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Books > Hindu > Srautakosa (Encyclopedia of Vedic Sacrificial Ritual Sanskrit and English) (In Eight Volumes)(An Old Book)
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Srautakosa (Encyclopedia of Vedic Sacrificial Ritual Sanskrit and English) (In Eight Volumes)(An Old Book)
Srautakosa (Encyclopedia of Vedic Sacrificial Ritual Sanskrit and English) (In Eight Volumes)(An Old Book)
Description
From Volume I

Based on the Srautasutra belonging to the various Vedic Schools
The seven Havis-sacrifices together with the relevant Optional and Expiatory Rites and the Pitrmedha.

Preface

The Two Sections of the Srautakosa

A detailed statement regarding the scheme of the Srautakosa is embodied in the Preface to the Sanskrit Section, which is reproduced also in the present English Section. It will be seen from that statement that the English Section constitutes a necessary complement to the Sanskrit Section and that the two Sections together complete the Srautakosa. The Sanskrit Section comprises portions from the Samhitas, Brahmanas, and Aranyakas, relating to the various details of the Vedic sacrifices, which latter are arranged according to a specific plan. It also gives, under corresponding topics, the relevant portions from the, Baudhayana Srautasutra; The English Section closely follows the order of the treatment Of the Vedic sacrificial ritual adopted in the Sanskrit Section. •It first? Gives the literal translation in English of the Baudhayana Srautasutra as rearranged under various topics in the Sanskrit Section. The translation of each such portion from the BaudhSS relating to a sacrificial rite or a T group of rites is followed by the English translation of the portions from other Srautasutras relating to the corresponding rites or groups of rites. For reasons mentioned elsewhere, the Sanskrit originals of these portions from the Sutras (other than the BaudhSS) have not been included in the Sanskrit Section. While giving their English translation in the present Section, the following procedure has been adopted :

(i) After the BaudhSS, the other Srautasutras are treated in the following order: Bharadvaja, Apastamba, Satyasadha, Vaikhanasa, Manava, Varaha, Katyayana, Asvalayana, Sankhyayana, Latyayana, Drahyayana, Jaiminiya and Vaitana. Certain Grhya and other Sutras have also been taken into account wherever necessary.

(ii) Such portions from a particular Sutra, as agree with the corresponding portions from the BaudhSS _or any of the preceding Sutras, have not been translated. The aim has always been to draw attention to the points of divergence in respect of a sacrificial rite or a part of it to be found in different Sutras. The portions from the Srautasutras thus omitted in the translation have, however, been indicated by means of the sign (-). T Where there is complete identity between a particular Sutra on the one hand and the BaudhSS or any other preceding Sutra on the other, the sign (E) is used; where there is partial identity, the sign ( é ) is used. Though; there- fore, the Sutras other than the BaudhSS have not been translated in their entirety, it is quite possible, on account of the devices mentioned above, to reconstruct their whole ritual.

The English Section of the Srautakosa thus aims. at reproducing, in a systematic manner, all that the Srautasutras have to say about a particular ritual or a part of it. And the Sanskrit Section and the English Section together present, partly in Sanskrit and partly in English, the entire Vedic material pertaining to the various aspects of the complex sacrificial ritual, and thereby enable one to form a comparative estimate of the evolution of that ritual in the different Vedic schools.

The Vedic Ritual

It is proposed to include, in the last Volume of the Srautakosa, a fairly detailed essay on the various aspects of the theory and practice of Vedic sacrifice. A few general, observations may, however, be made at this stage. According to the ancient Purva Mimamsa tradition, the Veda is essentially kriyartha; that is to say, its main purpose is to lay down injunctions relating to the performance of sacrifice. The nature of sacrifice —which is, indeed, the only true Dharma—can, therefore, be adequately realised only through these Vedic injunctions. The Veda is claimed to be apauruseya. No human agency is believed to have been responsible for its creation. Naturally enough, sacrifice, which is supposed to be the principal subject-matter of the Veda, is also believed to be apauruseya. One cannot accordingly speak of the institution of sacrifice as having been devised by any human agency. Verily, it is as immemorial as the Veda itself. Traditionally, the study of the Veda is obligatory on all persons belonging to the first three social orders. So too is the performance of sacrifice which is enjoined by the Veda.

An important feature of the Vedic sacrificial ritual is that it is believed to aim at both the emancipation of the individual as well as the progress _of the society. Sacrifice not only conduces to the spiritual enlightenment and improvement of the sacrificer and the officiating priests, but it also proves to be a powerful means of promoting social solidarity and progress. In the history of the Vedic Aryans, there was a time when sacrifice had become the very centre of the social and cultural life of the entire community. 'It had, indeed, very significantly influenced almost every field of activity of the Vedic people. Naturally enough, therefore, the Vedic ritual constituted the main theme of a major portion of the Vedic literature. Though, according to the scriptures, only persons belonging to certain specific social orders were entitled to perform a sacrifice, so far as its actual performance was concerned, people belonging to all strata of the society were involved in it, in one way or another. Every responsible constituent of the Vedic community, accordingly, took a personal interest in the performance of a sacrifice-a fact which went a long way in promoting a kind of communal solidarity. The importance of Vedic sacrifice as a significant social force in the cultural history of ancient India can, therefore, be hardly overestimated. It may be further pointed out that it was the Vedic sacrificial ritual which had, in a sense, created the necessary background for the evolution of the philosophy of the Upanisads. A study of the institution of Vedic sacrifice is, therefore, very essential for a proper understanding and estimate of Vedic literature, religion and philosophy, and culture.

