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Roga Vijnana and Vikriti Vijnana
Roga Vijnana and Vikriti Vijnana
Description

Introduction

"We have to take note not only the opinions that won – or allegedly won – in the debates, but also of the other points of view that were presented and recorded or remembered. A defeated argument that refuses to be obliterated can remain very alive" (Pageo, Amartya Sen, The Argumentative Indian – Penguin books 2005).

This statement by Dr. Amartya Sen is the inspiration for giving more emphasis to the Ayurvedic notions regarding the health and ill health. The Rogavijnana and Vikriti vijnana is an attempt to unravel the intricacies of the knowledge of diseases and to cognise those from an Ayurvedic point of view. The efforts are made to collect information from available Sanskrit texts and their commentaries, which re arranged appropriately. The C.C.I.M. syllabus has been covered under two heads Ayurveda and Modern. Special efforts are made to clarify the fundamental principles with the help of commentaries like Narasimha bhashya, Pathya, Hridaya bodhika, Vakya pradipika, Madhukosa, Ayurveda dipika, Sasilekha, so as to serve the needs of graduates and post graduate students. An exclusive compilation of explanation (paribhashas) to technical terms from various commentaries is appended to the first chapter. The subject proper genuinely deals on the concepts of Ayurveda without merely restricting to the limits of examination. The explanations to concepts are derived mainly from Padmasri Dr. K. Rajagopalan. The English translation of Madhukosa by Dr G.J. Meulenbeld is really a brain tonic for all who study Rogavijnana and Vikritivijnana and author had tried to emulate his renderings.

The Idea to write a book on Roga vijnana and Vikritivijnana was originally conceived by Dr. Indulal. U and me. The paucity of time did not allow Dr. Indulal. U to continue with this project. I worked on the solid platform laid down by him, and without his direction and the vast compilations; the next would not have got the present shape. Despite my constant pleading, he declined to accept the authorship of the work. It is a real bliss for people like me to come across such pious personalities. I will always be thankful to him of this guidance and blessing for the successful completion of this work. I express my deep gratitude to my grandfather and the first initiator to this great science, late Vaidya vachaspati. P. Mahadeva lyer, Vaidya Kalanidhi, Netrarogavisharad. I take this opportunity to offer my pranams to Dr. A. Raghu, Assistant advisor, Ayush, Govt of India, who taught me Madhukosa tika and Hridaya bodhika, Dr. Jerome. V. Kurian, who introduced me to Indu tika and Narasimha bhasya, Dr. C.P. Ravindran Nair of Sri Dhanwantari math, Dr. G. Syamakrishnan and Dr. Prince Alex for guiding me in learning the clinical methods. I thank Dr. P. Sankaran Nair, Rtd. Principal, Govt. Ayurveda College, Thiruvananthapuram, for providing me copies of Pathya and Padarthachandrika commentaries. It was a privilege to learn the basics of Rogavijnana and Vikriti vijnana under Dr. K. Sankaran, Director, Ayurveda Medical Education, Dr. M.R. Vasudevan Nampoothiri, Principal, Govt. Ayurveda College, Thiruvananthapuram; Dr. R. Sreekumar, Head of the Department, Rogavijnana and Vikritivijnana, Govt. Ayurveda College Thiruvananthapuram; Dr. John. K. George, Head of the Department, Rogavijnana and Vikritivijnana, Govt. Ayurveda College, Kannur and I am also indebted to my teachers. I have no words to express my gratitude to Vaidyabhooshanam K. Raghavan Thirumulpad for inspiring me to under take this endeavour. I thank Dr. K. Chidambharam of Sri Sarada Ayurveda Hospital Nagercoil, Prof. G. Asokan, Dr. M.V. Anil kumar, Dr. S.D. Sreejan, Dr. P.P. Jiggesh, Dr. M. Prasad, Dr. Krishnakumar, Dr. Deepa .B. Nair and Dr. P. Rammanohar, Director, AVATAR, Coimbatore for encouragment to carry out this work. The guidance and motherly affection showered on me during my study by my guide Prof. Dr. A. Jameela Beevi, Head of the Department, Siddantha and Samhita. Govt. Ayurveda College, Thiruvananthapuram, helped me lot in the execution of this work. Sri Arimanoor Paramewaran, an unparalleled scholar in Ayurveda helped me in clarifying various concepts in nidana. This book would have not been completed without the cooperation and guidance of Prof. S. Sasikumaran Unnithan. In this context I gracefully acknowledge my indebtedness to him. Above all it is the constant enthusiasm and cooperation showed by Sri. Sachin Gupta, Sri. Kaushik Gupta and Sri. R. Ratnakara Misra of Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series Office resulted in the completion of this work. I wholeheartedly thank them for their cooperation and I, with full sincerity, acknowledge their patience for bearing the inordinate delay from my side in preparing the manuscript of the text. I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Anithajacob Director Indian Systems of Medicine, Kerala and Dr. P. Skandaswami Pillai, District Medical Officer, Alappuzha and my colleagues for encouraging me to take up this challenge.

