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Books > Yoga > Siva (Shiva) Sutras The Yoga of Supreme Identity: Text of the Sutras and the Commentary Vimarsini of Ksemaraja
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Siva (Shiva) Sutras The Yoga of Supreme Identity: Text of the Sutras and the Commentary Vimarsini of Ksemaraja
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About the Book

Siva Sutras are considered to be a revealed book of the Yoga : supreme identity of the individual self with the Divine.

Dr. Jaideva Singh has studied the book with the help of his guru Swami Laksmana Joo, the sole surviving exponent of this system in Kashmir and has provided an English translation of the Sutras together with the commentary of Ksemaraja.

The subject matter is arranged as under:
Each Sutra is given in Devanagari as well as in Roman Script. Then the meaning of every word of the Sutra is given in English, followed by a translation of the whole Sutra. This is followed by the Vimarsini Commentary in Sanskrit and its English translation, copious notes on important and technical words and a running exposition of the main ideas of the Sutra.

A long introduction, together with an abstract of each Sutra, throws a flood of light on the entire system of Saiva Yoga. A glossary of technical terms and index are appended for the convenience of the reader.

 

Introduction

 

THE MAIN SOURCES OF THE NON-DUALISTIC SAIVA SYSTEM OF PHILOSOPHY AND YOGA

The Saiva system of Philosophy and Yoga is generally known as Agama. The word Agama means a traditional doctrine or system which commands faith.

The Saiva system,. in general, is known as Siva-sasana or Sivagama, The non-dualistic Saiva system of Kashmir is known as Trika-Sasana or Trika-sastra or Rahasya-sampradaya. The words sasana and sastra are very significant. Both contain the root sasa which means discipline. Sasana or Sastra means teaching containing rules for discipline. A Sastra or Sasana in India never meant merely an intellectual exposition of a particular system. It certainly expounded the fundamental principles of reality but at the same time laid down on the basis of the principles certain rules, certain norms of conduct which had to be observed by those who studied the particular Sastra. A Sastra was not simply a way of thought but also a way of life. The Saiva philosophy of Kashmir is generally called 'Trika Sastra, because it is philosophy of the triad - (1) Siva (2) Sakti (3) Nara- the bound soul or (1) para - the highest (2) parapara - identity in difference and (3) apara - difference.

The literature of the Trika system of Kashmir falls into three categories, viz., (1) the Agama Sastra, (2) the Spanda Sastra and (3) the Pratyabhijna Sastra.

Agama Sastra :

Agama Sastra is considered to be revelation by Siva. It lays down both the principles and practices of the system. Among the works belonging to the Agama category may be mentioned the following Tantras.

Malinivijaya or Malinivijayottara, Svacchanda, Vijnana Bhairava, Mrgendra, Netra, Rudra- Yamala, Siva-Sutras, etc. Most of these taught generally the dualistic doctrine. The most important Agama of the Trika system was known as the Siva-Sutras.

The importance of this work consists in the fact that it was revealed to counter the effects of dualism. It is generally known as Sivopanisat-sangraha - a compendium containing the secret doctrine revealed by Siva. This was revealed to Vasugupta.

There are three theories regarding the revelation of the Siva- Sutras to Vasugupta.

1. Kallata in the Spanda-vrtti says that Siva taught the Siva- Sutras in a dream to Vasugupta who was living on Mahadeva mountain in the valley of the Harvan stream behind the Shalimar garden near Srinagara.
2. Bhaskara says in his Varttika on the Siva-Sutras that they were revealed to Vasugupta in a dream by a Siddha - a perfected semi-divine being.
3. Ksemaraja, in his commentary Vimarsini, maintains that Siva appeared to Vasugupta in a dream and said, "On the Mahadeva mountain, the secret doctrines are inscribed on a piece of stone. Collecting the doctrines from there, teach them to those who deserve grace." On waking up, Vasugupta went to the place and by a mere touch the particular stone turned up and he found the Siva-Sutras inscribed on it.

The particular rock is still called Samkaropala, and it is said that the Sutras were inscribed on it. (See the plate No. I). The rock is there, but there is no trace of the sutras.

The following are the common points in all the theories regarding the discovery of the Siva-Sutras.
1. There was no human author of the Sutras. They origi- nated from Siva.
2. They were revealed to Vasugupta.

Whether they were revealed to him by Siva in a dream or by a Siddha or they were found on a rock at the instance of Siva are matters which are irrelevant to the main issue of the revela- tion.