It is, however, not only from the point of view of the cultural history of ancient India that the study of Vedic ritual is important. Its study is important also from the larger anthropological point of view. For, the e ideology underlying the Vedic sacrifice marks a distinct stage in the evolution ‘of human thought as a whole.

Literature on Vedic Ritual

The literary basis of the Vedic ritual is, obviously, the Veda. The Veda comprises the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, and the Upanisads. The Upanisads, which form the concluding portion of the Veda (Vedanta), are, however, not directly related to ritual practices. After the Veda proper are to be mentioned, in the present context, the Srautasutras, which deal with the Vedic sacrifice in a systematic and detailed manner, strictly following the Samhitas and the Brahmanas including the Aranyakas. It is, therefore, customary to regard the Srautasutras as a component part of the Vedic literature, though they do not claim to be apauruseya.

A close study of the Vedic literature shows that the literary tradition of several Vedic schools has been lost in course of time. Nevertheless, the tradition of the Vedic ritual practices as such has been preserved, through the centuries, in a fairly complete form. The credit for this must in the main belong to the Srautasutras and the various works on Purva Mimamsa which had been produced from time to time.

There had also been produced practical manuals on ritual, called Prayogas, for the use of the priests officiating at different sacrifices. These manuals normally related themselves to specific Vedic schools. And the fact that, in a single Vedic school, there sometimes existed different traditions of ritual practices, as represented in these Prayogas, speaks for the wide sway which the institution of sacrifice generally held over the life of the people. Practical manuals like the Prayogas must certainly have been indispensable for the officiating priests, and they must have been written from very early times. There is, indeed, a view that some sort of Prayogas must have been in vogue even before the compilation of the Srautasutras proper.‘ On the other hand, it has been suggested that "the performance of sacrifices was taught as a practical art, and that the theoretic instruction supplied by the Brahmanas was conveyed orally in connection with such practical performances. That the latter was the case is sufficiently evident from the constant occurrence in the Brahmanas of demonstrative pronouns and particles_ of a ‘deictic’ force." “It is, however, difficult to believe that the knowledge of the ritual practices had been transmitted from the time of the Brahmanas to that of the Srautasutras only through oral tradition. The Srautasutras themselves seem to presuppose the existence of some written manuals. Like the Brahmanas, the Srautasutras also often use demonstrative pronouns.’ The reason for this must be traced to the normal practice of the earlier manuals which, even while committing the ritual practices to writing, presupposed the instructions of a theoretical character being given orally. Again, the Srautasutras, many times, prescribe suitable grammatical modifications (uha) in respect of certain yajus. In view of the difference between the spoken language and the scriptural language in the time of the Sutras, such complicated modifications could not have come down merely through oral tradition.

The Prayogas are at present available mostly in manuscript form. Very few Srauta Prayogas have been printed so far. The Prayogas are, no doubt, considerably helpful in the matter of the understanding of the Srautasutras; but they have to be used with some reservation. For, they often tend to effect modifications in the original rites, partly under the influence of other Vedic schools and partly on account of the chanced circumstances. A comparative study of the different Prayogas in relation to the corresponding Srautasutras, on the one hand, and the other Prayogas belonging to the same school, on the other, is an important but a vast subject, which demands independent treatment.

From Volume II

Preface

We have great pleasure in presenting to the public the second Part of the English Section of Srautakosa, Vol. I. It is highly gratifying for us that the First Part, which was published in 1958, has been unanimously received by scholars with approbation‘. While expressing our sincere thanks to all of them for their kind words of appreciation and encouragement, we would like to take this opportunity to consider certain suggestions made by some of them in the course of their reviews and private communications.

In the English Section, Part I, verses or yajus occurring in a Sutra- text have not been translated. The reasons for this have already been given r in the Preface to that Part (p. 12). It was, however, suggested by one of` the reviewers that the translation of the entire verse or yajus•(irrespective of whether it was quoted in full or merely indicated by pratika in the Sutra- text) should have been given at each occurrence of that verse or yajus; for, such a translation, it was claimed, might throw some useful light on the true nature and significance of the rite with which that verse or yajus was connected. Without examining, at this stage, the validity of this claim in detail, we may say that, after careful consideration of the point, we thought it fit not to change our policy in this regard in this second Part of the first Volume. This decision was, no doubt, prompted, to a large extent, by practical considerations. To give the translation of entire verses or yajus would have meant considerable increase in the size of the Volume. It would have been necessary to repeat in full the translation of a particular verse or yajus as many times as that verse or yajus might occur in the different Sutra-texts. This would have further added to the size of the Volume. Moreover, as pointed out in the Preface of the first Part, translations of most of these verses and e yajus are now more or less easily available. There was another, perhaps more substantial, reason why the practice of reproducing only the pratikas of the mantras was continued. It was felt that a comparison of the rituals as given in the different Sutra- texts would be much facilitated by referring to the original verse or yajus rather than to its translation.

