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A Political and Religious History of Bhutan (1651-1906)
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A Political and Religious History of Bhutan (1651-1906)
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Preface

"A Political and Religious History of Bhutan (1651-1906)" is my second book based on my Ph.D. thesis which covers the period of Chhosi Nyidhen (dual system of government) introduced by Zhabdrung Rinpochhe in 1651 on the eve of hissacred retreat. The period, 1651-1906 is of special importance to our country as the era of practical application of the concept of Chhosi Nyidhen.

The need for such a book was pressed upon my attention from various sources. Therefore, this book has been planned keeping in line with the new syllabus of junior and high schools in Bhutan. The syllabus has undergone numerous changes over the last decade in the process of Bhutanization. The new syllabus includes Bhutanese history and geography, and social studies at all levels. This book is expected to meet the needs of the students of Bhutanese history and social studies.

The book is divided into three parts: Cultural, Political and Religious. The first part covers Bhutanese way of life including social, cultural and political structure. It provides a succint overall view of the country. This part would be useful not only to the students of Bhutanese history but also to the others. Foreigners who would like to know about Bhutan in general will find this book an informative guide.

The second part dealing with the political history covers the era of all the 54 Druk Desis. Each brief biography describes the political career and his contributions towards the implementation of Chhosi Nyidhen.

The third part pertaining to the religious history of the 49 Je Khenpos' era underlines the importance played by religion in Bhutanese society. Je Khenpos and the monastic bodies have always played vital roles in shaping and developing our society. The social, religious and the political structure of our country is based on the inspiration from the Buddhist doctrine and concept of Kyonchhosum (trinity) : Sangye Chhyo-dang Gedun-surn (Buddha, Dharma and Sangha).

While writing this book, I have kept in mind the needs of young students and the readers to have access to stock of accurate facts regarding the main events of Bhutanese history pertaining to the Chhosi Nyidhen (dual system of government) introduced by Zhabdrung Rinpochhe in 1651 in Bhutan. It delineates clearly the roles of the Druk Desi and the Je Khenpo in implementing the dual system.

The dates and events impressed on the minds of a boy or girl of tender age are not easily effaced in later life and hence great care has been taken to avoid any misrepresentation of facts. An attempt has also been made to include in the chronology the exact dates of all important historical events in the light of the best sources available from 747 AD to the present day for the benefit of students of Bhutanese history.

In view of this fact, I have not spared any pains to do this work as thoroughly as the circumstances would permit me. A special attention has also been paid to the spellings of Bhutanese names and usage of Bhuto-English terminology so that the students might not be confused with different spellings and usage adopted.

However, inspite of my best attempts, the book may not be free from typographical errors or mistakes of other kinds. Therefore, I shall feel obliged if teachers using this book can draw my attention to any shortcomings which might come to their notice. It will enable me to up-date the next edition.

The amount of success that I will achieve, it is for the readers to judge, if the students and teachers find this book useful then I shall consider my labours amply rewarded.

My inexpressible thanks are due to several senior officials in the Royal Government of Bhutan who have enthusiastically read my thesis and graciously given their valuable advice, views, comments and suggestions. Among them, I must make special mention of his Excellency Lyonpo Dawa Tsering, His Excellency Lyonpo Dago Tshering, Dasho Perna Wangchen, Dasho Thinley Gyamtsho and late Dasho Rigzin Dorji. I am also grateful to late Dasho Rigzin Dorji without whose help I would not have been able to obtain government clearance to submit the thesis to the university and its publication.

I owe special thanks to Helen Fielding and Sheila Scoby for kindly editing the manuscripts. I do not have words to thank them for their immeasurable help and good counsel. I must thank Mr. Wangdi, Ms. Chetan Zangmo and Ms. Chimi Dolkar for their help in various capacities and my eldest son Chenda Wangchuck for his continuous support in putting the manuscripts in proper shape and designing the jacket. My thanks should also go to my wife Sangay Xam and Mr. S. Mohan, proprietor of Prominent Publishers, Delhi, India for publishing this book.