I would like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Pavana.J, Dr. Raji.R, Dr. Anija.S and Dr. Vishnu Prasanth for assisting me in writing this book. I express my sincere gratitude to Sri. Srikumar. S, just designs Sharjah, U.A.E. for designing the cover pate of the book. I am also thankful to Sri. Harikumar Agasthyacode, for preparing the photographs of Dr. K. Rajagopalan and Dr. G.J. Meulenbeld. The typesetting in Sanskrit is done by Sri. Radhakrishnan, Top Printers, Thiruvananthapuram. The total layout with typesetting in English is done by Smt. Sindhu Venkatesan of Mano Graphics, Thiruvananthapuram, and I thank her for neat and prompt creation of this book.

The domain of Ayurveda is blessed by the pioneering works of Dr. K. Rajagopalan and Dr. Gerrt Jan Meulenbeld and as mark of respect this humble effort is dedicated at the feet of the great Ayurveda scholar of our time.

Forward

The science of medicine has many facets and compartments, which are interconnected into a complex. Allopathic medicine is at the verge of confession that it is inadequate and distortive to deal with concocted contaminants and serious diseases heretofore unheard of. This fallacy is due to the mere adherence to reductionistic paradigm by the modern medicine. This situation has given a fresh lease of life to all streams of traditional healing arts across the globe. The current situation has accelerated the dissemination of Ayurveda at national and international levels. The world hopes that Ayurveda can open up stirring possibilities to the looming challenges in the maintenance of positive health and care. This hope rests on the fact that empirical methods of Ayurveda are rooted in metaphysical and epistemological concepts of darsanas. The ill fate of Ayurveda is that our customary way of doing things is to concentrate on practice sans fundamental theories. The majority of physicians due to sociopolitical and historical reasons moved away from the basic concepts of Ayurveda and darsanas after the medieval era. Though the present scenario in the Ayurvedic fraternity is different from this, there is still some continuation of this medieval mindset.

The need of the hour is to reorient our approach in the learning process of Ayurveda by intensifying the interconnection of theory and practice. The approach should be rooted on our traditional thinking based on the concepts of Ayurveda and darsanas. This need is emphasised by WHO in its General guidelines for Research in Traditional Medicine 2000, "Some of the objectives specific to the assessment of traditional medicine through clinical are to: evaluate traditional medicine in its own theoretical framework" …. 'Holism is a key element of all systems of traditional medicine. Therefore, when reviewing the literature on traditional medicine (both herbal and traditional procedure based therapies), the theories and concepts of te individual practice of traditional medicine, as well as the cultural background of those involved, must be taken into account'," But this is not an easy job to discern the fundamental principles like learning other skills for they are not mere skills like other empirical narrations. Fully conscious of this fact, it has been tried in the present book to exhibit the theoretical propositions and their pragmatic utility with vigour and high promise. Even though many works on Rogavijnana are these in Hindi and other regional languages (like the one pioneered by Vaidya Ranjithray Desaiji,) the work by Dr. Manoj Sankaranarayana stands out as a pioneering work in English with its extensive compilation of the related subject matter from Brhattrayi and its commentaries, especially from those rare southern Sanskrit commentaries on Astangahridaya. The special emphasis given to Madhukoshatika is also noteworthy. The current presentation of Roga vijnana and Vikriti vijnana based on C.C.I.M. syllabus will be definitely useful for graduate students, postgraduate students, researchers and also serve a handbook of basic concepts of nidana for general clinicians. I congratulate M/s Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series office, Varanasi, to bring out such a nice work. I pray to Lord Dhanvanthari to bestow all virtues in life to Dr. Manoj Sankaranarayana.

From the Jacket

Madhavanidanam of Sri madhavakara with Madhukosa commentary of Vijaya-raksita and Srikanthadatta part – I (1-32 chapters) is translated into English by Dr. P. Himasagara Chandra Murthy a reputed academician in the field of Ayurveda. The subject is presented in all clarity and simplicity to make this work understandable and adoptable to the English-knowing zealots of Ayurveda in particular. The text, as such, is louded for bringing together, vast subject of Ayurvedic diagnostics and presenting in a lucid manner. This translation will take it to the universal level making the work more worthy and useful to the medical field. In fact the expensive diagnostic aspect can be avoided effectively by following the principles laid down in this text.

The addition of Sanskrit – English glossary adds to the utility of this work making it a monumental one. The students, researchers and practitioners will find this as a must for their ready reference at every step. The Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, the publishers have made a worthy attempt in publishing this translation. The author, who has already proved his mite through his translation of Sarangadhara Samhita, deserves all the commendation for his skills in translation and presentation.

Br Dr. Nandini Dilip Dhargalkar

This book strictly covers 'word to word' syllabus by Central Council of Indian Medicine for BAMS course. Each Topic in this book is elaborated in simple English with references from compendia. Learning objectives are given in the beginning of each chapter whereas 'additional comments', which are useful for PG course in this subject as well for scholars and enthusiastic learners are provided at the end of chapter.

Author of this book, Prof. Dr. Nandini Dilip Dhargalkar is awarded Sharadini Dahanukar Best Teacher Award in June 2006. She is seniormost faculty in this subject teaching for twenty-six years. She is examiner, paper setter for Pune University, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka; Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik.