It was suggested by another reviewer that at least such verses and yajus, as are not traceable to any of the Samhitas or other Vedic texts but are known only from the.Sr2tras, should have been translated. This point had already occurred to us; but we did not accept it for two main reasons. Firstly, we thought that it would look a little odd if only some mantras were translated while a far larger number of them were represented through pratikas.

Secondly, the mantras occurring only in the Sutras often presented defective text and naturally involved many exegetical problems. We thought that the discussion of these problems, without which a translation was neither possible nor desirable, would not be quite apropos.

In the first Part, while giving; the translation of the various topically rearranged portions from the Baudhayana Srautasutra, the references to the original sutras relating to a particular topic as also to the sutras in the Dvaidha, the Karmanta, and the Prayascitta portions relevant to that topic were all given together at the beginning of that topic. It was suggested by one of the reviewers that the references to the different portions of the Sutra- texts should be given separately at the proper places so that the under- standing of the different portions of the Sutra-text might be facilitated. This suggestion has been accepted, and, accordingly, in this Part, the references to the different portions of the Baudhayana Srautasutra are given both at the beginning of a topic and also where the translations of the different portions begin.

The plan of this second Part otherwise closely follows that of the first. The pagination and the numbering of the chapters in this Part are in continuation of the first Part. The second Part accordingly begins with p. 539 and Chapter VII.

From Volume III

Based on the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the Baudhayanasrautasutra) Agnistoma with Pravargya

Preface

We have great pleasure in presenting to the world of scholars the First Part of the Sanskrit Section of the Second Volume of the Srautakosa. It may be recalled that the project of the Srautakosa is scheduled to consist of four Volumes in all. Volumes I-III, each comprising a Sanskrit Section and an English Section, will describe in detail the entire Vedic ritual partly through original texts and partly through English translations, while Volume IV will contain Mantra-register, glossary of technical terms, and charts and diagrams of the various sacrificial Viharas and implements. The Sanskrit Section and Part 1 of the English Section of the First Volume of the Srautakosa were published in 1958, and Part 2 of the English Section of that Volume was published by the end of 1962.

I now this First Part of the Sanskrit Section of Volume II of the Srautakosa is being brought out after an interval of over seven years. This delay, which is sincerely regretted, has been caused by many factors over which we hardly had any control. As a matter of fact, according to our plan, the whole of the Sanskrit Section of Volume II was to appear in a single book. It was, however, decided to divide the Section into two Parts, and first publish its First Part which deals with the Agnistoma. And this for two reasons 2 firstly, if the entire Sanskrit Section were to be published in a single book, that book would be too bulky; and, secondly-and this is perhaps more pertinent-the publication of the entire Section would have meant further delay since the subject-matter to be dealt with in the latter Part of the Section, namely, the six out of the seven Soma—sacrifices and the Ekahas which are characterized as the modified forms of Agnistoma, is found to be far too complicated and time—consuming.

In the preparation of the present Part of the Sanskrit Section of Volume II of the Srautakosa we have generally adopted the same pattern as in connection with the Sanskrit Section- of Volume I. This Part gives the Mantra- and Brahmana-portions from •all the available Vedic texts, arranged under different topics, as also the relevant portions from the Baudhayana Srautasutra. As before, the mantras have been reproduced without accents. The sacrifice dealt with in this Part is the Agnistoma—-the basic Soma—sacrif1ce——together with the Ekadasini and the Prayascittas, and the entire subject-matter has been presented in 3.81 significant sections. V It may be noted that, whereas the rituals described in the Sanskrit Section of Volume I were mainly based on two Vedas, namely, the Yajurveda and the Rgveda, those described in the present Part are based on three Vedas, namely, the Yajurveda, the Rgveda and the Samaveda. As for the Sanskrit Section of Volume I, so too for this Part, the Atharvaveda has been taken into account wherever necessary.

The duties of the Adhvaryu and his assistants are usually to be carried out in accordance with the Yajurveda, those of the Hotr and his assistants in accordance with the Rgveda, and those of the Udgatr and his assistants in accordance with the Samaveda. In some cases the Brahman and his assistants perform their duties according to the Atharvaveda. However, most of the rites in the Agnistoma——and for that matter of a any Soma-sacrifice—mainly involve the duties of the Adhvaryus, the Udgatrs, and the Hotrs, and are there- fore dealt with under separate sections relating to these latter. The duties of the Brahman have not been assigned separate sections.

In their L’Agnistoma’ Caland and Henry have described the ritual of the Agnistoma under a number of heads. These have, no doubt, been duly taken into account, but we think that our arrangement of the different sections is more convenient and appropriate.