Contents

Prefacevii
PART 1. BHUTAN: AN INTRODUCTION
Name of Country1
Land2
Dzongkhags4
Mountain Peaks5
Rivers5
Race7
Languages and Dialects8
General Outlook and Customs10
Dress and Jewellery11
Food and Beverages12
Birth13
Marriage13
Death15
Astrology16
Indigenous Medicines17
National Festivals and Sports17
Music and Dance19
Arts and Architecture21
Economy22
Coins, Currency and Postage23
Religion24
Literature27
Education29
Hereditary Monarchy33
PART II. POLITICAL HISTORY
1H.H. Dcsi Umzey Tenzin Drugyel47
2H.B. Dcsi Tenzin Drukda49
3H.H. Desi Chhogyel Minjur Tenpa51
4H.H. Desi Gyalsay Tenzin Rubgye53
5H.H. Dcsi Gedun Chhophcl58
6H.H. Desi Ngawang Tshering59
7H.H. Desi Umzey Penjor60
8H.H. Desi Druk Rubgye61
9H.H. Desi Geshey Ngawang Jamtsho63
10H.H. Desi Gongsa Mipham Wangpo64
11H.H. Desi Zimpon Penjor66
12H.H. Desi Ngawang Gyaltshen66
13H.H. Desi Chhogyel Sherub Wangchuk67
14H.H. Desi Druk Phuntsho69
15H.H. Desi Wangzob Druk Tenzin69
16H.H. Desi Zhidhar70
17H.H. Desi Kunga Rinchhcn71
18H.H. Desi Chhotul Jigme Singye72
19H.H. Desi Druk Tcnzin73
20H.H. Desi Umzey Chapchhab73
21H.H. Dcsi Chhogycl Sonam Gyaltshen74
22H.H. Desi Druk Namgyel75
23H.H. Desi Chhogycl Sonam Gyaltshen76
24H.H. Desi Sangay Tenzin76
25H.H. Desi Umzey Parob77
26H.H. Desi Byop Chhyoda78
27H.H. Dcsi Chhotul Tshulthrim Daba78
28H.H. Desi Zhabdrung Thutul, Jigme Daba79
29H.H. Desi Chholay Yeshey Gyaltshen80
30H.H. Desi Tshaphub Dorji Namgyel81
31H.H. Desi Sonam Drugyel82
32H.H. Desi Gongzim Tenzin Drukda83
33H.H. Desi Chhoki Gyaltshen83
34H.H. Desi Dorji Namgyel84
35H.H. Desi Adab Thinlcy85
36H.H. Dcsi Chhoki Gyaltshcn86
37H.H. Desi Dorji Norbu87
38H.H. Desi Wangchuck Gyalpo88
39H.H. Dcsi Zhabdrung Thutul, Jigme Norbu89
40H.H. Desi Damchho Lhundub90
41H.H. Desi Jamtul Jamyang Tenzin90
42H.H. Desi Kunga Pal den91
43H.H. Desi Phuntsho Namgyel92
44H.H. Dcsi Tshewang Sithub93
45H.H. Desi Kagyud Wangchuck93
46H.H. Desi Tshewang Sithub94
47H.H. Desi Tsondul Pekar94
48H.H. Desi Jigme Namgyel96
49H.H. Desi Kitshao Dorji Namgyel97
50H.H. Desi Chhogyel Zangpo98
51H.H. Desi Lam Tshewang99
52H.H. Desi Gawa Zangpo100
53H.H. Desi Pam Sangay Dorji101
54H.H. Dcsi Chholay Yeshey Ngodub101
PART III. RELIGIOUS HISTORY
1H.H. Je Pekar Jungney108
2H.H. Je Sonam Yozer109
3H.H. Je Pekar Lhundub110
4H.H. Je Dernchho Pekar110
5H.H. Je Zodpa Thinley111
6H.H. Je Ngawang Lhundub112
7H.H. Je Ngawang Thinley112
8H.H. Je Tenzin Norbu113
9H.H. Je Shacha Rinchhen113
10H.H. Je Tenzin Chhogyel114
11H.H. Je Ngawang Thinley115
12H.H. Je Kunga Jamtsho116
13H.H. Je Yonten Thaye116
14H.H. Je Tenzin Namgyel117
15H.H. Je Kunga Gyaltshen118
16H.H. Je Sherub Singye118
17H.H. Je Jamtul Yeshey Dorji119
18H.H. Je Jamyang Gyaltshen120
19H.H. Je Ngawang Chhogyel121
20H.H. Je Chholay Yeshey Gyaltshen122
21H.H. Je Jampe1 Daba122
22H.H. Je Jigme Gyaltshen123
23H.H. Je Jigme Daba124
24H.H. Je Chhoje Shacha Gyaltshen124
25H.H. Je Sherub Gyaltshen124
26H.H. Je Yonten Jamtsho125
27H.H. Je Perna Zangpo126
28H.H. Je Rinchhen Zangpo126
29H.H. Je Perna Zangpo127
30H.H. Je Jampel Jamtsho127
31H.H. Je Yonten Gyaltshen128
32H.H. Je Tshulthrim Gyaltshen128
33H.H. Je Kunga Peljor129
34H.H. Je Shedub Yozer129
35H.H. Je Shacha Gyaltshen130
36H.H. Je Yonten Pelzang130
37H.H. Je Kunga Singye131
38H.H. Je Shacha Gyaltshen131
39H.H. Je Lodyo Gyaltshen132
40H.H. Je Pekar Yozer132
41H.H. Je Ngawang Donden133
42H.H. Je Chhoje Thinley Gyaltshen133
43H.H. Je Tenzin Lhundub134
44H.H. Je Chhoje Thinley Gyaltshen134
45H.H. Je Thinley Jamtsho135
46H.H. Je Darnchho Gyaltshen135
47H.H. Je Sherub Lhundub136
48H.H. Je Jamyang Rinchhen136
49H.H. Je Rigzin Nyingpo137
PART IV
Appendices139
Glossary169
Chronology183
Bibliography237

