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Books > History > Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India
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Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India
Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India
Description
Preface

The publication of this volume has been delayed by several unforeseen causes, and I must express my regret that this delay should have taken place; it was due to circumstances beyond my own control.

It is necessary to explain the reasons for publishing the various sections of this volume. Part I consists of a cursory examination of 219 inscriptions on copper, which have been sent to me from different parts of Southern India, an appendix raising the number to 228. I have not attempted to publish full notes with translation of all these inscribed plates as the short time at my disposal forbade any endeavor to do more than hint at the historical value of each. All detailed work on them must come later. My aim has been simply to pioneer the Survey and t show as far as I have been able to ascertain, where it will be necessary and valuable for others to labour. All the inscriptions noted in Part I must at some time or another be carefully examined.

Part II consists of a list of all the dated inscriptions, which as yet have come to my notice in the Madras Presidency, arranged in chronological order. This list was prepared mostly to assist epigraphists as well as students of history. It will, I hope, be found to serve several purposes. Any one desirous of studying the history of a period for instance, will by this list be guided to all the inscriptions of the same date at present known to exist in the Presidency.

A mere glance at the first column will show the reader to the hand of any one who chooses to grasp it, in the villages of Southern India. Only a few of these inscriptions have as yet been examined, and all must be published before the work can be considered complete. It must be remembered that this list comprises only those inscriptions of whose existence I have been informed, and that it probably does not represent a tenth part of those which will in after years be brought to light. I have even omitted to enter a number of those actually brought to notice where my informants mentioned dates, which were these exceptions; the list contains all the dated inscriptions specially mentioned in Volume I. There remain for examination, independently of these, firstly, the undated inscriptions specially so mentioned; secondly, the large number of inscriptions whose mere existence is noted, as for instance, where the information I received was that a temple existed covered with inscriptions- and these must number several thousands more. The work has been inaugurates, for Dr. Burgess informs me that he has a very considerable number of the copper plate inscriptions, besides others from temples, from the Madura District and the whole of the Tamil inscriptions in the Madras Museum, already translated by Mr. S. M. Natesa Sastri and others, and that the printing of them is well advanced.

Part III consists of lists of inscriptions as noted in Volume I and as found in certain other publications, arranged according to the sovereigns and dynasties they refer to. These I found exceedingly difficult to draw up because of the doubtfulness of the names and dates as reported to me. They must be taken merely as tentative and provisional. As with the rest of these two volumes, I publish the Lists in the hope that sojourners in Southern India will correct them.

One point connected with the Chola lists must especially be noted here, as I must confess myself in doubt as to the correctness of certain previous deductions. I think that the list given from pages 102 to 109 needs correction in several respects. So many of the names of Vira or Kulottunga Chola I seem to be mere titles that we must not be too sure that inscriptions bearing, as the name of the sovereign, one of those titles, is necessarily an inscription of that king. Since the list was prepared I have seen some new inscriptions and am now not at all certain that all those bearing the name "Koneri Nanmai Kondan" belong to the reign of Kulottunga I. I think, further, that the name "Koneri Nanmai Kondan Sundara Pandiyan and "Koneri Melkondan Sundara Pandiyan" probably do not belong to him, but to a real Pandiyan or Pandiyans, and are unconnected with the Chola-Pandiyan conquest.

I was inclined, too, to accept too readily the name of his queen as sufficient evidence of identification. Her name was "Ulaha Murududailyal," corresponding to "Loka Mahadevi," and the first name "Ulaha" seems to have been variously written "Avani" or "Bhuvana". But from inscriptions which have recently come to light is seems possible that this name was a common title of the South Indian queens. It has been found by Dr. Burgess as the name of the wife fo a pure Pandiyan, for instance. The list will perhaps have to be amended in this respect.

Such errors are inseparable from a work of this nature, which is intended merely to precede the study of the subject and in no sense is put forth as summarizing the results of study completed.