As in the earlier volume, black type has been used for the Mantra- portion and a thinner one for the Brahmana—portion. Mantras or Mantra- like passages such as Praises etc, occurring within the Brahmana—portion, have been printed in black. Though the Brahmana belonging to a particular Veda generally confines itself to the treatment of the duties of the officiating priests connected with that Veda, it sometimes incidentally deals with the duties of the other groups of priests also. In such cases, portion, from the Vedic text, in which a particular subject —•is treated as a principal subject, is recorded first and that from the text, in which that subject is only incidentally dealt with, is reproduced later. For example, when the Taittiriya texts, whose principal theme is the Adhvaryava, incidentally deal with the Hautra, those Hautra portions from the Taittiriya texts are recorded only after the relevant Hautra portions from the Aitareya and the Sankhayana Brahman; s. As a rule, the Mantras are given first, and are then followed by the relevant Brahmana- portions. Sometimes it happens—and this, particularly in respect of the Taittiriya recession——that the Mantras to be reproduced in a particular section are scattered at two or more different places in the Taittiriya Samhita, and are also found in the Taittiriya Brahmana. Similar is the case with regard to the Brahmana—portions. In such cases, the Mantra and the Brahmana portions are reproduced intermixedly, generally in accordance with the order of the ritual. However, the Mantras always precede the relevant Brahmana portion.

The employment of Mantra from any Samhita is primarily governed by the relevant Brahmana—portion. When the Brahmana is not quite clear about the extent of any Mantra to be employed, one has naturally to `depend upon the Srautasutra belonging to that Vedic recension. When, however, there are more such Srautasutras than one, the problem becomes complicated. In such gases, it is natural and reasonable to honour the authority of the oldest of the Srauta sutras belonging to that recension. So far as the Taittiriya recension is concerned, we have followed the lead of the Baudhayana Srauta sutra in the matter of dividing the mantras from one another. The Taittiriya Brahmana has its own system of punctuation. It has been generally followed, except in the case of the Hautra-portion where a pause has been shown only at the end of a verse—half, and not at the end of a quarter-verse.] As in Volume I, here too the end of a Mantra is indicated by two vertical strokes.

With a view to reducing the bulk of the Volume, identical Mantra-portions have been shown simply b pratikas. Thus when a Mantra from the Maitrayani, the Kathaka, etc., is exactly indentical with that from the Taittiriya text which proceeds, it is indicated only by pratika. This practice was adopted also in Volume I. The manner of citing references as adopted in Volume I was that, in the case of the of the Rgveda and the Atharvaveda, the reference was given at the end of each Mantra, while in the case of the Yajurveda – Krsna and Sukla – it was given in an abbreviated form at the beginning. Only a minor change has been made in the present Part, namely, that the reference to a Mantra from the Sukla Yajurveda – Madhyandina and Kanva – has been given at the end of that Mantra as in the case of Mantras from the Rgveda and the Atharvaveda.

From Volume IV

The Other Six Forms of the Soma-sacrifice – also containing the Agnistoma Expiation-Rites

Preface

It is with a sense of modest fulfillment that I take up the pen to write this brief preface. For, with the publication of this Third Part of the English Section of the Second Volume of the Srautakosa, the great research project, which the Vaidika Samsodhana Mandala had initiated nearly forty years ago, is, to a large extent, now being brought to completion. I am particularly happy that I could include in this Part the Agnistoma Expiation- Rites which should have actually found place in Part II of the English Section of Volume II.

On this occasion, I remember with respectful gratitude all persons who had been associated with this project in one way or another through all these years.

In the preparation of this Part, I have, as usual, derived invaluable help from my long lime colleague Professor C. G. Kashikar, who is now rightly recognized as one of the leading exponents of the literature and practice of Vedic Ritual. However, our special relationship forbids any formal thanksgiving.

Thanks are due to the staff of the Vaidika Samsodhana Mandala for their ready cooperation.

From Volume V

Encyclopedia of Vedic Sacrificial Ritual comprising the two complementary Sections, namely, the Sanskrit Section and the English Section.

Preface

The English Section of the second volume of the Srautakosa differs from the English Section of the first volume in one very significant respect. % In the English Section of the first volume, the translation of the Baudh5yana-Srauta- sutra—as rearranged in the Sanskrit Section under various topics-was given in full and this was followed by the English translation of only such extracts from the corresponding portions of the other Srautasutras as showed some divergence in the details of the procedure of the relevant sacrificial rite or of a part of it. But this practice often proved to be inconvenient and also inadequate. It has, therefore, been decided henceforth to give under each topic the English translation of the entire pertinent portions from all the Smutasi2tms— the order of the Srautasutras adopted in the English Section of the first volume being retained. It may, however, be added that, even in the present English Section, the old practice has been followed at a few places in connection with the Latyayana-and the Drahyayana-Srautasutras.

The second volume of the Srautasutra deals with only one—and perhaps the most important-sacrifice, namely, the Agnistoma. As in the case of the first volume, the English Section, complementary to the Sanskrit Section of this volume, will also be published in two parts. The present first part covers sixty topics. THQ remaining topics, the conspectus, and the other ancillaries will be included in the second part.