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A Political and Religious History of Bhutan (1651-1906)

Item Code:
NAM609
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
1995
ISBN:
8186239030
Language:
English
Size:
8.5 inch x 5.5 inch
Pages:
259 (10 B/W Illustrations)
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 330 gms
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Preface

"A Political and Religious History of Bhutan (1651-1906)" is my second book based on my Ph.D. thesis which covers the period of Chhosi Nyidhen (dual system of government) introduced by Zhabdrung Rinpochhe in 1651 on the eve of hissacred retreat. The period, 1651-1906 is of special importance to our country as the era of practical application of the concept of Chhosi Nyidhen.

The need for such a book was pressed upon my attention from various sources. Therefore, this book has been planned keeping in line with the new syllabus of junior and high schools in Bhutan. The syllabus has undergone numerous changes over the last decade in the process of Bhutanization. The new syllabus includes Bhutanese history and geography, and social studies at all levels. This book is expected to meet the needs of the students of Bhutanese history and social studies.

The book is divided into three parts: Cultural, Political and Religious. The first part covers Bhutanese way of life including social, cultural and political structure. It provides a succint overall view of the country. This part would be useful not only to the students of Bhutanese history but also to the others. Foreigners who would like to know about Bhutan in general will find this book an informative guide.

The second part dealing with the political history covers the era of all the 54 Druk Desis. Each brief biography describes the political career and his contributions towards the implementation of Chhosi Nyidhen.

The third part pertaining to the religious history of the 49 Je Khenpos' era underlines the importance played by religion in Bhutanese society. Je Khenpos and the monastic bodies have always played vital roles in shaping and developing our society. The social, religious and the political structure of our country is based on the inspiration from the Buddhist doctrine and concept of Kyonchhosum (trinity) : Sangye Chhyo-dang Gedun-surn (Buddha, Dharma and Sangha).

While writing this book, I have kept in mind the needs of young students and the readers to have access to stock of accurate facts regarding the main events of Bhutanese history pertaining to the Chhosi Nyidhen (dual system of government) introduced by Zhabdrung Rinpochhe in 1651 in Bhutan. It delineates clearly the roles of the Druk Desi and the Je Khenpo in implementing the dual system.