We know from Rajatarangini that Kallata flourished in the reign of king Avanti-Varman of Kashmir, Avanti-Varman reigned in the 9th Century A.D. Vasugupta who had discovered the Siva-Sutras was the guru (teacher) of Kallata. He must have flourished either in the last part of the 8th Century or the beginning of the 9th Century A.D. This must have been therefore, the date of the discovery of the Sutras.

Preface

A year before his death, my revered Guru MM. Gopinath Kaviraja called me and said, "Recently one translation of Siva-Sutras into Hindi and another into English have been brought to my notice. I have been both pained and shocked by the flagrant errors committed by these translators. It is my earnest with that you prepare another translation of this great book into English."

My Guru's wish was more than a command to me. I looked into the translations referred to. A new interpretation should always be welcome, but when it goes against the very spirit and tradition of the system, it becomes a pernicious procedure. To cite one instance, the 5th sutra of the first section is worded as 'udyamo Bhairavah'. The word udyama has been translated as 'exertion'. The first section deals with Sambhava-upaya, even the veriest tyro of Saivagama knows that Sambhava upaya has nothing to do with exertion, and so 'udyama' does not and grammar of the Sanskrit language have been twisted and tortured to yield certain pre-conceived meanings. Such preposterous translation is, to say the least, a literary crime.

I had made a promise to carrying out the commands of my Guru, but when I tried to understand the text, I found myself at sea. I was afraid of setting pen to paper lest I should do injustice to this great scripture. Kaviraja ji was too ill to teach. So I studied the text word by word with the help of Acarya Rameshvara Jha who is a great Sanskrit scholar and fully conversant with Saivagama. I am very grateful to him for his help. I felt, however, that I should study it further with the help of one who has been brought up in the Saivagama tradition. So I approached my old Guru, Svami Laksmana Joo of Kashmir who, in spite of his old age and a heavy schedule of engagements with a number of scholars who had gathered round him, kindly agreed to help. He taught me the sutras together with the commentary of Ksemaraja and gave luminous exposition of some very knotty problems, I am deeply beholden to him for unraveling the meaning of this difficult text.

Ksemaraja, in the introductory portion of his commentary, says that since many incongruous expositions had been given by the commentaries extant in his time, he undertook to write a new commentary in due conformity with the old tradition. I have, therefore, translated the sutras along with the Vimarsini commentary of Ksemaraja. The style of Ksemaraja is some-what involved, and so it has been an uphill task to translate his commentary into English. I have tried my best to make the translation as clear and readable as possible.

Four commentaries on Siva-sutras are available at present, the Vimarsini commentary of Ksemaraja in prose, the Siva-sutra-vrtti by some anonymous author in prose, the Siva-sutra-varttikam by Bhaskara in verse, and the Siva-sutra-varttikam by Varadaraja in verse.

The Siva-sutra-vrtti is so close to Vimarsini that it appears to be either a preliminary draft or a later abstract of the Vimarsini. There is a strong presumption that the author of the Vrtti was Ksemaraja himself. The Varttikam by Varadaraja is only a rehash of the Vimarsini in Verse. The Varttikam by Bhaskara is an independent commentary. He differs at places from Ksemaraja. I have indicated this in my notes or exposition wherever necessary. Ksemaraja's commentary is so detailed and scholarly that it has practically elbowed every other commentary out of existence. I have, therefore, duly followed Ksemaraja in my exposition.

I have adopted the following plan in the book. Each sutra is given both in Devanagari and Roman script. Then the meaning of every word of the sutra. This is followed by the Vimarsini commentary in Sanskrit. The commentary is then translated into English. After this, copious notes are added on important and technical words. Finally, I have given a running exposition of the main ideas of the sutra in my own words.

A long Introduction has been given in the beginning this is followed by an abstract of each sutra. At the end of the book, a glossary of all the technical terms and Index have been appended.

For me, this work has been a labour of love, without any financial and secretarial assistance whatsoever. My great Guru, MM. Gopinath Kaviraja passed away before the work could be completed. I can now only console myself by dedicating it to his revered memory.

 

About the Author

Jaideva Singh (1893-1986) was a great scholar in musicology, philosophy and Sanskrit. A former principle of Y.D. College, Lakhimpur-Kheri, he served as Chief Producer in All-India Radio and among other posts acted as Chairman of U.P. Sangit Natak Academi. He was awarded Padma Bhushan by the Government of India in 1974. After his retirement he settled in Varanasi to study with M.M. Gopinath Kaviraj. He deicated the later part of his life to the study with  Kashmir Saivism. he published several books in Hindi and English translations of Kashmir Saiva texts, such as Siva-Sutras, Spanda-Karika, Pratyabhijnahrdayam.