Part IV contains a sketch of the genealogy and history of the dynasties and ancient families of Southern India, so far as I have as yet been able to compile them. This will serve as a rough chart to all students of the subject and will enable any one who hits on an inscription and who is desirous of learning something about the sovereign therein mentioned, to ascertain who he was and to what dynasty he belonged nd to gain some slight knowledge of the history of that dynasty so far as it is hitherto known or supposed to be known. The compilation speaks for itself and I need say little more. If it serves no the purpose, it will show how little is yet known, and what vast fields of study still lie open, calling for earnest and patient investigation. I have tabulated these lists alphabetically. This is, in some respects, open to objection but for general use it is perhaps better than an attempt at any chronological sequence, where there were so many dynasties overlapping one another in point of time. Such an arrangement as the last might, it was thought, possibly give rise to misunderstanding.

I was in hopes of being able to complete the work by a set of chronological tables for computing the exact English equivalent for all dates given in South Indian inscriptions, but the unfortunate illness of the compiler, Mr. U.S. Krishnasvami Nayudu, Nazir of the High Court of Judicature, Madras, has delayed their preparation. They are in the press, and will be published separately.

CONTENTS
PART I.
List of Copper-Plate Grants
List of Copper-plate Grants sent for Examination1
PART II.
Inscriptions Chronologically Arranged
List of Inscriptions as yet known in the Madras Presidency, arranged in order of date35
PART III
Inscriptions Dynastically Arranged
Inscriptions on Stone and copper, Arranged Dynastically93
Western Chalukyas and Chalukyas93
Eastern Chalukyas95
Cholas, dated95
Do. Undated101
Musalman Inscriptions113
Ganapatis of Orangal114
Hoyisala Ballalas, or Yadavas of Dvarasamudram117
Ganga Family of Kalinga118
Reddi Dynasty of Kondavidu118
Ganga Kings (Maisur)119
Rajas of Maisur119
Nayakka Rulers of Madura120
Pandiyans122
Udaiyar Rulers in the South125
Vijayanagar Rayas125
PART IV
Sketch of The Dynasties of Southern India
General Historical Sketch141
Alupas, the144
Adil Shahi Dynasty of Bijapur144
Ahmadnagar, Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Andhras144
Andhra-Jatakas
Andhra-Bhrityas
147
Avuku or Auku Zemindars147
Bahmani Dynasty147
Ballalas147
Banavasi, Kadambas of 147
Barid Shahi Dynasty at Bidar or Ahmadabad147
Bednur Rajas147
Bidar or Ahmadabad, Barid Shahi Dynasty of147
Bijapur or Vijayapura, Adil Shahi Dynasty of147
Birar, Imad Shahi Dynasty of147
Chalukyas, Western Chalukyas, and Western Chalukyas, and Western Chalukyas148
Chalukyas, Eastern151
Cheras153
Cholas154
Dakhan, Muhammadan Kings of the 161
Bahmani Dynasty of Kulbarga, or Ahsanabad162
Barid Shahi Dynasty of Bidar or Ahmadabad164
Adil Shahi Dynasty of Bijapur, or Vijayapura164
Imad Shahi Dynasty of Birar, Capital Ilichpur165
Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar166
Qutb Shahi Dynasty of Golkonda167
Delhi, Muhammadan Kings and emperors of 168
"Slave Kings"169
Khilji Dynasty, the 169
Saiyid Rulers170
Saiyid Rulers170
Lodi Dynasty, the170
Moghul Emperors171
Devagiri Yadavas172
Dvarasamudra Yadavas172
Eastern Chalukyas172
Ganapatis of Orangal172
Gangas of Kalinga174
Gangas of Maisur174
Golkonda, Qutb Shahi Dynasty of 175
Guttas175
Haidarabad, Nizams of 175
Hoysala Ballalas176
Ikkeri, Keladi, or Bednur Rajas177
Imad Shahi Dynasty of Birar178
Jeypore Rajas178
Kadambas and Kadambas179
Kalachuris or Kalachuryas182
Kalahasti Zemindari, the 183
Kalinga, Gangas of183
Kanva or Kanwa Dynasty, the 184
Karvetinagara, Zemindars of184
Kondavidu, Reddi Chiefs of187
Kongu or Ganga Kings, the 189
Kulbarga, Bahmani Dynasty of191
Madura, Soverigns of192
Mahrathas192
The Chief Dynasty192
The Dynasty of Tanjore193
Maisur Rajas194
Malayalam Country, Rulers of195
Manyakheta Rajas197
Matangas197
Mauryas198
Nalas198
Navabs of the Karnataka or "Nabobs of Arcot"198
Nayakkas of Madura199
Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar204
Nizam of Haidarabad204
Orangal, Sovereigns of204
Orissa, Kings of204
Owk, or Avuku, Zemindars of209
Pallavas, the 213
Pandiyans, the213
Pudukottai, the Tondaman Rajas of225
Punganur Zemindari, the226
Punnadu, Rajas of226
Qutb Shahi Dynasty of Golkonda227
Ramnad, Setupatis of227
Rashtrakutas232
Rattas234
Reddi Dynasty of Kondavidu234
Salankayana Dynasty of Vengi234
Sanga Dynasty, the234
Santara Kings in Maisur235
Sendrakas, the 235
Setupatis of Ramnad, the235
Silaharas of Kolhapur235
Sindas of Erambarage236
Sivagangai Zamindars237
Tanjore,MahrathaDynasty237
Travancore, Rajas of237
Tondaman Family, the239
Udaiyars of the Chola Country239
Varangal, Sovereigns of 239
Vengi Kings239
Venkatagiri, Zemindars of 240
Vijayanagar Dynasty, the243
Vijayapura, or Bijapur, Adil Shahi Dynasty of254
Warangal, Sovereigns of254
Western Chalukyas254
Yadavas of Devagiri254
Yadavas of Dvarasamudra255
Yadavas of Manyakheta255
Supplementary Notes256
Bana Kings256
Chalukyas257
Cholas257
Gangas of Maisur258
Kalinga Kings258
Maisur258
Rashtrakuta Kings258
Maisur258
Rashtrakuta Kings258
Vijayanagar259
Supplementary List of Copper-Plate Grants sent for Examination, nos.220-228260
Errata And Addenda262
Index277

Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India

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Preface

The publication of this volume has been delayed by several unforeseen causes, and I must express my regret that this delay should have taken place; it was due to circumstances beyond my own control.

It is necessary to explain the reasons for publishing the various sections of this volume. Part I consists of a cursory examination of 219 inscriptions on copper, which have been sent to me from different parts of Southern India, an appendix raising the number to 228. I have not attempted to publish full notes with translation of all these inscribed plates as the short time at my disposal forbade any endeavor to do more than hint at the historical value of each. All detailed work on them must come later. My aim has been simply to pioneer the Survey and t show as far as I have been able to ascertain, where it will be necessary and valuable for others to labour. All the inscriptions noted in Part I must at some time or another be carefully examined.

Part II consists of a list of all the dated inscriptions, which as yet have come to my notice in the Madras Presidency, arranged in chronological order. This list was prepared mostly to assist epigraphists as well as students of history. It will, I hope, be found to serve several purposes. Any one desirous of studying the history of a period for instance, will by this list be guided to all the inscriptions of the same date at present known to exist in the Presidency.

A mere glance at the first column will show the reader to the hand of any one who chooses to grasp it, in the villages of Southern India. Only a few of these inscriptions have as yet been examined, and all must be published before the work can be considered complete. It must be remembered that this list comprises only those inscriptions of whose existence I have been informed, and that it probably does not represent a tenth part of those which will in after years be brought to light. I have even omitted to enter a number of those actually brought to notice where my informants mentioned dates, which were these exceptions; the list contains all the dated inscriptions specially mentioned in Volume I. There remain for examination, independently of these, firstly, the undated inscriptions specially so mentioned; secondly, the large number of inscriptions whose mere existence is noted, as for instance, where the information I received was that a temple existed covered with inscriptions- and these must number several thousands more. The work has been inaugurates, for Dr. Burgess informs me that he has a very considerable number of the copper plate inscriptions, besides others from temples, from the Madura District and the whole of the Tamil inscriptions in the Madras Museum, already translated by Mr. S. M. Natesa Sastri and others, and that the printing of them is well advanced.