The dates and events impressed on the minds of a boy or girl of tender age are not easily effaced in later life and hence great care has been taken to avoid any misrepresentation of facts. An attempt has also been made to include in the chronology the exact dates of all important historical events in the light of the best sources available from 747 AD to the present day for the benefit of students of Bhutanese history.

In view of this fact, I have not spared any pains to do this work as thoroughly as the circumstances would permit me. A special attention has also been paid to the spellings of Bhutanese names and usage of Bhuto-English terminology so that the students might not be confused with different spellings and usage adopted.

However, inspite of my best attempts, the book may not be free from typographical errors or mistakes of other kinds. Therefore, I shall feel obliged if teachers using this book can draw my attention to any shortcomings which might come to their notice. It will enable me to up-date the next edition.

The amount of success that I will achieve, it is for the readers to judge, if the students and teachers find this book useful then I shall consider my labours amply rewarded.

My inexpressible thanks are due to several senior officials in the Royal Government of Bhutan who have enthusiastically read my thesis and graciously given their valuable advice, views, comments and suggestions. Among them, I must make special mention of his Excellency Lyonpo Dawa Tsering, His Excellency Lyonpo Dago Tshering, Dasho Perna Wangchen, Dasho Thinley Gyamtsho and late Dasho Rigzin Dorji. I am also grateful to late Dasho Rigzin Dorji without whose help I would not have been able to obtain government clearance to submit the thesis to the university and its publication.

I owe special thanks to Helen Fielding and Sheila Scoby for kindly editing the manuscripts. I do not have words to thank them for their immeasurable help and good counsel. I must thank Mr. Wangdi, Ms. Chetan Zangmo and Ms. Chimi Dolkar for their help in various capacities and my eldest son Chenda Wangchuck for his continuous support in putting the manuscripts in proper shape and designing the jacket. My thanks should also go to my wife Sangay Xam and Mr. S. Mohan, proprietor of Prominent Publishers, Delhi, India for publishing this book.

