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Books > Hindu > The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads: Reprint of Volume 31 and 32 of Harvard Oriental Series (2 Volumes)
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The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads: Reprint of Volume 31 and 32 of Harvard Oriental Series (2 Volumes)
The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads: Reprint of Volume 31 and 32 of Harvard Oriental Series (2 Volumes)
Description
From the Jacket:

The work presents to the student of religion, in objective form and with constant reference to the original sources and to modern discussions, a comprehensive but concise account of the whole of the religion and philosophy of the Vedic period in India.

The work comprises twentynine chapters grouped in five main parts, viz (i) Sources, (ii) God and Demons of the Veda, (iii) Vedic Ritual, (iv) Spirits of the Dead, (v) Philosophy of the Veda. It draws mainly from the original sources. A genuine student of religion and philosophy will find in this work an invaluable and exhaustive store of facts. This monumental work in meant to restore to the Vedic religion its just place in the study of theology.

Preface

It is the object of this work to present to the student of religion in objective form and with constant reference to the original sources and to modern discussions a comprehensive but concise account of the whole of the religion and philosophy of the Vedic period in India. The difficulty of the task lies not merely in the abundance of the original sources which I have had occasion to study in detail in making my translations of the Taittiriya Samhita and the Brahmanas and the Aranyakas of the Rigveda but also in the extreme divergence of view among modern interpreters of Vedic literature. Doubtless it is owing to this cause that the extraordinary value of Vedic religion to the student of religious belief has been so completely overlooked by Sir James Frazer and Professor S. Reinach in their theories of religion and that it has been so gravely misinterpreted by Professor Sir William Ridgeway in his essays on the origin of the Drama. The account of Vedic religion given in this work will I trust do something to restore to that religion its just place in the study of theology.

The writer of such a work must at every turn derive much from his predecessors. An effort has been made to assign to their authors the most important of the theories mentioned but I desire to acknowledge a more general obligation to certain scholars. In the treatment of the mythology I am deeply indebted to Prof. A.A. Macdoneell’s Vedic mythology which is not merely an invaluable and exhaustive storehouse of facts but is distinguished by unfailing sureness and clearness of judgment and I have derived much help from Bergaigne’s religion vedique Hillebrandt’s Vedische Mythologie and Oldenberg’s religion des Veda though I have been unable to follow these authors in the more imaginative of their theories. For the ritual I owe many facts to hille brandt, Sehwab Caland, Henry, Weber and last, but certainly not least to my predecessor Prof. J. Eggeling. In this explanation I fund myself often in agreement with Oldenberg, the brilliansce and charm of whose work in this sphere can hardly be overestimated. I have made free use of the light cast on ritual by other religions and I am conscious of having derived great profit from the works of Dr. L.R. Farnell but neither the totemism of Durkheim or S. Reinach nor the vegetration spirits of Mannhardt and Sir J. Frazer have helped me in my study of the Veda. For the philosophy of the Brahmanas and the Upanisads Levi, Oltremare and Deussen have been of the greatest assistance through the completeness of the collections of material which they have made and the fact that I have found it necessary to refuse to accept Deussen’s main theories must not be taken to indicate any lack of appreciation of the great merits of his work. Max Muller, Whitney Hopkins, Bloomfield and to the untiring labors and accomplished scholarship of Prof. Charles R. Lanman who has added to the many obligations which I owe to him by permiting these volumes to appear in the Harvard Oriental series that monumentum aere pernnius of his unselfhish devotion to the study of the life and literature of India.