Select Reviews

The Siva Sutras are perhaps the most authoritative text of Kashmir Saivism and certainly it is an outstanding treatise on a definite system of philosophy.

The experience of Sadasiva is 'I am this' and that of Iswara is 'This am I' and Sadvidya or Suddhavidya Tattva, where 'I' and 'This' side of experience are equally balanced. It is pertinently pointed out that this philosophy is unique in merging the sadhaka to a state of bliss (ananda) completely into the non-dualistic Siva.

K.S. Ramakrishna Rao
The Hindu (Madras), 3 July 1979

Siva Sutras Vimarsini is an important treatise of Saivism. The Sutras reveal the Yoga of supreme Identity of the individual self with the Divine.

The translater has done singular service by making the treatise accessible to those who are interested in the subject.

Assam Tribune

Contents

 

DEDICATED v
BLESSING vi
PREFACE vii

Introduction

 
The Main Sources of the Non-dualistic Saiva System of Philosophy and Yoga xv
The Philosophical Background of the Siva-Sutras-Ultimate Reality xix
Manifestation xxi
Bondage xxix
Liberation xxx
Upayas for Liberation  
(i) Sambhavopaya xxxi
(ii) Saktopaya xxxix
(iii) Anavopaya xlviii
Summary of Contents of the Sutras -  
I Section-Sambhavopaya lviii
II Section-Saktopaya lx
III Section-Anavopaya lxii

SIVA SUTRAS-TEXT AND COMMENTARY

 
Ksemaraja's Introduction to the Sutras 1-5

SECTION I - SAMBHAVOPAYA

 
Sutra 1 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 6-15
Sutra 2 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 15-21
Sutra 3 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 21-24
Sutra 4 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 24-29
Sutra 5 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 29-32
Sutra 6 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 32-36
Sutra 7 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 36-40
Sutra 8, 9 and 10 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 41-47
Sutra 11 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 47-50
Sutra 12 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 51-52
Sutra 13 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 53-56
Sutra 14 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 56-58
Sutra 15 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 58-61
Sutra 16 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 61-63
Sutra 17 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 63-65
Sutra 18 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 65-68
Sutra 19 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 68-72
Sutra 20 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 72-75
Sutra 21 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 75-77
Sutra 22 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 77-81
SECTION II SAKTOPAYA
 
Sutra 1 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 82-86
Sutra 2 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 86-88
Sutra 3 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 88-96
Sutra 4 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 97-98
Sutra 5 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 99-102
Sutra 6 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 102-103
Sutra 7 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 104-118
Sutra 8 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 118-120
Sutra 9 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 120-122
Sutra 10 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 122-125
SECTION III ANAVOPAYA
 
Sutra 1 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 126-128
Sutra 2 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 128-132
Sutra 3 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 132-134
Sutra 4 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 134-138
Sutra 5 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 138-142
Sutra 6 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 142-146
Sutra 7 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 146-150
Sutra 8 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 150-152
Sutra 9 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 152-154
Sutra 10 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 154-156
Sutra 11 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 156-157
Sutra 12 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 157-158
Sutra 13 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 158-160
Sutra 14 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 160-161
Sutra 15 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 161-162
Sutra 16 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 162-165
Sutra 17 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 165-168
Sutra 18 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 168-170
Sutra 19 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 170-174
Sutra 20 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 174-176
Sutra 21 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 176-179
Sutra 22 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 179-182
Sutra 23 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 182-183
Sutra 24 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 183-185
Sutra 25 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 185-186
Sutra 26 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 186-189
Sutra 27 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 189-191
Sutra 28 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 191-193
Sutra 29 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 193-195
Sutra 30 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 195-198
Sutra 31 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 198-199
Sutra 32 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 199-202
Sutra 33 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 202-204
Sutra 34 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 205-206
Sutra 35 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 206-207
Sutra 36 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 207-209
Sutra 37 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 209-211
Sutra 38 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 211-215
Sutra 39 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 215-217
Sutra 40 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 217-218
Sutra 41 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 219-221
Sutra 42 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 221-223
Sutra 43 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 223-227
Sutra 44 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 227-229
Sutra 45 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 229-230
Conclusion. 231-234
Glossary of Technical Terms 235-263
Subject Index 265-266
Index to important Sanskrit Words 267-275
Alphabetical Index to the Sutras. 276-278

 

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Siva (Shiva) Sutras The Yoga of Supreme Identity: Text of the Sutras and the Commentary Vimarsini of Ksemaraja

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About the Book

Siva Sutras are considered to be a revealed book of the Yoga : supreme identity of the individual self with the Divine.

