACTION-
(i) The perplexing aspect of the world.319 113
(ii) The impossibility of escaping our past. 326116
(iii) Nothing is gained by works of law or austerities334 120
(iv) Our faith a reward of merit338 121
VII. THE SENSE OF SIN343 124
VIII. REMONSTRANCES WITH GOD385 138
IX. PRAYERS428 151
X. THE CONDITIONS OF ACCEPTATION486 167
XI. THE NECESSITY OF EXPERIENCE541 184
XII. TRIUMPHANT HAPPINESS573 193
XIII. RAILLERY OF GOD 604 203
XIV. FAITH AND TRUST 614206
XV. THE MORAL IDEAL-
(i) Purity683 224
(ii) Sincerity693 227
(iii) Truthfulness700 229
(iv) Simplicity701 229
(v) Humility702 230
(vi) Peacefulness 705 231
(vii) Perseverance708 231
(viii) The service of others709 232
(ix) General721 236
(x) There are few who attain739 243
XVI. LIFE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF RELIGION740 244
XVII. OUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE WORLD-
XVII. OUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE WORLD-
(i) The problem810 264
(ii) That we should make the most of it812 265
(iii) That we should renounce it840 273
XVIII. THE SAINTS-
(i) Their character888 288
(ii) Their services to men919 298
(iii) The insignificance of caste in comparison of virtue942 304
XIX. APPEALS AND EXHORTATIONS949 307
XX. REBUKE AND ADMONITION-
(i) The evil age 990319
(ii) The obstinacy of the wicked995 321
(iii) Ill-temper and want of charity1005 324
(iv) Pride1013 326
(v) Deceit1015 327
(vi) Greediness1019 328
(vii) Sensuality1033 332
(ix) Hypocritical Professions1039 334
(x) Indifference to religion and churlish conduct to the Saints 1046336
(xi) Various1065 341
XXI. TRUE WORSHIP-
(i) Referring to outward observances1106 354
(ii) Inner qualities are more than outward observances1126 360
XXII. THE USE OF IMAGES IN WORSHIP1143 367
XXIII. FALSE RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCES1155 372
XXIV. OUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS TRADITIONAL FORMS OF WORSHIP1170 378
XXV. AGAINST FALSE TEACHERS AND IMPOSTORS1174 380
XXVII. KRISHNA-
(i) His birth1209 391
(ii) His childhood1211 391
(iii) His amusements with the cowherds1233 397
(iv) How they made a meal together1240 404
(v) How they stole the butter1249 409
(vi) The condescension implied in his conduct1253 411
(vii) Various reflections and comments1263 414
(viii) The passion he inspired in the cowherd damsels1281 419
(ix) How he stole their clothes while they were bathing1308 431
XXVIII. IN PRAISE OF RAMA1309 433
XXIX. ABHANGAS EMPLOYING VARIOUS STORIES FROM MYTHOLOGY1323 438
XXX. ABHANGAS EMPLOING IMAGES FROM GAMES1334 444
XXXI. VARIOUS VILLAGE CHARACTERS1351 454
XXXII. ABHANGAS EMPLOYING THE LANGUAGE OF COMMON OCCUPATIONS1379 469
XXXIII. THE FAITHFUL DEVOTEE DESCRIBED UNDER THE IMAGE OF A PAIK1383 471
XXXIV. WORLDLY COMFORTS DECRIBED UNDER THE IMAGE OF A BLANKET1394 475
XXXV. DEVOTION DESCRIBED UNDER THE IMAGE OF A WOMAN ADDRESSING HER PARAMOUR1405 479
NOTES 485
APPENDIX I. Proper Names 503
APPENDIX II. Ceremonies and Beliefs Referred to By Tukarama 515
APPENDIX III. Certain Classifications which are Referred to by Tukarama 517

The Poems of Tukarama

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Edition:
2007
ISBN:
9788120808515
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Pages:
535
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From the Book

Born in the little village of Dehu. Sixteen miles north-west of Poona, probably in the year 1608 A.D., the poet Tukaram was by caste a Sudra and by occupation a corn retailer.

After a famine brought distress and bankruptcy, he devoted himself to the family God, Vitthoba of Pandharpura. He soon became a well known teacher, and crowds of people were attracted to his Kathas and Bhajans

The circumstances of his death are unknown. The popular account states that he ascended into Heaven in the car of Visnu; a note on the Dehu manuscript of his poems says that Tukoba started on pilgrimage: - and was, apparently, seen no more.

Preface

The translation here offered to the public aims at presenting Tukarama’s poetry in readable English; and accordingly it has not been made on strictly “scientific” principles. Literal translation has often been replaced by accurate paraphrase; and religious expressions peculiar to the Hindu system have been rendered by the nearest equivalents. It is believed this will not mislead a scholar, while others, who might not mislead a scholar, while others, who might take a passing interest in Tuka’s spiritual experiences, will not be repelled from this version by unnatural English.

No attempt has been made to settle the text of Tuka. We have simply followed the edition of S.P. Pandit, published at the Indu Prakash Press in 1869, occasionally preferring an alternative reading in the foot-notes.