Honorable CCIM President Dr. Mr. Shriram Sharma in his foreword commented on this book as the best book for Ayurvediya Sharira-kriya. The book is enriched with modern physiology as and when required. Extra references have been added of wide reading to achieve deep knowledge of the subject. Latest researchers have been considered while offering additional comments.

This book will suffice and satisfy both teachers of this subject and students of undergraduate as well as postgraduate Courses.

 

Contents

 

Chapter .1 Doshadivijnaniyam 3-164
  Importance of Roga Vijnana and Vikriti vijnana 1
  Doshas and Arogya 5
  Tridoshas 7
  Dosha guna 8
  Vata gunas 9
  Pitta gunas 10
  Kapha gunas 11
  Prakrita karmas of vata 12
  Prakrita karma of kapha 13
  Seats and sub classifications of doshas 15
  Dosha Vriddhi 21
  Vata vriddha lakshanas 22
  Pitta vriddha lakshana 23
  Kapha Kshaya Lakshanas 24
  Dosha kshaya 25
  Vata kshaya lakshana 26
  Pitta kshaya lakshana 27
  Kapha kshaya lakshana 27
  Prakrita karma – vriddhi-kshaya lakshana of dhatus 30
  Prakrita karma – vriddhi-kshaya lakshana of Malas 39
  Prakupitadoshakarani 42
  Asraya Asrayi Bhava of Doshas and Dhatus 50
  Dhatu sthita dosha janita vikarah 52
  Dosha sthana 57
  Roga Margas 59
  Sakha or bahya roga marga 59
  Madhyama rogamarga 60
  Abhyantara roga marga 61
  Significance of Roga margas 61
  Dosha gatis 62
  Movement of Doshas from Kostha to Sakha 63
  Fate of excited doshas in Sakha 64
  Movement of Doshas from Sakha to Kostha 64
  Clinical significance 65
  Shat kriya kala 66
  Sanchaya 67
  Prakopa Kriya Kala 68
  Agni's role in Prakopa 70
  Prasara kriya kala 70
  Prasara linga 71
  Prasara bheda 71
  Sthanasamsraya Kriyakala 72
  Disorders caused based on specific lodgement of vitiated doshas 73
  Vyakti kriya kala 74
  Bheda kriya kala 74
  Ritus and doshas 74
  Chaya of doshas 74
  Prakupita dosha karmas in various disease conditions 78
  Paribhashas for technical terms by various commentators 160
Chapter.2 Vyadhisvarupavijnaniyam 165-226
  Dosha dushya sammurchana 165
  Synonyms of vydhi 169
  Classification of vyadhi 172
  Classification of Bhargava 172
  Classification of Vriddhajivaka 173
  Classification based on the treatment procedure 173
  Classification based on doshic origin of disease 173
  Nanatmaja vyadhis 173
  Samanyaja vyadhis 182
  The two fold classification of Vata vyadhi 185
  Classification based on aetiological factors 185
  Aganturogas 185
  Nijarogas 186
  Classification based on prognosis 186
  Classification based on the intensity of disease manifestation 187
  Classification based on location 187
  Classification based on site of origin in mahakostha 187
  Classification based on origin of diseases 187
  Classification based on based on manasadoshas 188
  Classification as prakrita and vaikrita 188
  Three fold classification – Adhyatmika, adibhoutika and adidaivika 188
  Three fold classification based on Sarira doshas 189
  Three fold classification –based on symptoms 189
  Three fold classification based on dosha and karma 190
  Three fold classification – Aupasargika, Prakkevala, Anya lakshana 191-192
  Three fold classification – Nija, agantu and manasa 192
  Fourfold classification 193
  Fourfold classification based on prognosis 193
  Five fold classification by Rajarishi Dahurvaha 197
  Six fold classification of diseases 197
  Seven fold classification of Hranayaksha 197
  Eight fold classification by Nimi 197
  Seven fold classification – Susruta & Astanga Samgraha 197
  Adibala pravritta 197
  Janma bala pravritta 198
  Bija and bija doshas 199
  Bija bhaga 199
  Bija dushti janya roga 200
  Doshabala pravritta 202
  Sanghata bala pravritta 202
  Kalabalapravritta 202
  Daivabala pravritta 203
  Svabhavabalapravritta 203
  Guruvydhitha and laghuvyadhitha 203
  The innumerability of diseases 204