The English Section of the first volume, it was felt, was rather loaded with words printed in italics. An attempt has now been made to avoid this as far as possible. Some other typographical changes also have been introduced for the sake of the facility of reading and comprehension. These can be easily detected.

For the nature and scope of the Srautasutra and other details of methodology and presentation, reference is invited to the prefaces to the two parts of the English Section of the first volume.

I have to acknowledge with gratitude the constant help which I have received in the preparation of this Section from my friend and colleague, Dr. C. G. Kashikar. He carefully went through the first draft of my work and made many useful suggestions. I must, however, hasten to add that the responsibility for the final presentation rests entirely with me. Another colleague on whom I have relied is Dr. V. V. Bhide. Dr. T. N. Dharmadhikari of the Vaidika Samsodhana Mandala bore a large share of the burden in the matter of the printing of the present part of the English Section. I sincerely thank him for his assistance.

From Volume VI

English Section (Based on the Srautasutras belonging to the various Vedic Schools) Part II – The Agnistoma (continued) and The Ekadasini.

Preface

This second part of the English Section of the second volume of the Srautakosa completes the treatment of the Agnistoma and the Ekadasini as presented in the various Srautasutras. However, much to my chagrin, it has not been possible to include in this part the expiatory rites relating to these sacrifices.

As pointed out in the Preface to the first part, in the English Section of the second volume of the Srautakosa, the English translation of the entire relevant portions from all the Srautasutras has been given under each topic.

The debt of gratitude which I owe to my friend and colleague, Dr. C. G. KASHIKAR, for the constant help which I have received from him in the preparation of this Section defies adequate acknowledgement. He carefully went through the first draft of my translation and made many useful suggestions. However, the responsibility for the final presentation is entirely mine.

I have also to thank my young colleagues at the Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit, University of Poona, for the Index. This Index covers both the parts of the English Section of the second volume. The BORI —Press deserves credit for the careful and expeditious printing of this part.

From Volume VII

(Based on the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the Baudhayanasrautasutra) The seven Havis-sacrifices together with the relevant Optional and Expiatory Rites and the Pitrmedha.

From Volume VIII

The seven Soma-sacrifices, subsequent to the Agnistoma

Introduction

The Second Part of the Srautakosa Vol. II (Sanskrit) is now being published The First Part was published in 1970. There are of course reasons which are responsible for the delay in publishing this Part. I may be allowed to explain the facts so far as my position as the Editor of the present Part is concerned.

I retired from the services of the Vaidika Samsodhana Mandala in October 1967 when the First Part of the Srautakosa Volume II (Sanskrit) was still under print. Even after my retirement, I looked through the proofs, wrote the preface and thus completed the Part. The Part was published on July 18th, 1970. I was indeed sorry to leave the Srautakosa project midway. After my retirement from the Mandala, Part I and II of Srautakosa Volume II (English) were edited by Dr. R. N. Dandekar and were published respectively in 1973 and 1982. I rendered to Dr. Dandekar whatever help he asked for, as he himself has mentioned in his prefatory Words. With these two parts the English rendering of the srautasutra - portions dealing with the Agnistoma and arranged topic wise was made available to scholars.

In order that the Sanskrit version of the Srautakosa may take a step forward, the authorities of the Mandala approached me in 1985 and asked me to prepare at least one more Part of Volume II, There was the Sastracudamani scheme brought into operation by the Central Education Ministry under which a retired teacher or Pandit could do teaching or research work in association with an institution of learning. The appointment was initially for two years and could be extended by one year. The scheme was in operation at the Mandala. In consideration of my long association with the Mandala and the Srautakosa project, I agreed to edit Part II of Srautakosa Volume II (Sanskrit) under that scheme. I had to work singly; the help of my former colleague at the Srautakosa project Dr. V. V. Bhide was no more available to me since he had unfortunately passed away in 1985. I commenced the editorial work in October 1986 and finished it in September 1989. The scheme of the present Part prepared by me was approved by the Advisory Committee.

The present Part deals with the six Somasamsthas subsequent to the Agnistoma which formed Part I. According to the original plan, the Srautakosa Volume II was to comprise the seven S0ma—sacrifices, the Ekahas and the Rajasuya. So even with this Part II, the originally planned Volume II (Sanskrit) has not become complete.