Dr. Jaideva Singh has studied the book with the help of his guru Swami Laksmana Joo, the sole surviving exponent of this system in Kashmir and has provided an English translation of the Sutras together with the commentary of Ksemaraja.

The subject matter is arranged as under:
Each Sutra is given in Devanagari as well as in Roman Script. Then the meaning of every word of the Sutra is given in English, followed by a translation of the whole Sutra. This is followed by the Vimarsini Commentary in Sanskrit and its English translation, copious notes on important and technical words and a running exposition of the main ideas of the Sutra.

A long introduction, together with an abstract of each Sutra, throws a flood of light on the entire system of Saiva Yoga. A glossary of technical terms and index are appended for the convenience of the reader.

 

Introduction

 

THE MAIN SOURCES OF THE NON-DUALISTIC SAIVA SYSTEM OF PHILOSOPHY AND YOGA

The Saiva system of Philosophy and Yoga is generally known as Agama. The word Agama means a traditional doctrine or system which commands faith.

The Saiva system,. in general, is known as Siva-sasana or Sivagama, The non-dualistic Saiva system of Kashmir is known as Trika-Sasana or Trika-sastra or Rahasya-sampradaya. The words sasana and sastra are very significant. Both contain the root sasa which means discipline. Sasana or Sastra means teaching containing rules for discipline. A Sastra or Sasana in India never meant merely an intellectual exposition of a particular system. It certainly expounded the fundamental principles of reality but at the same time laid down on the basis of the principles certain rules, certain norms of conduct which had to be observed by those who studied the particular Sastra. A Sastra was not simply a way of thought but also a way of life. The Saiva philosophy of Kashmir is generally called 'Trika Sastra, because it is philosophy of the triad - (1) Siva (2) Sakti (3) Nara- the bound soul or (1) para - the highest (2) parapara - identity in difference and (3) apara - difference.

The literature of the Trika system of Kashmir falls into three categories, viz., (1) the Agama Sastra, (2) the Spanda Sastra and (3) the Pratyabhijna Sastra.

Agama Sastra :

Agama Sastra is considered to be revelation by Siva. It lays down both the principles and practices of the system. Among the works belonging to the Agama category may be mentioned the following Tantras.

Malinivijaya or Malinivijayottara, Svacchanda, Vijnana Bhairava, Mrgendra, Netra, Rudra- Yamala, Siva-Sutras, etc. Most of these taught generally the dualistic doctrine. The most important Agama of the Trika system was known as the Siva-Sutras.

The importance of this work consists in the fact that it was revealed to counter the effects of dualism. It is generally known as Sivopanisat-sangraha - a compendium containing the secret doctrine revealed by Siva. This was revealed to Vasugupta.

There are three theories regarding the revelation of the Siva- Sutras to Vasugupta.

1. Kallata in the Spanda-vrtti says that Siva taught the Siva- Sutras in a dream to Vasugupta who was living on Mahadeva mountain in the valley of the Harvan stream behind the Shalimar garden near Srinagara.
2. Bhaskara says in his Varttika on the Siva-Sutras that they were revealed to Vasugupta in a dream by a Siddha - a perfected semi-divine being.
3. Ksemaraja, in his commentary Vimarsini, maintains that Siva appeared to Vasugupta in a dream and said, "On the Mahadeva mountain, the secret doctrines are inscribed on a piece of stone. Collecting the doctrines from there, teach them to those who deserve grace." On waking up, Vasugupta went to the place and by a mere touch the particular stone turned up and he found the Siva-Sutras inscribed on it.

The particular rock is still called Samkaropala, and it is said that the Sutras were inscribed on it. (See the plate No. I). The rock is there, but there is no trace of the sutras.

The following are the common points in all the theories regarding the discovery of the Siva-Sutras.
1. There was no human author of the Sutras. They origi- nated from Siva.
2. They were revealed to Vasugupta.

Whether they were revealed to him by Siva in a dream or by a Siddha or they were found on a rock at the instance of Siva are matters which are irrelevant to the main issue of the revela- tion.