  Nidanarthakara Rogas 208
  Vyadhisamkara or Combination of diseases 210
  Nidanadharmanthara 210
  Prakritisamasavayayrbdha 211
  Vikritivishmasamavayarbdha 211
  Vyadhiavasthas 212
  Tarunavastha 213
  Madhyamavastha 214
  Jirna or Purana avastha 214
  Uttana avastha 214
  Gambhira avastha 215
  Bahirvegaavastha 216
  Antharvegaavastha 216
  Thikshanaavastha 216
  Dhatugataavastha 216
  Lina avastha 217
  Sama- nirama avasthas 218
  Concepts of ama 220
  Sama rogas 222
  Dosha samata 222
  Rasa samata 222
  Samanya amalaksahana 222
  Sama dhatu lakshanas 223
  Pachyamanaavastha 223
  Dhatupaka and Doshapaka 224
  Sasrayanirasrayavathas 226
Chapter.3 Vyadhikshamatvam 227-237
  Vyadhikshamatvam 227
  Bala 228
  Classification of bala 229
  Sahaja bala 229
  Kalaja Bala 229
  Yuktikrita bala 230
  Ojas 231
  Ojovikritis 233
  Ojovisramsa 233
  Ojovyapath 233
  Ojakshaya 234
  Maha rogas 234
  Upadravas of Maharogas 235
  Asta nindita purushas 236
  Santarpanajanya rogas 236
  Apatarpana janya rogas 237
Chapter.4 Srotovijnaniyam 238-264
  Definitions (sroto svarupam) 238
  The samanya svarupa of srotamsi 239
  Classification of srotamsi 242
  The enumeration of srotas according to Sushruta are 243
  Role of Srotas in dushti 244
  Factors responsible for vitiation of channels 244
  The samanya sroto dushti lakshana 245
  Sroto Mula – Dushti karana – Dushti lakshana 246
  Pranavaha srotas 246
  Udakavaha srotas 247
  Annavaha srotas 248
  Rasavaha srotas 249
  Ratktavaha srotas 251
  Mamsavaha srotas 252
  Medovaha srotas 253
  Asthivaha srotas 254
  Majjavaha srotas 255
  Sukravaha srotas 256
  Mutravaha srotas 257
  Pureeshavaha srotas 258
  Svedavaha srotas 259
  Artavavaha srotas 260
  Indriya pradosaja rogas 260
  Upadhatudoshaja vikaras 263
  Mala pradoshaja rogas 264
Chapter.5 Panchalakshana Nidana 265-312
  Introduction 265
  Nidana 268
  Synonyms 268
  Definition of nidana based on the concept of samprapti 269
  Importance of Nidana in Diagnosis 270
  Classification of Nidana 271
  Classification by Chakrapanidatta 271
  Classification by Chandrata 272
  Classification by Bhattara Harichandra 272
  Classification by Gayadasa 273
  Classification by Arundatta 274
  Classification by Indu 274
  Classification by Madhu kosha kara 275
  Dosha prakopakaranas 279
  Purvarupa 285
  Synonyms 285
  Definition of purvarupa 285
  Samanyapurvarupa 286
  Visishtapurvarupa 287
  Classification of prodromes by Vaidya Vachaspathy 291
  Classification of prodromes by Arunadatta 291
  Classification of prodromes by Chakrapanidatta 291
  Prodromes expressive of the imminent death 292
  Rupa 294
  Synonyms 294
  Definition 294
  Classification of lakshanas by Gayadasa 297
  Narasimha's Classification of lakshanas 297
  Upasaya 298
  Synonyms 298
  Definition 298
  Classification of Upasaya 300
  Samprapti 307
  Synonyms 307
  Definition 307
  Sankhya Samprapati 309
  Vidhi Samprapati 310
  Vikalpa Samprapti 311
  Pradhanya Samprapti 311
  Bala Samprapti 311
  Kala Samprapti 312
Chapter.6 Parikshavidhi 313-386
  Pramana 313
  Aptopadesha 314
  Prathyaksha 316
  Anumana 318
  Upamana 318
  Yukti 319
  Pariksha vidhi 320
  Prakriti 322
  Deha prakriti chart 323
  Vikriti 327
  Sara 327
  Twak sara 328
  Rakta Sara 328
  Mamasa Sara 328
  Medo sara 328
  Asthisara 329
  Majjasara 329
  Sukrasara 329
  Satvasara 329
  Sarvasara 329
  Importance of Sara pariksha 330
  Samhanana 330
  Pramana 330
  Satmya 332
  Satva 332
  Ahara Shakti 333
  Vyayama shakti 333
  Vaya 333
  Trividha pariksha 335
  Darsana 335
  Sparsana 336
  Prasna 336
  Trividha roga vishesha vijnana 336
  Shad vidha pariksha 343
  Ashta sthana Pariksha 345
  Nadi 345
  Mutra 353
  Jivha 359
  Mala/purisha 360
  Netra 363
  Akrthi 365
  Sabda 365
  Sparsa 365
  Arista 366
  Aristas of common disease conditions 373
Chapter.7 Janapadodvamasa 387-391
  Janapadodvamasa 387
 