Part III consists of lists of inscriptions as noted in Volume I and as found in certain other publications, arranged according to the sovereigns and dynasties they refer to. These I found exceedingly difficult to draw up because of the doubtfulness of the names and dates as reported to me. They must be taken merely as tentative and provisional. As with the rest of these two volumes, I publish the Lists in the hope that sojourners in Southern India will correct them.

One point connected with the Chola lists must especially be noted here, as I must confess myself in doubt as to the correctness of certain previous deductions. I think that the list given from pages 102 to 109 needs correction in several respects. So many of the names of Vira or Kulottunga Chola I seem to be mere titles that we must not be too sure that inscriptions bearing, as the name of the sovereign, one of those titles, is necessarily an inscription of that king. Since the list was prepared I have seen some new inscriptions and am now not at all certain that all those bearing the name "Koneri Nanmai Kondan" belong to the reign of Kulottunga I. I think, further, that the name "Koneri Nanmai Kondan Sundara Pandiyan and "Koneri Melkondan Sundara Pandiyan" probably do not belong to him, but to a real Pandiyan or Pandiyans, and are unconnected with the Chola-Pandiyan conquest.

I was inclined, too, to accept too readily the name of his queen as sufficient evidence of identification. Her name was "Ulaha Murududailyal," corresponding to "Loka Mahadevi," and the first name "Ulaha" seems to have been variously written "Avani" or "Bhuvana". But from inscriptions which have recently come to light is seems possible that this name was a common title of the South Indian queens. It has been found by Dr. Burgess as the name of the wife fo a pure Pandiyan, for instance. The list will perhaps have to be amended in this respect.

Such errors are inseparable from a work of this nature, which is intended merely to precede the study of the subject and in no sense is put forth as summarizing the results of study completed.

Part IV contains a sketch of the genealogy and history of the dynasties and ancient families of Southern India, so far as I have as yet been able to compile them. This will serve as a rough chart to all students of the subject and will enable any one who hits on an inscription and who is desirous of learning something about the sovereign therein mentioned, to ascertain who he was and to what dynasty he belonged nd to gain some slight knowledge of the history of that dynasty so far as it is hitherto known or supposed to be known. The compilation speaks for itself and I need say little more. If it serves no the purpose, it will show how little is yet known, and what vast fields of study still lie open, calling for earnest and patient investigation. I have tabulated these lists alphabetically. This is, in some respects, open to objection but for general use it is perhaps better than an attempt at any chronological sequence, where there were so many dynasties overlapping one another in point of time. Such an arrangement as the last might, it was thought, possibly give rise to misunderstanding.

I was in hopes of being able to complete the work by a set of chronological tables for computing the exact English equivalent for all dates given in South Indian inscriptions, but the unfortunate illness of the compiler, Mr. U.S. Krishnasvami Nayudu, Nazir of the High Court of Judicature, Madras, has delayed their preparation. They are in the press, and will be published separately.