The life of Tuka is an abstract of that printed in the same edition. Should I be able to do so, I hope to collect some day all accessible information regarding him, and to publish it along with a study of his poetry. In the meantime I may say, for myself and my collaborator, that we hope critical readers will pardon occasional mistakes in our translation and will treat with consideration cases where they will find we have chosen a rendering which they would have rejected. The many difficulties and obscurities of Tuka’s old Marathi leave ample room for error and difference of opinion.

Contents

THE LIFE OF TUKARAMA 1
I. Autobiography-
(i) Thoughts about the world1 5
(ii) Humility, sin, and misery 13 9
(iii) Prayers19 12
(iv) How he awoke30 16
(v) His own disqualifications38 18
(vi) His motives46 21
(vii) The nature of his mission53 22
(viii) Appeals58 24
(ix) His sense of authority and assurance65 27
(x) A prayer for a pupil 7229
(xi) Consolation and happiness in God74 29
(xii) Admonitions to himself98 38
(xiii) Some incidents in his life101 39
II. DESCRIPTIONS AND INVOCATIONS127 48
III. PANDHARI152 57
IV. DEHU171 64
V. THE NATURE OF GOD-
(i) In Himself172 65
(ii) His relation to the world177 66
(iii) Union with God necessary184 68
(iv) Distinction from God necessary203 74
(v) The all-pervading character of God.214 77
(vi) The universality of God’s grace228 82
(vii) The power237 85
(viii) The power of God’s name259 93
(ix) God’s generosity and condescension282 101
(x) God’s protecting love306 108
VI. THE PROBLEM OF ACTION-
(i) The perplexing aspect of the world.319 113
(ii) The impossibility of escaping our past. 326116
(iii) Nothing is gained by works of law or austerities334 120
(iv) Our faith a reward of merit338 121
VII. THE SENSE OF SIN343 124
VIII. REMONSTRANCES WITH GOD385 138
IX. PRAYERS428 151
X. THE CONDITIONS OF ACCEPTATION486 167
XI. THE NECESSITY OF EXPERIENCE541 184
XII. TRIUMPHANT HAPPINESS573 193
XIII. RAILLERY OF GOD 604 203
XIV. FAITH AND TRUST 614206
XV. THE MORAL IDEAL-
(i) Purity683 224
(ii) Sincerity693 227
(iii) Truthfulness700 229
(iv) Simplicity701 229
(v) Humility702 230
(vi) Peacefulness 705 231
(vii) Perseverance708 231
(viii) The service of others709 232
(ix) General721 236
(x) There are few who attain739 243
XVI. LIFE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF RELIGION740 244
XVII. OUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE WORLD-
XVII. OUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE WORLD-
(i) The problem810 264
(ii) That we should make the most of it812 265
(iii) That we should renounce it840 273
XVIII. THE SAINTS-
(i) Their character888 288
(ii) Their services to men919 298
(iii) The insignificance of caste in comparison of virtue942 304
XIX. APPEALS AND EXHORTATIONS949 307
XX. REBUKE AND ADMONITION-
(i) The evil age 990319
(ii) The obstinacy of the wicked995 321
(iii) Ill-temper and want of charity1005 324
(iv) Pride1013 326
(v) Deceit1015 327
(vi) Greediness1019 328
(vii) Sensuality1033 332
(ix) Hypocritical Professions1039 334
(x) Indifference to religion and churlish conduct to the Saints 1046336
(xi) Various1065 341
XXI. TRUE WORSHIP-
(i) Referring to outward observances1106 354
(ii) Inner qualities are more than outward observances1126 360
XXII. THE USE OF IMAGES IN WORSHIP1143 367
XXIII. FALSE RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCES1155 372
XXIV. OUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS TRADITIONAL FORMS OF WORSHIP1170 378
XXV. AGAINST FALSE TEACHERS AND IMPOSTORS1174 380
XXVII. KRISHNA-
(i) His birth1209 391
(ii) His childhood1211 391
(iii) His amusements with the cowherds1233 397
(iv) How they made a meal together1240 404
(v) How they stole the butter1249 409
(vi) The condescension implied in his conduct1253 411
(vii) Various reflections and comments1263 414
(viii) The passion he inspired in the cowherd damsels1281 419
(ix) How he stole their clothes while they were bathing1308 431
XXVIII. IN PRAISE OF RAMA1309 433
XXIX. ABHANGAS EMPLOYING VARIOUS STORIES FROM MYTHOLOGY1323 438
XXX. ABHANGAS EMPLOING IMAGES FROM GAMES1334 444
XXXI. VARIOUS VILLAGE CHARACTERS1351 454
XXXII. ABHANGAS EMPLOYING THE LANGUAGE OF COMMON OCCUPATIONS1379 469
XXXIII. THE FAITHFUL DEVOTEE DESCRIBED UNDER THE IMAGE OF A PAIK1383 471
XXXIV. WORLDLY COMFORTS DECRIBED UNDER THE IMAGE OF A BLANKET1394 475
XXXV. DEVOTION DESCRIBED UNDER THE IMAGE OF A WOMAN ADDRESSING HER PARAMOUR1405 479
NOTES 485
APPENDIX I. Proper Names 503
APPENDIX II. Ceremonies and Beliefs Referred to By Tukarama 515
APPENDIX III. Certain Classifications which are Referred to by Tukarama 517

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