Part II- Modern
393-577
  Cell 395
  The Genetic factors and the Genetic disorder 400
  Inflammation 403
  Pus formation (Suppuration) 406
  Necrosis 406
  Gangrene 407
  The pathology of various systems 409
  Cardiovascular system 411
  Respiratory system 421
  Gastroenterology 433
  Liver 442
  Spleen 450
  Genito urinary system 452
  Nervous system 471
  Endocrine system 490
  The Immunity/ Host defences 498
  Epidemiology 505
  Classification of the diseases 514
  Method of examining a patient 526
  Basic investigative methods 538
  Blood 538
  Urine 545
  Stool 550
  Instruments 554

Sample Pages













Roga Vijnana and Vikriti Vijnana

Item Code:
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Edition:
2011
ISBN:
9788170802318
Language:
English
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595
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Introduction

"We have to take note not only the opinions that won – or allegedly won – in the debates, but also of the other points of view that were presented and recorded or remembered. A defeated argument that refuses to be obliterated can remain very alive" (Pageo, Amartya Sen, The Argumentative Indian – Penguin books 2005).

This statement by Dr. Amartya Sen is the inspiration for giving more emphasis to the Ayurvedic notions regarding the health and ill health. The Rogavijnana and Vikriti vijnana is an attempt to unravel the intricacies of the knowledge of diseases and to cognise those from an Ayurvedic point of view. The efforts are made to collect information from available Sanskrit texts and their commentaries, which re arranged appropriately. The C.C.I.M. syllabus has been covered under two heads Ayurveda and Modern. Special efforts are made to clarify the fundamental principles with the help of commentaries like Narasimha bhashya, Pathya, Hridaya bodhika, Vakya pradipika, Madhukosa, Ayurveda dipika, Sasilekha, so as to serve the needs of graduates and post graduate students. An exclusive compilation of explanation (paribhashas) to technical terms from various commentaries is appended to the first chapter. The subject proper genuinely deals on the concepts of Ayurveda without merely restricting to the limits of examination. The explanations to concepts are derived mainly from Padmasri Dr. K. Rajagopalan. The English translation of Madhukosa by Dr G.J. Meulenbeld is really a brain tonic for all who study Rogavijnana and Vikritivijnana and author had tried to emulate his renderings.

The Idea to write a book on Roga vijnana and Vikritivijnana was originally conceived by Dr. Indulal. U and me. The paucity of time did not allow Dr. Indulal. U to continue with this project. I worked on the solid platform laid down by him, and without his direction and the vast compilations; the next would not have got the present shape. Despite my constant pleading, he declined to accept the authorship of the work. It is a real bliss for people like me to come across such pious personalities. I will always be thankful to him of this guidance and blessing for the successful completion of this work. I express my deep gratitude to my grandfather and the first initiator to this great science, late Vaidya vachaspati. P. Mahadeva lyer, Vaidya Kalanidhi, Netrarogavisharad. I take this opportunity to offer my pranams to Dr. A. Raghu, Assistant advisor, Ayush, Govt of India, who taught me Madhukosa tika and Hridaya bodhika, Dr. Jerome. V. Kurian, who introduced me to Indu tika and Narasimha bhasya, Dr. C.P. Ravindran Nair of Sri Dhanwantari math, Dr. G. Syamakrishnan and Dr. Prince Alex for guiding me in learning the clinical methods. I thank Dr. P. Sankaran Nair, Rtd. Principal, Govt. Ayurveda College, Thiruvananthapuram, for providing me copies of Pathya and Padarthachandrika commentaries. It was a privilege to learn the basics of Rogavijnana and Vikriti vijnana under Dr. K. Sankaran, Director, Ayurveda Medical Education, Dr. M.R. Vasudevan Nampoothiri, Principal, Govt. Ayurveda College, Thiruvananthapuram; Dr. R. Sreekumar, Head of the Department, Rogavijnana and Vikritivijnana, Govt. Ayurveda College Thiruvananthapuram; Dr. John. K. George, Head of the Department, Rogavijnana and Vikritivijnana, Govt. Ayurveda College, Kannur and I am also indebted to my teachers. I have no words to express my gratitude to Vaidyabhooshanam K. Raghavan Thirumulpad for inspiring me to under take this endeavour. I thank Dr. K. Chidambharam of Sri Sarada Ayurveda Hospital Nagercoil, Prof. G. Asokan, Dr. M.V. Anil kumar, Dr. S.D. Sreejan, Dr. P.P. Jiggesh, Dr. M. Prasad, Dr. Krishnakumar, Dr. Deepa .B. Nair and Dr. P. Rammanohar, Director, AVATAR, Coimbatore for encouragment to carry out this work. The guidance and motherly affection showered on me during my study by my guide Prof. Dr. A. Jameela Beevi, Head of the Department, Siddantha and Samhita. Govt. Ayurveda College, Thiruvananthapuram, helped me lot in the execution of this work. Sri Arimanoor Paramewaran, an unparalleled scholar in Ayurveda helped me in clarifying various concepts in nidana. This book would have not been completed without the cooperation and guidance of Prof. S. Sasikumaran Unnithan. In this context I gracefully acknowledge my indebtedness to him. Above all it is the constant enthusiasm and cooperation showed by Sri. Sachin Gupta, Sri. Kaushik Gupta and Sri. R. Ratnakara Misra of Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series Office resulted in the completion of this work. I wholeheartedly thank them for their cooperation and I, with full sincerity, acknowledge their patience for bearing the inordinate delay from my side in preparing the manuscript of the text. I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Anithajacob Director Indian Systems of Medicine, Kerala and Dr. P. Skandaswami Pillai, District Medical Officer, Alappuzha and my colleagues for encouraging me to take up this challenge.