So far as the Mantra—Brahmana portions are concerned, the present Part II mainly follows the plan of Part I of Volume II. The Mantra; and Brahmana—portions in Part I Agnistoma which are collected from the various texts mentioned in the prefaces to Volumes I and II (Sanskrit) and arranged topic wise have been spread over 181 sections. Many of these pertain to the Adhvaryava together with Brahmanas and Yajamana; others deal with the Hautra and Audgatra. The Agnistoma serves as the norm for the six Soma-sacrifices treated in this Part and also for any Soma sacrifice-Ekaha, Ahina or Sutra. The second of the Soma sacrifices with which the present Part commences, namely, Atyagnistomo is not treated in the Brahmanas even though it is mentioned in some of them. It is treated by the authors of the Srautasutras. The 181 sections of Agnistoma have therefore been taken as the basis for the description of each of the subsequent sacrifices. Each of these sacrifices involves the offering of more and more Soma-cups in the third pressing and there- fore takes more and more sections. Besides the addition of Soma-cups, these sacrifices also involve certain modifications and additions to certain rites which are taken over from the Agnistoma. In such cases the sections involving the additions and alterations have found place in the treatment of each sacrifice. In such sections only the additions and alterations have been recorded. Other details which are contained in the corresponding section of Agnistoma are of course to be understood. It follows that even those sections out of 181, which may be absent in the procedure of any sacrifice are to be taken over from the Agnistoma.

In extracting the material from the Brahmana -texts, it is the general policy to stick to the extraction of vidhi-elements as far as possible; arthavada -portions are generally ignored. In the present part the practice required to be modified a I little, that is to say, certain arthavada—sentences have been incorporated. This is particularly done in respect of the opening paragraph of a sacrifice in which the- Brahmanakara explained the origin of the sacrifice, laid down a myth or in some way tried to bring out the significance of the sacrifice. Therefore almost in all sacrifices the first section named as yagopakrama records such matter together with the preliminary instructions concerning the sacrifice. Further, in the sections pertaining to the Stotras and Sastras the place do related Brahmana sentences has been changed,. In Part I (Agnistoma) such a section commenced with the Stotra or Sastra itself and the Brahmana - sentences which have to say something to be done prior to the chanting of the Stotra or reciting of the Sastra, or to give instructions concerning the chanting or reciting, or to lay down certain accompanying rites followed the Stotra or Sastra_ In this Part all such Brahmanas -sentences have been reproduced at the beginning, and the Stotra or Sastra follows them.

Contents

Volume I

I. Setting up of the Sacred Fires 1-84
Conspectus 1
Preparation for the setting up of the sacred fires 5
Gopitr-sacrifice 26
Churning out the fire 30
Depositing of the fires in the fire-places 38
Sacrifices ancillary to the setting up of the sacred fires 53
Renewing and the third setting up of the sacred fires 71
Duties of the hotr in respect of the renewing of the sacred fires 78
Expiatory rites in connection with the setting up of the sacred fires 83
II. Agnihotra-Offering 85-198
Conspectus 85
Baudhayana 88
Bharadvaja 101
Apastamba 108
Satyasadha 120
Vaikhanasa 124
Manava 125
Varaha 129
Katyayana 131
Asvalayana 135
Sankhayana 138
Vaitana 142
Jaiminiya 144
Expiation-rites in connection with the Agnihotra 145
III. Optional (Kamya) Oblations 199-210
Conspectus 199
Jaya oblations and Abhyatana oblations 201
Rastrabhrt oblations 202
Samasta oblations 205
Caturhotrka oblations 205
IV. The New-Moon and the Full-Moon Sacrifices 211-501
Conspectus 211
The adding of fuel to the sacred fires 217
The driving away of the calves 226
The fetching of the sacrificial faggot and grass 230
The evening milking 242
The placing of the utensils and the carrying forth of the pranita waters 252
The pouring out of the oblation-material 264
From the pounding of grains to the placing of potsherds 272
The baking of the sacrificial cakes 285
The preparing of the altar 291
The cleansing of the ladles, the girding up of the sacrificer’s wife ad the taking up of clarified butter 302
The strewing of the sacrificial grass and the placing of the ladles 314
The placing of oblations 323
The putting of fire-sticks (with the samidhenis), the aghara libations, and the pravaras 329
The duties of the hotr: the recitation of the samidheni verses and allied rites 340
The prayaja and the ajyabhaga offerings 353
The duties of the hotr in connection with the prayaja and the ajyabhagaoffering 357
The principal offering and the svistakrt offering 362
The duties of the hotr in connection with the principal and the svistakrt offerings 370
Invocation of ida 372
The duties of the hotr in connection with the invocation of ida 385
The anvaharya cooked rice 389
The anuyaja, the suktavaka, and the samyuvaka 392
The duties of the hotr in connection with the anuyaja the suktavaka, and the samyuvaka 405
The patnisamyaja offerings 407
The duties of the hotr in connection with the patnisamyaja offerings 425
The Visnu-steps 428
Expiation-rites in connection with the New-moon and the Full-moon Sacrifices 436
Pindopitryajna 480
Expiation-rite in connection with the Pindapitryajna 499
The sacrifices to Vaimrdha Indra and to Aditi 500
V. The Offering of the First Fruits 502-515
Conspectus 502
The offering of the first fruits 503
Expiation-rites in connection with the Offering of the first fruits 514
VI. Optional New-Moon and Full-Moon Sacrifices 516-528
Sacrifice to Agni-Visnu 516
Sakamprasthayiya sacrifice 517
Sumand sacrifice 518
Daksayana sacrifice 519
Idadadha sacrifice 523
Catuscakra sacrifice 524
Sarvaseni sacrifice 525
Saunaka sacrifice 525
Vasistha sacrifice 526
Munyayana 526
Turayana 526
Dyavaprthivyor ayanam 526
Optional Sacrifices to be performed subsequent to the New-moon and the full-moon sacrifices 527
Appendix 529-535
Errata 536-537