Contents

Prefacevii
PART 1. BHUTAN: AN INTRODUCTION
Name of Country1
Land2
Dzongkhags4
Mountain Peaks5
Rivers5
Race7
Languages and Dialects8
General Outlook and Customs10
Dress and Jewellery11
Food and Beverages12
Birth13
Marriage13
Death15
Astrology16
Indigenous Medicines17
National Festivals and Sports17
Music and Dance19
Arts and Architecture21
Economy22
Coins, Currency and Postage23
Religion24
Literature27
Education29
Hereditary Monarchy33
PART II. POLITICAL HISTORY
1H.H. Dcsi Umzey Tenzin Drugyel47
2H.B. Dcsi Tenzin Drukda49
3H.H. Desi Chhogyel Minjur Tenpa51
4H.H. Desi Gyalsay Tenzin Rubgye53
5H.H. Dcsi Gedun Chhophcl58
6H.H. Desi Ngawang Tshering59
7H.H. Desi Umzey Penjor60
8H.H. Desi Druk Rubgye61
9H.H. Desi Geshey Ngawang Jamtsho63
10H.H. Desi Gongsa Mipham Wangpo64
11H.H. Desi Zimpon Penjor66
12H.H. Desi Ngawang Gyaltshen66
13H.H. Desi Chhogyel Sherub Wangchuk67
14H.H. Desi Druk Phuntsho69
15H.H. Desi Wangzob Druk Tenzin69
16H.H. Desi Zhidhar70
17H.H. Desi Kunga Rinchhcn71
18H.H. Desi Chhotul Jigme Singye72
19H.H. Desi Druk Tcnzin73
20H.H. Desi Umzey Chapchhab73
21H.H. Dcsi Chhogycl Sonam Gyaltshen74
22H.H. Desi Druk Namgyel75
23H.H. Desi Chhogycl Sonam Gyaltshen76
24H.H. Desi Sangay Tenzin76
25H.H. Desi Umzey Parob77
26H.H. Desi Byop Chhyoda78
27H.H. Dcsi Chhotul Tshulthrim Daba78
28H.H. Desi Zhabdrung Thutul, Jigme Daba79
29H.H. Desi Chholay Yeshey Gyaltshen80
30H.H. Desi Tshaphub Dorji Namgyel81
31H.H. Desi Sonam Drugyel82
32H.H. Desi Gongzim Tenzin Drukda83
33H.H. Desi Chhoki Gyaltshen83
34H.H. Desi Dorji Namgyel84
35H.H. Desi Adab Thinlcy85
36H.H. Dcsi Chhoki Gyaltshcn86
37H.H. Desi Dorji Norbu87
38H.H. Desi Wangchuck Gyalpo88
39H.H. Dcsi Zhabdrung Thutul, Jigme Norbu89
40H.H. Desi Damchho Lhundub90
41H.H. Desi Jamtul Jamyang Tenzin90
42H.H. Desi Kunga Pal den91
43H.H. Desi Phuntsho Namgyel92
44H.H. Dcsi Tshewang Sithub93
45H.H. Desi Kagyud Wangchuck93
46H.H. Desi Tshewang Sithub94
47H.H. Desi Tsondul Pekar94
48H.H. Desi Jigme Namgyel96
49H.H. Desi Kitshao Dorji Namgyel97
50H.H. Desi Chhogyel Zangpo98
51H.H. Desi Lam Tshewang99
52H.H. Desi Gawa Zangpo100
53H.H. Desi Pam Sangay Dorji101
54H.H. Dcsi Chholay Yeshey Ngodub101
PART III. RELIGIOUS HISTORY
1H.H. Je Pekar Jungney108
2H.H. Je Sonam Yozer109
3H.H. Je Pekar Lhundub110
4H.H. Je Dernchho Pekar110
5H.H. Je Zodpa Thinley111
6H.H. Je Ngawang Lhundub112
7H.H. Je Ngawang Thinley112
8H.H. Je Tenzin Norbu113
9H.H. Je Shacha Rinchhen113
10H.H. Je Tenzin Chhogyel114
11H.H. Je Ngawang Thinley115
12H.H. Je Kunga Jamtsho116
13H.H. Je Yonten Thaye116
14H.H. Je Tenzin Namgyel117
15H.H. Je Kunga Gyaltshen118
16H.H. Je Sherub Singye118
17H.H. Je Jamtul Yeshey Dorji119
18H.H. Je Jamyang Gyaltshen120
19H.H. Je Ngawang Chhogyel121
20H.H. Je Chholay Yeshey Gyaltshen122
21H.H. Je Jampe1 Daba122
22H.H. Je Jigme Gyaltshen123
23H.H. Je Jigme Daba124
24H.H. Je Chhoje Shacha Gyaltshen124
25H.H. Je Sherub Gyaltshen124
26H.H. Je Yonten Jamtsho125
27H.H. Je Perna Zangpo126
28H.H. Je Rinchhen Zangpo126
29H.H. Je Perna Zangpo127
30H.H. Je Jampel Jamtsho127
31H.H. Je Yonten Gyaltshen128
32H.H. Je Tshulthrim Gyaltshen128
33H.H. Je Kunga Peljor129
34H.H. Je Shedub Yozer129
35H.H. Je Shacha Gyaltshen130
36H.H. Je Yonten Pelzang130
37H.H. Je Kunga Singye131
38H.H. Je Shacha Gyaltshen131
39H.H. Je Lodyo Gyaltshen132
40H.H. Je Pekar Yozer132
41H.H. Je Ngawang Donden133
42H.H. Je Chhoje Thinley Gyaltshen133
43H.H. Je Tenzin Lhundub134
44H.H. Je Chhoje Thinley Gyaltshen134
45H.H. Je Thinley Jamtsho135
46H.H. Je Darnchho Gyaltshen135
47H.H. Je Sherub Lhundub136
48H.H. Je Jamyang Rinchhen136
49H.H. Je Rigzin Nyingpo137
PART IV
Appendices139
Glossary169
Chronology183
Bibliography237

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