I would like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Pavana.J, Dr. Raji.R, Dr. Anija.S and Dr. Vishnu Prasanth for assisting me in writing this book. I express my sincere gratitude to Sri. Srikumar. S, just designs Sharjah, U.A.E. for designing the cover pate of the book. I am also thankful to Sri. Harikumar Agasthyacode, for preparing the photographs of Dr. K. Rajagopalan and Dr. G.J. Meulenbeld. The typesetting in Sanskrit is done by Sri. Radhakrishnan, Top Printers, Thiruvananthapuram. The total layout with typesetting in English is done by Smt. Sindhu Venkatesan of Mano Graphics, Thiruvananthapuram, and I thank her for neat and prompt creation of this book.

The domain of Ayurveda is blessed by the pioneering works of Dr. K. Rajagopalan and Dr. Gerrt Jan Meulenbeld and as mark of respect this humble effort is dedicated at the feet of the great Ayurveda scholar of our time.

Forward

The science of medicine has many facets and compartments, which are interconnected into a complex. Allopathic medicine is at the verge of confession that it is inadequate and distortive to deal with concocted contaminants and serious diseases heretofore unheard of. This fallacy is due to the mere adherence to reductionistic paradigm by the modern medicine. This situation has given a fresh lease of life to all streams of traditional healing arts across the globe. The current situation has accelerated the dissemination of Ayurveda at national and international levels. The world hopes that Ayurveda can open up stirring possibilities to the looming challenges in the maintenance of positive health and care. This hope rests on the fact that empirical methods of Ayurveda are rooted in metaphysical and epistemological concepts of darsanas. The ill fate of Ayurveda is that our customary way of doing things is to concentrate on practice sans fundamental theories. The majority of physicians due to sociopolitical and historical reasons moved away from the basic concepts of Ayurveda and darsanas after the medieval era. Though the present scenario in the Ayurvedic fraternity is different from this, there is still some continuation of this medieval mindset.

The need of the hour is to reorient our approach in the learning process of Ayurveda by intensifying the interconnection of theory and practice. The approach should be rooted on our traditional thinking based on the concepts of Ayurveda and darsanas. This need is emphasised by WHO in its General guidelines for Research in Traditional Medicine 2000, "Some of the objectives specific to the assessment of traditional medicine through clinical are to: evaluate traditional medicine in its own theoretical framework" …. 'Holism is a key element of all systems of traditional medicine. Therefore, when reviewing the literature on traditional medicine (both herbal and traditional procedure based therapies), the theories and concepts of te individual practice of traditional medicine, as well as the cultural background of those involved, must be taken into account'," But this is not an easy job to discern the fundamental principles like learning other skills for they are not mere skills like other empirical narrations. Fully conscious of this fact, it has been tried in the present book to exhibit the theoretical propositions and their pragmatic utility with vigour and high promise. Even though many works on Rogavijnana are these in Hindi and other regional languages (like the one pioneered by Vaidya Ranjithray Desaiji,) the work by Dr. Manoj Sankaranarayana stands out as a pioneering work in English with its extensive compilation of the related subject matter from Brhattrayi and its commentaries, especially from those rare southern Sanskrit commentaries on Astangahridaya. The special emphasis given to Madhukoshatika is also noteworthy. The current presentation of Roga vijnana and Vikriti vijnana based on C.C.I.M. syllabus will be definitely useful for graduate students, postgraduate students, researchers and also serve a handbook of basic concepts of nidana for general clinicians. I congratulate M/s Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series office, Varanasi, to bring out such a nice work. I pray to Lord Dhanvanthari to bestow all virtues in life to Dr. Manoj Sankaranarayana.

From the Jacket

Madhavanidanam of Sri madhavakara with Madhukosa commentary of Vijaya-raksita and Srikanthadatta part – I (1-32 chapters) is translated into English by Dr. P. Himasagara Chandra Murthy a reputed academician in the field of Ayurveda. The subject is presented in all clarity and simplicity to make this work understandable and adoptable to the English-knowing zealots of Ayurveda in particular. The text, as such, is louded for bringing together, vast subject of Ayurvedic diagnostics and presenting in a lucid manner. This translation will take it to the universal level making the work more worthy and useful to the medical field. In fact the expensive diagnostic aspect can be avoided effectively by following the principles laid down in this text.

The addition of Sanskrit – English glossary adds to the utility of this work making it a monumental one. The students, researchers and practitioners will find this as a must for their ready reference at every step. The Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, the publishers have made a worthy attempt in publishing this translation. The author, who has already proved his mite through his translation of Sarangadhara Samhita, deserves all the commendation for his skills in translation and presentation.

Br Dr. Nandini Dilip Dhargalkar

This book strictly covers 'word to word' syllabus by Central Council of Indian Medicine for BAMS course. Each Topic in this book is elaborated in simple English with references from compendia. Learning objectives are given in the beginning of each chapter whereas 'additional comments', which are useful for PG course in this subject as well for scholars and enthusiastic learners are provided at the end of chapter.

Author of this book, Prof. Dr. Nandini Dilip Dhargalkar is awarded Sharadini Dahanukar Best Teacher Award in June 2006. She is seniormost faculty in this subject teaching for twenty-six years. She is examiner, paper setter for Pune University, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka; Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik.