We know from Rajatarangini that Kallata flourished in the reign of king Avanti-Varman of Kashmir, Avanti-Varman reigned in the 9th Century A.D. Vasugupta who had discovered the Siva-Sutras was the guru (teacher) of Kallata. He must have flourished either in the last part of the 8th Century or the beginning of the 9th Century A.D. This must have been therefore, the date of the discovery of the Sutras.

Preface

A year before his death, my revered Guru MM. Gopinath Kaviraja called me and said, "Recently one translation of Siva-Sutras into Hindi and another into English have been brought to my notice. I have been both pained and shocked by the flagrant errors committed by these translators. It is my earnest with that you prepare another translation of this great book into English."

My Guru's wish was more than a command to me. I looked into the translations referred to. A new interpretation should always be welcome, but when it goes against the very spirit and tradition of the system, it becomes a pernicious procedure. To cite one instance, the 5th sutra of the first section is worded as 'udyamo Bhairavah'. The word udyama has been translated as 'exertion'. The first section deals with Sambhava-upaya, even the veriest tyro of Saivagama knows that Sambhava upaya has nothing to do with exertion, and so 'udyama' does not and grammar of the Sanskrit language have been twisted and tortured to yield certain pre-conceived meanings. Such preposterous translation is, to say the least, a literary crime.

I had made a promise to carrying out the commands of my Guru, but when I tried to understand the text, I found myself at sea. I was afraid of setting pen to paper lest I should do injustice to this great scripture. Kaviraja ji was too ill to teach. So I studied the text word by word with the help of Acarya Rameshvara Jha who is a great Sanskrit scholar and fully conversant with Saivagama. I am very grateful to him for his help. I felt, however, that I should study it further with the help of one who has been brought up in the Saivagama tradition. So I approached my old Guru, Svami Laksmana Joo of Kashmir who, in spite of his old age and a heavy schedule of engagements with a number of scholars who had gathered round him, kindly agreed to help. He taught me the sutras together with the commentary of Ksemaraja and gave luminous exposition of some very knotty problems, I am deeply beholden to him for unraveling the meaning of this difficult text.

Ksemaraja, in the introductory portion of his commentary, says that since many incongruous expositions had been given by the commentaries extant in his time, he undertook to write a new commentary in due conformity with the old tradition. I have, therefore, translated the sutras along with the Vimarsini commentary of Ksemaraja. The style of Ksemaraja is some-what involved, and so it has been an uphill task to translate his commentary into English. I have tried my best to make the translation as clear and readable as possible.

Four commentaries on Siva-sutras are available at present, the Vimarsini commentary of Ksemaraja in prose, the Siva-sutra-vrtti by some anonymous author in prose, the Siva-sutra-varttikam by Bhaskara in verse, and the Siva-sutra-varttikam by Varadaraja in verse.

The Siva-sutra-vrtti is so close to Vimarsini that it appears to be either a preliminary draft or a later abstract of the Vimarsini. There is a strong presumption that the author of the Vrtti was Ksemaraja himself. The Varttikam by Varadaraja is only a rehash of the Vimarsini in Verse. The Varttikam by Bhaskara is an independent commentary. He differs at places from Ksemaraja. I have indicated this in my notes or exposition wherever necessary. Ksemaraja's commentary is so detailed and scholarly that it has practically elbowed every other commentary out of existence. I have, therefore, duly followed Ksemaraja in my exposition.

I have adopted the following plan in the book. Each sutra is given both in Devanagari and Roman script. Then the meaning of every word of the sutra. This is followed by the Vimarsini commentary in Sanskrit. The commentary is then translated into English. After this, copious notes are added on important and technical words. Finally, I have given a running exposition of the main ideas of the sutra in my own words.

A long Introduction has been given in the beginning this is followed by an abstract of each sutra. At the end of the book, a glossary of all the technical terms and Index have been appended.

For me, this work has been a labour of love, without any financial and secretarial assistance whatsoever. My great Guru, MM. Gopinath Kaviraja passed away before the work could be completed. I can now only console myself by dedicating it to his revered memory.

 

About the Author

Jaideva Singh (1893-1986) was a great scholar in musicology, philosophy and Sanskrit. A former principle of Y.D. College, Lakhimpur-Kheri, he served as Chief Producer in All-India Radio and among other posts acted as Chairman of U.P. Sangit Natak Academi. He was awarded Padma Bhushan by the Government of India in 1974. After his retirement he settled in Varanasi to study with M.M. Gopinath Kaviraj. He deicated the later part of his life to the study with  Kashmir Saivism. he published several books in Hindi and English translations of Kashmir Saiva texts, such as Siva-Sutras, Spanda-Karika, Pratyabhijnahrdayam.