CONTENTS

PART I - THE SOURCES
1. The Rigveda and the Aryans1
2. The later Samhitas and the Brahmanas16
3. The later literature27
4. The Avesta and Comparative Mythology32
    1. The Avesta32
    2. Comparative Mythology and Religion36
    3. The origin of religion42
    4. The mingling of races and cultures51
    5. Popular and hieratic religion

55
PART II - THE GODS AND DEMONS OF THE VEDA
5. The nature of the Gods and Demons58
    1. Nature Gods and abstract Deities58
        (a) Anthropomorphism58
        (b) Theriomorphism and the worship of animals61
        © Animatism, Sondergotter, and Abstract Deities63
    2. Fetishism66
    3. Animism and the spirits of the dead71
    4. The term Deva75
6. Vedic cosmology and cosmogony77
7. The interrelation of the Gods86
8. The Great Gods - Celestial95
    1. Dyaus the Father95
    2. Varuna, Mitra, and the Adityas96
    3. Surya, Savitr and Pusan104
    4. Visnu108
    5. Vivavant112
    6. The Acvins113
    7. The Goddess Dawn119
    8. The Moon122
9. The Great Gods - Aerial124
    1. Indra124
    2. Trita Aptya134
    3. Apam Napat135
    4. Ahi Budhnya136
    5. Aja Ekapad137
    6. Mataricvan138
    7. Vayu and Vata139
    8. Parjanya140
    9. The Waters141
    10. Rudra142
    11. The Maruts or Rudras150
10. The Great Gods - Terrestrial154
    1. Agni154
    2. Brhaspati and other forms of Agni162
    3. The God Soma166
    4. The Rivers172
    5. The Earth174
    6. The Sea174
11. The Minor Gods of Nature176
    1. The Rbhus and the Rtus176
    2. The Gandharvas and Apsarases179
    3. Spirits of the Forest, the Trees, the Plants184
    4. Spirits of Agriculture, Pasture, and the Mountains186
    5. Deities of the House188
    6. Divine Implements188
    7. Divine Animals189
    8. Totemism195
    9. The lesser Nature Goddesses197
    10. Constellations and Time Periods200
12. Abstract Deities and Sondergutter203
    1. The Nature of Abstract Deities203
    2. Tvastr and other Agent Gods204
    3. The Creator Gods206
    4. Subjective Deities210
    5. Deified states or conditions211
    6. Aditi and Diti215
    7. The wives of the Gods218
13. Groups of Deities220
    1. Dual Divinities220
    2. Groups of Gods221
14. Priests and Heroes223
    1. The Priests of the fire-cult228
    2. Other ancient Priests226
    3. Warriors228
    4. The First of Men228
15. The Demons231
    1. The Enemies of the Gods231
    2. The Enemies of Man236
16. The Gods and their worshippers

243
PART III - VEDIC RITUAL
17. The ritual in the Rigveda252
18. The nature of the Vedic sacrifice257
    1. The sacrifice as a gift257
    2. The sacrifice as a spell260
    3. The removal of sin by sacrifice and magic264
    4. Communion and sacrament in the sacrifice268
    5. The materials of the sacrifice278
    6. Fire and the sacrifice285
    7. The performers of the sacrifice

289
19. Rites ancillary to the sacrifice300
    1. The consecration300
    2. The Avabhrtha303
    3. Taboos304
    4. The forms of prayer310
At this point occurs the break between Chapters 1- 19 and Chapters 20 - 29
The later group is bound up as Volume 32
20. The sacrifice of the Crauta ritual313
    1. General Characteristics313
    2. Establishment and re-establishment of the fires316
    3. The Fire-god oblation or Agnihotra318
    4. The new-moon and full-moon sacrifices319
    5. The four-month or seasonal sacrifices321
    6. First-fruit sacrifice (agrayana isti) and others323
    7. The animal sacrifice324
    8. The Soma sacrifice326
    9. The Pravargya or hot-milk sacrifice332
    10. The Aikadacina animal offering333
    11. Other forms of Jyotistoma334
    12. Other Soma sacrifices of one day's duration336
    13. The Vajapeya or drink-of-strength339
    14. The royal consecration340
    15. The horse sacrifice343
    16. The human sacrifice347
    17. Other Ahina rites348
    18. The Sattras or sacrificial sessions349
    19. The Sautramani352
    20. The piling of the fire-altar354
    21. The Hotr formulae356
    22. Expiations

356
21. The domestic ritual358
    1. General character of the domestic sacrifices358
    2. The various offerings359
    3. Birth-ceremonies and others366
    4. Studentship369
    5. Marriage