Honorable CCIM President Dr. Mr. Shriram Sharma in his foreword commented on this book as the best book for Ayurvediya Sharira-kriya. The book is enriched with modern physiology as and when required. Extra references have been added of wide reading to achieve deep knowledge of the subject. Latest researchers have been considered while offering additional comments.

This book will suffice and satisfy both teachers of this subject and students of undergraduate as well as postgraduate Courses.

 

Contents

 

Chapter .1 Doshadivijnaniyam 3-164
  Importance of Roga Vijnana and Vikriti vijnana 1
  Doshas and Arogya 5
  Tridoshas 7
  Dosha guna 8
  Vata gunas 9
  Pitta gunas 10
  Kapha gunas 11
  Prakrita karmas of vata 12
  Prakrita karma of kapha 13
  Seats and sub classifications of doshas 15
  Dosha Vriddhi 21
  Vata vriddha lakshanas 22
  Pitta vriddha lakshana 23
  Kapha Kshaya Lakshanas 24
  Dosha kshaya 25
  Vata kshaya lakshana 26
  Pitta kshaya lakshana 27
  Kapha kshaya lakshana 27
  Prakrita karma – vriddhi-kshaya lakshana of dhatus 30
  Prakrita karma – vriddhi-kshaya lakshana of Malas 39
  Prakupitadoshakarani 42
  Asraya Asrayi Bhava of Doshas and Dhatus 50
  Dhatu sthita dosha janita vikarah 52
  Dosha sthana 57
  Roga Margas 59
  Sakha or bahya roga marga 59
  Madhyama rogamarga 60
  Abhyantara roga marga 61
  Significance of Roga margas 61
  Dosha gatis 62
  Movement of Doshas from Kostha to Sakha 63
  Fate of excited doshas in Sakha 64
  Movement of Doshas from Sakha to Kostha 64
  Clinical significance 65
  Shat kriya kala 66
  Sanchaya 67
  Prakopa Kriya Kala 68
  Agni's role in Prakopa 70
  Prasara kriya kala 70
  Prasara linga 71
  Prasara bheda 71
  Sthanasamsraya Kriyakala 72
  Disorders caused based on specific lodgement of vitiated doshas 73
  Vyakti kriya kala 74
  Bheda kriya kala 74
  Ritus and doshas 74
  Chaya of doshas 74
  Prakupita dosha karmas in various disease conditions 78
  Paribhashas for technical terms by various commentators 160
Chapter.2 Vyadhisvarupavijnaniyam 165-226
  Dosha dushya sammurchana 165
  Synonyms of vydhi 169
  Classification of vyadhi 172
  Classification of Bhargava 172
  Classification of Vriddhajivaka 173
  Classification based on the treatment procedure 173
  Classification based on doshic origin of disease 173
  Nanatmaja vyadhis 173
  Samanyaja vyadhis 182
  The two fold classification of Vata vyadhi 185
  Classification based on aetiological factors 185
  Aganturogas 185
  Nijarogas 186
  Classification based on prognosis 186
  Classification based on the intensity of disease manifestation 187
  Classification based on location 187
  Classification based on site of origin in mahakostha 187
  Classification based on origin of diseases 187
  Classification based on based on manasadoshas 188
  Classification as prakrita and vaikrita 188
  Three fold classification – Adhyatmika, adibhoutika and adidaivika 188
  Three fold classification based on Sarira doshas 189
  Three fold classification –based on symptoms 189
  Three fold classification based on dosha and karma 190
  Three fold classification – Aupasargika, Prakkevala, Anya lakshana 191-192
  Three fold classification – Nija, agantu and manasa 192
  Fourfold classification 193
  Fourfold classification based on prognosis 193
  Five fold classification by Rajarishi Dahurvaha 197
  Six fold classification of diseases 197
  Seven fold classification of Hranayaksha 197
  Eight fold classification by Nimi 197
  Seven fold classification – Susruta & Astanga Samgraha 197
  Adibala pravritta 197
  Janma bala pravritta 198
  Bija and bija doshas 199
  Bija bhaga 199
  Bija dushti janya roga 200
  Doshabala pravritta 202
  Sanghata bala pravritta 202
  Kalabalapravritta 202
  Daivabala pravritta 203
  Svabhavabalapravritta 203
  Guruvydhitha and laghuvyadhitha 203
  The innumerability of diseases 204
  Nidanarthakara Rogas 208
  Vyadhisamkara or Combination of diseases 210
  Nidanadharmanthara 210
  Prakritisamasavayayrbdha 211
  Vikritivishmasamavayarbdha 211
  Vyadhiavasthas 212
  Tarunavastha 213
  Madhyamavastha 214
  Jirna or Purana avastha 214
  Uttana avastha 214
  Gambhira avastha 215
  Bahirvegaavastha 216
  Antharvegaavastha 216