Volume II

VII. Optional Sacrifices 539-645
Prefatory note 539
General rules regarding the Optional Sacrifices 542
Optional Sacrifices 547
VIII. The Caturmasyas 646-767
IX. The Optional and Other Forms of the Caturmasyas 768-769
X. The Animal-Sacrifice 770-876
XI. Optional Animal-Sacrifices 877-893
XII. Caturmasyas with Animal-Offerings 894-898
XIII. Sautramani 899-943
XIV. The General Rule 944-978
XV. The Pravaras 979-1032
XVI. The Pitrmedha 1033-1132
Addenda & Corrigenda 1133-1150
Supplement 1150-1158
Index of Important Words and Topics 1159

Volume IV

The Atyagnistoma 1-3
Ukthya 4-19
The Sodasin 20-44
Vajapeya 45-119
Atiratra 120-162
Aptoryama 163-182
Appendix I: Vadhula-Srautasutra, Vajapeya; Aptoryama 183-200
Appendix II: Agnistoma Expiation Rites; Baudhayan-Srautasutra 201-224
Appendix III: Agnistoma Expiation – Rites; Srautasutras other than Baudh SS
Bharadvaja SS 225-227
Apastamba SS 227-242
Satyasadha SS 242-245
Vaikhanasa SS 245-252
Manava SS 253-256
Varaha-Prayascitta 256-261
Vadhula SS 261-262
Katyayana SS 262-269
Asvalayana SS 269-273
Sankhayana SS 273-276
Atharvavedaprayascittani 276-280
Index 281-317

Volume V

Agnistoma
1. Choosing the officiating priests and asking for a place for sacrifice 1
2. Putting up the Pracinavamsa hall 17
3. The intermediate initiation-rite 18
4. Preparation of the Pravargva-utensils 28
5. The Apsudiksa and Diksaniyesti 47
6. The Hautra in the Diksaniyesti 65
7. The Audgatra in the Diksaniyesti 66
8. The initiation of the sacrificer 67
9. Going out on a journey and the Prayaniyesti 100
10. The Hautra relating to the Prayaniyesti 111
11. The Audgatra relating to the Prayaniyesti 112
12. Purchase of Soma 112
13. The Hautra relating to the purchase of Soma 144
14. The Atithyesti, etc. 145
15. The Hautra relating to the Atithyesti 164
16. The Audgatra relating to the Atithyesti 165
17. The procedure of the first forenoon Pravargya 166
18. The Hautra relating to the first forenoon Pravargya 189
19. The Audgatra relating to the first forenoon Pravargya191
20. The first forenoon Gharma-offering 192
21. The Hautra relating to the first forenoon Gharma-offering 210
22. The Audgatra relating to the first forenoon Gharma-offering 212
23. The first forenoon Upasad, etc. 214
24. The Hautra relating to the first forenoon Upasad 227
25. The Audgatra relating to the first forenoon Upasad 228
26. The first afternoon Pravargya 229
27. The Hautra relating to the first afternoon Pravargya231
28. The first afternoon Upasad, etc. 232
29. The Hautra relating to the first afternoon Upasad 233
30. The Audgatra relating to the first afternoon Upasad 234
31. The middle forenoon Pravargva and Upasad 234
32. The preparation of the Mahavedi and the pouring down (of earth) for the Uttaravedi 236
33. The middle afternoon Pravargya and Upasad 242
34. The last forenoon and afternoon Pravargya and Upasad 243
35. The disposal of the Pravargya 245
36. The Audgatra relating to the disposal of the Pravargya 265
37. From the carrying forth of the fire up to the setting in motion of the havirdhana-carts 266
38. The Hautra relating to the rites beginning with the carrying forth of the fire and ending with the setting in motion of the havirdhana-carts 278
39. The Audgatra relating to the carrying forth of the fire 279
40. The putting up of the Sadas, the Havirdhana, etc. 280
41. The Audgatra relating to the putting up of the Sadas and the Havirdhana 309
42. The formal carrying forth of Agni-Soma 312
43. The Hautra relating to the formal carrying forth of fire and Soma 330
44. The Audgatra relating to the formal carrying forth of fire and Soma 332
45. The offering of the omentum of the animal for Agni-Soma 333
46. The Hautra relating to the offering of the omentum of the animal for Agni-Soma 339
47. The pronouncing of the subrahmanys characterized by the mention of fathers and sons339
48. Taking up of the vasativari water 342
49. Offering of the pasupurodasa and the animal’s organs 345
50. The Hautra relating to the offering of the agnisomiya pasupurodasa 347
51. The carrying round of the vasativari water and the pronouncing of the subrahmanya characterized by the mention of the names of fathers and sons 350
The Morning-Pressing
52. The commencement of the day of pressing 358
53. The Prataranuvaka 376
54. The Audgatra relating to the commencement of the Soma-pressing 385
55. The taking up of water 386
56. The Audgatra relating to the taking up of water 399
57. The offering of the dadhigraha, the adabhya-cup, and the amsu-cup 400
58. The offering of the upamsu cup 410
59. The Soma-pressing 442
60. The offering of the antaryama cup 431