373
22. Magic in the ritual379
    1. The relations of magic to religion379
    2. The nature of Vedic magic380
    3. The removal of hostile influences382
    4. The attraction of beneficial substances and powers386
    5. Mimetic magic388
    6. Divination and ordeal390
    7. The magic spell393
    8. The magic sacrifice396
    9. Yoga practices401
PART IV. - THE SPIRITS OF THE DEAD
23. The abodes of the dead403
    1. The nature of the dead403
    2. The places of the dead406
    3. The transmutation of the dead

415
24. The disposal of the dead

417
25. The cult of the dead425
    1. The living and the dead425
    2. The offerings to the dead in the domestic ritual427
    3. The offerings to the dead in the Crauta ritual429
PART V - THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE VEDA
26. The beginnings of Vedic Philosophy

433
27. The Theosophy of the Brahmanas440
    1. The general character of the Brahmana philosophy440
    2. The highest principle of the universe442
    3. The theory of the sacrifice454
    4. The ethics of the Brahmanas468
    5. Modes of thought and categories

482
28. The Philosophy of the Upanisads489
    1. The origin of the Upanisads489
    2. The extant Upanisads489
    3. The interpretation of the Upanisads507
    4. The problem and conditions of knowledge513
    5. The nature of the Absolute516
    6. The Absolute and the Universe522
    7. Maya and Prakrti - Illusion and Nature529
        (a) Illusion529
        (b) Nature532
        (c) The origin of the Samkhya and Buddhism535
    8. The Supreme and the Individual Souls551
    9. The four states of the Soul567
    10. The doctrine of transmigration570
    11. The way of Salvation581
    12. The ethics of the Upanisads and Yoga584
    13. The significance of the philosophy of the Upanisads

592
29. Greece and the philosophy of India

601
APPENDIX
A. The Age of the Avesta and the Rigveda614
B. The sacrifice of Purusa and the origin of the world619
C. The Aryan conception of the heaven621
D. The drink of immortality623
E. The Indo-European fire-cult625
F. Cremation and burial626
G. The Dravidian element in Indian thought629
H. Pythagoras and Parmenides634
General Index639
Sanskrit Index675


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The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads: Reprint of Volume 31 and 32 of Harvard Oriental Series (2 Volumes)

Item Code:
NAB401
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2007
ISBN:
81-208-0644-1
Language:
English
Size:
9.8" X 6.6"
Pages:
706
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From the Jacket:

The work presents to the student of religion, in objective form and with constant reference to the original sources and to modern discussions, a comprehensive but concise account of the whole of the religion and philosophy of the Vedic period in India.

The work comprises twentynine chapters grouped in five main parts, viz (i) Sources, (ii) God and Demons of the Veda, (iii) Vedic Ritual, (iv) Spirits of the Dead, (v) Philosophy of the Veda. It draws mainly from the original sources. A genuine student of religion and philosophy will find in this work an invaluable and exhaustive store of facts. This monumental work in meant to restore to the Vedic religion its just place in the study of theology.

Preface

It is the object of this work to present to the student of religion in objective form and with constant reference to the original sources and to modern discussions a comprehensive but concise account of the whole of the religion and philosophy of the Vedic period in India. The difficulty of the task lies not merely in the abundance of the original sources which I have had occasion to study in detail in making my translations of the Taittiriya Samhita and the Brahmanas and the Aranyakas of the Rigveda but also in the extreme divergence of view among modern interpreters of Vedic literature. Doubtless it is owing to this cause that the extraordinary value of Vedic religion to the student of religious belief has been so completely overlooked by Sir James Frazer and Professor S. Reinach in their theories of religion and that it has been so gravely misinterpreted by Professor Sir William Ridgeway in his essays on the origin of the Drama. The account of Vedic religion given in this work will I trust do something to restore to that religion its just place in the study of theology.