CONTENTS
PART I.
List of Copper-Plate Grants
List of Copper-plate Grants sent for Examination1
PART II.
Inscriptions Chronologically Arranged
List of Inscriptions as yet known in the Madras Presidency, arranged in order of date35
PART III
Inscriptions Dynastically Arranged
Inscriptions on Stone and copper, Arranged Dynastically93
Western Chalukyas and Chalukyas93
Eastern Chalukyas95
Cholas, dated95
Do. Undated101
Musalman Inscriptions113
Ganapatis of Orangal114
Hoyisala Ballalas, or Yadavas of Dvarasamudram117
Ganga Family of Kalinga118
Reddi Dynasty of Kondavidu118
Ganga Kings (Maisur)119
Rajas of Maisur119
Nayakka Rulers of Madura120
Pandiyans122
Udaiyar Rulers in the South125
Vijayanagar Rayas125
PART IV
Sketch of The Dynasties of Southern India
General Historical Sketch141
Alupas, the144
Adil Shahi Dynasty of Bijapur144
Ahmadnagar, Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Andhras144
Andhra-Jatakas
Andhra-Bhrityas
147
Avuku or Auku Zemindars147
Bahmani Dynasty147
Ballalas147
Banavasi, Kadambas of 147
Barid Shahi Dynasty at Bidar or Ahmadabad147
Bednur Rajas147
Bidar or Ahmadabad, Barid Shahi Dynasty of147
Bijapur or Vijayapura, Adil Shahi Dynasty of147
Birar, Imad Shahi Dynasty of147
Chalukyas, Western Chalukyas, and Western Chalukyas, and Western Chalukyas148
Chalukyas, Eastern151
Cheras153
Cholas154
Dakhan, Muhammadan Kings of the 161
Bahmani Dynasty of Kulbarga, or Ahsanabad162
Barid Shahi Dynasty of Bidar or Ahmadabad164
Adil Shahi Dynasty of Bijapur, or Vijayapura164
Imad Shahi Dynasty of Birar, Capital Ilichpur165
Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar166
Qutb Shahi Dynasty of Golkonda167
Delhi, Muhammadan Kings and emperors of 168
"Slave Kings"169
Khilji Dynasty, the 169
Saiyid Rulers170
Saiyid Rulers170
Lodi Dynasty, the170
Moghul Emperors171
Devagiri Yadavas172
Dvarasamudra Yadavas172
Eastern Chalukyas172
Ganapatis of Orangal172
Gangas of Kalinga174
Gangas of Maisur174
Golkonda, Qutb Shahi Dynasty of 175
Guttas175
Haidarabad, Nizams of 175
Hoysala Ballalas176
Ikkeri, Keladi, or Bednur Rajas177
Imad Shahi Dynasty of Birar178
Jeypore Rajas178
Kadambas and Kadambas179
Kalachuris or Kalachuryas182
Kalahasti Zemindari, the 183
Kalinga, Gangas of183
Kanva or Kanwa Dynasty, the 184
Karvetinagara, Zemindars of184
Kondavidu, Reddi Chiefs of187
Kongu or Ganga Kings, the 189
Kulbarga, Bahmani Dynasty of191
Madura, Soverigns of192
Mahrathas192
The Chief Dynasty192
The Dynasty of Tanjore193
Maisur Rajas194
Malayalam Country, Rulers of195
Manyakheta Rajas197
Matangas197
Mauryas198
Nalas198
Navabs of the Karnataka or "Nabobs of Arcot"198
Nayakkas of Madura199
Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar204
Nizam of Haidarabad204
Orangal, Sovereigns of204
Orissa, Kings of204
Owk, or Avuku, Zemindars of209
Pallavas, the 213
Pandiyans, the213
Pudukottai, the Tondaman Rajas of225
Punganur Zemindari, the226
Punnadu, Rajas of226
Qutb Shahi Dynasty of Golkonda227
Ramnad, Setupatis of227
Rashtrakutas232
Rattas234
Reddi Dynasty of Kondavidu234
Salankayana Dynasty of Vengi234
Sanga Dynasty, the234
Santara Kings in Maisur235
Sendrakas, the 235
Setupatis of Ramnad, the235
Silaharas of Kolhapur235
Sindas of Erambarage236
Sivagangai Zamindars237
Tanjore,MahrathaDynasty237
Travancore, Rajas of237
Tondaman Family, the239
Udaiyars of the Chola Country239
Varangal, Sovereigns of 239
Vengi Kings239
Venkatagiri, Zemindars of 240
Vijayanagar Dynasty, the243
Vijayapura, or Bijapur, Adil Shahi Dynasty of254
Warangal, Sovereigns of254
Western Chalukyas254
Yadavas of Devagiri254
Yadavas of Dvarasamudra255
Yadavas of Manyakheta255
Supplementary Notes256
Bana Kings256
Chalukyas257
Cholas257
Gangas of Maisur258
Kalinga Kings258
Maisur258
Rashtrakuta Kings258
Maisur258
Rashtrakuta Kings258
Vijayanagar259
Supplementary List of Copper-Plate Grants sent for Examination, nos.220-228260
Errata And Addenda262
Index277
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