  Thikshanaavastha 216
  Dhatugataavastha 216
  Lina avastha 217
  Sama- nirama avasthas 218
  Concepts of ama 220
  Sama rogas 222
  Dosha samata 222
  Rasa samata 222
  Samanya amalaksahana 222
  Sama dhatu lakshanas 223
  Pachyamanaavastha 223
  Dhatupaka and Doshapaka 224
  Sasrayanirasrayavathas 226
Chapter.3 Vyadhikshamatvam 227-237
  Vyadhikshamatvam 227
  Bala 228
  Classification of bala 229
  Sahaja bala 229
  Kalaja Bala 229
  Yuktikrita bala 230
  Ojas 231
  Ojovikritis 233
  Ojovisramsa 233
  Ojovyapath 233
  Ojakshaya 234
  Maha rogas 234
  Upadravas of Maharogas 235
  Asta nindita purushas 236
  Santarpanajanya rogas 236
  Apatarpana janya rogas 237
Chapter.4 Srotovijnaniyam 238-264
  Definitions (sroto svarupam) 238
  The samanya svarupa of srotamsi 239
  Classification of srotamsi 242
  The enumeration of srotas according to Sushruta are 243
  Role of Srotas in dushti 244
  Factors responsible for vitiation of channels 244
  The samanya sroto dushti lakshana 245
  Sroto Mula – Dushti karana – Dushti lakshana 246
  Pranavaha srotas 246
  Udakavaha srotas 247
  Annavaha srotas 248
  Rasavaha srotas 249
  Ratktavaha srotas 251
  Mamsavaha srotas 252
  Medovaha srotas 253
  Asthivaha srotas 254
  Majjavaha srotas 255
  Sukravaha srotas 256
  Mutravaha srotas 257
  Pureeshavaha srotas 258
  Svedavaha srotas 259
  Artavavaha srotas 260
  Indriya pradosaja rogas 260
  Upadhatudoshaja vikaras 263
  Mala pradoshaja rogas 264
Chapter.5 Panchalakshana Nidana 265-312
  Introduction 265
  Nidana 268
  Synonyms 268
  Definition of nidana based on the concept of samprapti 269
  Importance of Nidana in Diagnosis 270
  Classification of Nidana 271
  Classification by Chakrapanidatta 271
  Classification by Chandrata 272
  Classification by Bhattara Harichandra 272
  Classification by Gayadasa 273
  Classification by Arundatta 274
  Classification by Indu 274
  Classification by Madhu kosha kara 275
  Dosha prakopakaranas 279
  Purvarupa 285
  Synonyms 285
  Definition of purvarupa 285
  Samanyapurvarupa 286
  Visishtapurvarupa 287
  Classification of prodromes by Vaidya Vachaspathy 291
  Classification of prodromes by Arunadatta 291
  Classification of prodromes by Chakrapanidatta 291
  Prodromes expressive of the imminent death 292
  Rupa 294
  Synonyms 294
  Definition 294
  Classification of lakshanas by Gayadasa 297
  Narasimha's Classification of lakshanas 297
  Upasaya 298
  Synonyms 298
  Definition 298
  Classification of Upasaya 300
  Samprapti 307
  Synonyms 307
  Definition 307
  Sankhya Samprapati 309
  Vidhi Samprapati 310
  Vikalpa Samprapti 311
  Pradhanya Samprapti 311
  Bala Samprapti 311
  Kala Samprapti 312
Chapter.6 Parikshavidhi 313-386
  Pramana 313
  Aptopadesha 314
  Prathyaksha 316
  Anumana 318
  Upamana 318
  Yukti 319
  Pariksha vidhi 320
  Prakriti 322
  Deha prakriti chart 323
  Vikriti 327
  Sara 327
  Twak sara 328
  Rakta Sara 328
  Mamasa Sara 328
  Medo sara 328
  Asthisara 329
  Majjasara 329
  Sukrasara 329
  Satvasara 329
  Sarvasara 329
  Importance of Sara pariksha 330
  Samhanana 330
  Pramana 330
  Satmya 332
  Satva 332
  Ahara Shakti 333
  Vyayama shakti 333
  Vaya 333
  Trividha pariksha 335
  Darsana 335
  Sparsana 336
  Prasna 336
  Trividha roga vishesha vijnana 336
  Shad vidha pariksha 343
  Ashta sthana Pariksha 345
  Nadi 345
  Mutra 353
  Jivha 359
  Mala/purisha 360
  Netra 363
  Akrthi 365
  Sabda 365
  Sparsa 365
  Arista 366
  Aristas of common disease conditions 373
Chapter.7 Janapadodvamasa 387-391
  Janapadodvamasa 387
 
Part II- Modern
393-577
  Cell 395
  The Genetic factors and the Genetic disorder 400
  Inflammation 403
  Pus formation (Suppuration) 406
  Necrosis 406
  Gangrene 407
  The pathology of various systems 409
  Cardiovascular system 411
  Respiratory system 421
  Gastroenterology 433
  Liver 442
  Spleen 450
  Genito urinary system 452
  Nervous system 471
  Endocrine system 490
  The Immunity/ Host defences 498
  Epidemiology 505
  Classification of the diseases 514
  Method of examining a patient 526
  Basic investigative methods 538
  Blood 538
  Urine 545
  Stool 550
  Instruments 554

Sample Pages













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