The writer of such a work must at every turn derive much from his predecessors. An effort has been made to assign to their authors the most important of the theories mentioned but I desire to acknowledge a more general obligation to certain scholars. In the treatment of the mythology I am deeply indebted to Prof. A.A. Macdoneell’s Vedic mythology which is not merely an invaluable and exhaustive storehouse of facts but is distinguished by unfailing sureness and clearness of judgment and I have derived much help from Bergaigne’s religion vedique Hillebrandt’s Vedische Mythologie and Oldenberg’s religion des Veda though I have been unable to follow these authors in the more imaginative of their theories. For the ritual I owe many facts to hille brandt, Sehwab Caland, Henry, Weber and last, but certainly not least to my predecessor Prof. J. Eggeling. In this explanation I fund myself often in agreement with Oldenberg, the brilliansce and charm of whose work in this sphere can hardly be overestimated. I have made free use of the light cast on ritual by other religions and I am conscious of having derived great profit from the works of Dr. L.R. Farnell but neither the totemism of Durkheim or S. Reinach nor the vegetration spirits of Mannhardt and Sir J. Frazer have helped me in my study of the Veda. For the philosophy of the Brahmanas and the Upanisads Levi, Oltremare and Deussen have been of the greatest assistance through the completeness of the collections of material which they have made and the fact that I have found it necessary to refuse to accept Deussen’s main theories must not be taken to indicate any lack of appreciation of the great merits of his work. Max Muller, Whitney Hopkins, Bloomfield and to the untiring labors and accomplished scholarship of Prof. Charles R. Lanman who has added to the many obligations which I owe to him by permiting these volumes to appear in the Harvard Oriental series that monumentum aere pernnius of his unselfhish devotion to the study of the life and literature of India.

CONTENTS

PART I - THE SOURCES
1. The Rigveda and the Aryans1
2. The later Samhitas and the Brahmanas16
3. The later literature27
4. The Avesta and Comparative Mythology32
    1. The Avesta32
    2. Comparative Mythology and Religion36
    3. The origin of religion42
    4. The mingling of races and cultures51
    5. Popular and hieratic religion

55
PART II - THE GODS AND DEMONS OF THE VEDA
5. The nature of the Gods and Demons58
    1. Nature Gods and abstract Deities58
        (a) Anthropomorphism58
        (b) Theriomorphism and the worship of animals61
        © Animatism, Sondergotter, and Abstract Deities63
    2. Fetishism66
    3. Animism and the spirits of the dead71
    4. The term Deva75
6. Vedic cosmology and cosmogony77
7. The interrelation of the Gods86
8. The Great Gods - Celestial95
    1. Dyaus the Father95
    2. Varuna, Mitra, and the Adityas96
    3. Surya, Savitr and Pusan104
    4. Visnu108
    5. Vivavant112
    6. The Acvins113
    7. The Goddess Dawn119
    8. The Moon122
9. The Great Gods - Aerial124
    1. Indra124
    2. Trita Aptya134
    3. Apam Napat135
    4. Ahi Budhnya136
    5. Aja Ekapad137
    6. Mataricvan138
    7. Vayu and Vata139
    8. Parjanya140
    9. The Waters141
    10. Rudra142
    11. The Maruts or Rudras150
10. The Great Gods - Terrestrial154
    1. Agni154
    2. Brhaspati and other forms of Agni162
    3. The God Soma166
    4. The Rivers172
    5. The Earth174
    6. The Sea174
11. The Minor Gods of Nature176
    1. The Rbhus and the Rtus176
    2. The Gandharvas and Apsarases179
    3. Spirits of the Forest, the Trees, the Plants184
    4. Spirits of Agriculture, Pasture, and the Mountains186
    5. Deities of the House188
    6. Divine Implements188
    7. Divine Animals189
    8. Totemism195
    9. The lesser Nature Goddesses197
    10. Constellations and Time Periods200
12. Abstract Deities and Sondergutter203
    1. The Nature of Abstract Deities203
    2. Tvastr and other Agent Gods204
    3. The Creator Gods206
    4. Subjective Deities210
    5. Deified states or conditions211
    6. Aditi and Diti215
    7. The wives of the Gods218
13. Groups of Deities220
    1. Dual Divinities220
    2. Groups of Gods221
14. Priests and Heroes223
    1. The Priests of the fire-cult228
    2. Other ancient Priests226
    3. Warriors228
    4. The First of Men228
15. The Demons231
    1. The Enemies of the Gods231
    2. The Enemies of Man236
16. The Gods and their worshippers