Select Reviews

The Siva Sutras are perhaps the most authoritative text of Kashmir Saivism and certainly it is an outstanding treatise on a definite system of philosophy.

The experience of Sadasiva is 'I am this' and that of Iswara is 'This am I' and Sadvidya or Suddhavidya Tattva, where 'I' and 'This' side of experience are equally balanced. It is pertinently pointed out that this philosophy is unique in merging the sadhaka to a state of bliss (ananda) completely into the non-dualistic Siva.

K.S. Ramakrishna Rao
The Hindu (Madras), 3 July 1979

Siva Sutras Vimarsini is an important treatise of Saivism. The Sutras reveal the Yoga of supreme Identity of the individual self with the Divine.

The translater has done singular service by making the treatise accessible to those who are interested in the subject.

Assam Tribune

Contents

 

DEDICATED v
BLESSING vi
PREFACE vii

Introduction

 
The Main Sources of the Non-dualistic Saiva System of Philosophy and Yoga xv
The Philosophical Background of the Siva-Sutras-Ultimate Reality xix
Manifestation xxi
Bondage xxix
Liberation xxx
Upayas for Liberation  
(i) Sambhavopaya xxxi
(ii) Saktopaya xxxix
(iii) Anavopaya xlviii
Summary of Contents of the Sutras -  
I Section-Sambhavopaya lviii
II Section-Saktopaya lx
III Section-Anavopaya lxii

SIVA SUTRAS-TEXT AND COMMENTARY

 
Ksemaraja's Introduction to the Sutras 1-5

SECTION I - SAMBHAVOPAYA

 
Sutra 1 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 6-15
Sutra 2 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 15-21
Sutra 3 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 21-24
Sutra 4 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 24-29
Sutra 5 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 29-32
Sutra 6 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 32-36
Sutra 7 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 36-40
Sutra 8, 9 and 10 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 41-47
Sutra 11 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 47-50
Sutra 12 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 51-52
Sutra 13 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 53-56
Sutra 14 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 56-58
Sutra 15 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 58-61
Sutra 16 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 61-63
Sutra 17 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 63-65
Sutra 18 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 65-68
Sutra 19 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 68-72
Sutra 20 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 72-75
Sutra 21 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 75-77
Sutra 22 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 77-81
SECTION II SAKTOPAYA
 
Sutra 1 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 82-86
Sutra 2 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 86-88
Sutra 3 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 88-96
Sutra 4 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 97-98
Sutra 5 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 99-102
Sutra 6 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 102-103
Sutra 7 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 104-118
Sutra 8 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 118-120
Sutra 9 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 120-122
Sutra 10 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 122-125
SECTION III ANAVOPAYA
 
Sutra 1 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 126-128
Sutra 2 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 128-132
Sutra 3 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 132-134
Sutra 4 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 134-138
Sutra 5 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 138-142
Sutra 6 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 142-146
Sutra 7 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 146-150
Sutra 8 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 150-152
Sutra 9 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 152-154
Sutra 10 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 154-156
Sutra 11 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 156-157
Sutra 12 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 157-158
Sutra 13 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 158-160
Sutra 14 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 160-161
Sutra 15 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 161-162
Sutra 16 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 162-165
Sutra 17 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 165-168
Sutra 18 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 168-170
Sutra 19 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 170-174
Sutra 20 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 174-176
Sutra 21 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 176-179
Sutra 22 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 179-182
Sutra 23 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 182-183
Sutra 24 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 183-185
Sutra 25 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 185-186
Sutra 26 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 186-189
Sutra 27 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 189-191
Sutra 28 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 191-193
Sutra 29 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 193-195
Sutra 30 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 195-198
Sutra 31 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 198-199
Sutra 32 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 199-202
Sutra 33 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 202-204
Sutra 34 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 205-206
Sutra 35 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 206-207
Sutra 36 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 207-209
Sutra 37 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 209-211
Sutra 38 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 211-215
Sutra 39 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 215-217
Sutra 40 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 217-218
Sutra 41 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 219-221
Sutra 42 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 221-223
Sutra 43 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 223-227
Sutra 44 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 227-229
Sutra 45 together with the Vimarsini Commentary. 229-230
Conclusion. 231-234
Glossary of Technical Terms 235-263
Subject Index 265-266
Index to important Sanskrit Words 267-275
Alphabetical Index to the Sutras. 276-278

 

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