243
PART III - VEDIC RITUAL
17. The ritual in the Rigveda252
18. The nature of the Vedic sacrifice257
    1. The sacrifice as a gift257
    2. The sacrifice as a spell260
    3. The removal of sin by sacrifice and magic264
    4. Communion and sacrament in the sacrifice268
    5. The materials of the sacrifice278
    6. Fire and the sacrifice285
    7. The performers of the sacrifice

289
19. Rites ancillary to the sacrifice300
    1. The consecration300
    2. The Avabhrtha303
    3. Taboos304
    4. The forms of prayer310
At this point occurs the break between Chapters 1- 19 and Chapters 20 - 29
The later group is bound up as Volume 32
20. The sacrifice of the Crauta ritual313
    1. General Characteristics313
    2. Establishment and re-establishment of the fires316
    3. The Fire-god oblation or Agnihotra318
    4. The new-moon and full-moon sacrifices319
    5. The four-month or seasonal sacrifices321
    6. First-fruit sacrifice (agrayana isti) and others323
    7. The animal sacrifice324
    8. The Soma sacrifice326
    9. The Pravargya or hot-milk sacrifice332
    10. The Aikadacina animal offering333
    11. Other forms of Jyotistoma334
    12. Other Soma sacrifices of one day's duration336
    13. The Vajapeya or drink-of-strength339
    14. The royal consecration340
    15. The horse sacrifice343
    16. The human sacrifice347
    17. Other Ahina rites348
    18. The Sattras or sacrificial sessions349
    19. The Sautramani352
    20. The piling of the fire-altar354
    21. The Hotr formulae356
    22. Expiations

356
21. The domestic ritual358
    1. General character of the domestic sacrifices358
    2. The various offerings359
    3. Birth-ceremonies and others366
    4. Studentship369
    5. Marriage

373
22. Magic in the ritual379
    1. The relations of magic to religion379
    2. The nature of Vedic magic380
    3. The removal of hostile influences382
    4. The attraction of beneficial substances and powers386
    5. Mimetic magic388
    6. Divination and ordeal390
    7. The magic spell393
    8. The magic sacrifice396
    9. Yoga practices401
PART IV. - THE SPIRITS OF THE DEAD
23. The abodes of the dead403
    1. The nature of the dead403
    2. The places of the dead406
    3. The transmutation of the dead

415
24. The disposal of the dead

417
25. The cult of the dead425
    1. The living and the dead425
    2. The offerings to the dead in the domestic ritual427
    3. The offerings to the dead in the Crauta ritual429
PART V - THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE VEDA
26. The beginnings of Vedic Philosophy

433
27. The Theosophy of the Brahmanas440
    1. The general character of the Brahmana philosophy440
    2. The highest principle of the universe442
    3. The theory of the sacrifice454
    4. The ethics of the Brahmanas468
    5. Modes of thought and categories

482
28. The Philosophy of the Upanisads489
    1. The origin of the Upanisads489
    2. The extant Upanisads489
    3. The interpretation of the Upanisads507
    4. The problem and conditions of knowledge513
    5. The nature of the Absolute516
    6. The Absolute and the Universe522
    7. Maya and Prakrti - Illusion and Nature529
        (a) Illusion529
        (b) Nature532
        (c) The origin of the Samkhya and Buddhism535
    8. The Supreme and the Individual Souls551
    9. The four states of the Soul567
    10. The doctrine of transmigration570
    11. The way of Salvation581
    12. The ethics of the Upanisads and Yoga584
    13. The significance of the philosophy of the Upanisads

592
29. Greece and the philosophy of India

601
APPENDIX
A. The Age of the Avesta and the Rigveda614
B. The sacrifice of Purusa and the origin of the world619
C. The Aryan conception of the heaven621
D. The drink of immortality623
E. The Indo-European fire-cult625
F. Cremation and burial626
G. The Dravidian element in Indian thought629
H. Pythagoras and Parmenides634
General Index639
Sanskrit Index675


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