Volume VI

Agnistoma (Continued)
61. The taking up of Soma-juice in cups and vessels 437
62. The Audgatra relating to the taking up of the cups 452
63. The moving out for the Bahispavamana 454
64. The Bahispavamana-Stotra 559
65. Rites ending with the Offering of the omentum of the Savanjya animal 569
66. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the omentum of the Savanlya animal 481
67. The Audgatra relating to the offering of the omentum of the Savaniya animal 483
68. Entering into the Sada 483
69. The Offering of the Savanlya purodasas 501
70. The Hautra relating to the Savaniya purodasas 506
71. The procedure relating to the cups to the Divinity-pairs 508
72. The Hautra relating to the procedure in connection with the cups for the Divinity-pairs 520
73. The procedure relating to the Sukra and the Manthin 522
74. he Haurta relating to the procedure in connection with the Sukra and the Manthin cups 536
75. The procedure relating to the goblets of the Hotrakas 537
76. The Hautra relating to the procedure in connection with the goblets of the Hotrakas 541
77. The consuming of the Soma offered to the Divinity-pairs 543
78. The Savaniya-ida 550
79. The consuming of the Savanamukha Soma 553
80. The procedure relating to the Acchavaka’s goblet 560
81. The Hautra relating to the procedure in connection with the Acchavaka’s goblet 564
82. The procedure relating to the Rtu cups 566
83. The Hautra relating to the procedure in connection with the Rtu cups 575
84. The taking up of the Aindragna cup 576
85. The Ajya-Sastra 579
86. The procedure relating to the Offering of the Aindragna cup and the taking up of the Vaisvadeva cup 585
87. The first Ajya-Stotra 591
88. The Prauga-Sastra 594
89. The procedure relating to the Offering of the Vaisvadeva cup and the taking up of the Maitravaruna cup 596
90. The second Ajya-Stotra 600
91. The Maitravaruna-Sastra 601
92. The procedure relating to the offering of the Maitravaruna cup and the taking up of the Aindra cup 602
93. The third Ajya-Stotra 607
94. The Brahmanacchamsi-Sastra 608
95. The procedure relating to the Offering of the Aindra cup and the taking up of the Aindragna cup 609
96. The fourth Ajya-Stotra 613
97. The Acchavaka-Sastra 613
98. The procedure relating to the Offering of the Aindragna cup 614
The Midday-Pressing
99. The pressing out of Soma 619
100. The Laud by the Gravastut 625
101. The filling in of the cups 627
102. The moving out for the Madhyamdina Pavamana Stotra 631
103. The Madhyamdina Pavamana Stotra 634
104. The procedure relating to the Dadhigharma 637
105. The Hautra relating to the Dadhigharma 644
106. The offering of the Savaniya pasu-purodasa 645
107. The Hautra relating to the offering of the Savaniya pasu-purodasa 645
108. The offering of the Savaniya purodasas 646
109. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Savaniya purodasas 648
110. The Offering of the Sukra and the Manthin cups 649
111. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Sukra and the Manthin 652
112. The procedure relating to the goblets of the Hotrakas 652
113. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Hotrakas’ goblets 654
114. The Savaniya-ida 655
115. The consuming of the Savanamuha Soma 655
116. The Daksinas 658
117. The Marutvatiya Offering 679
118. The Hautra relating to the Marutvatiya Offering 681
119. The filling in of the third Marutvatiya cup682
120. The Marutvatiya-Sastra 683
121. The Offering of the Marutvatiya cup and the taking up of the Mahendra cup 686
122. The first Prstha-Stotra 690
123. The Niskevalya-Sastra 693
124. The Offering of the Mahendra cup and the taking up of the Aindra cup 698
125. The second Prstha-Stotra 702
126. The Maitravaruna-Sastra 703
127. The Offering of the Aindra cup and the taking up of the Aindra cup 704
128. The third Prstha-Stotra 705
129. The Brahmanacchamsi-Sastra 705
130. The Offering of the Aindra cup and the taking up of (another) Aindra cup 707
131. The fourth Prstha-Stotra 708
132. The Acchavaka-Sastra 708
133. The Offering of the Other Aindra cup 709
The Third Pressing
134. The pressing out of the Rjisa and the Offering of the Aditya cup 710
135. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Aditya cup 720
136. The taking up of the cups 721
137. The moving out for the Arbhava Pavamana 724
138. The Arbhava Pavamana-Stotra 727
139. The offering of the organs of the Savaniya animal 729
140. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the organs of the Savaniya animal 732
141. The Offering of the Svaniya animal 733
142. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Savaniya purodasas 735
143. The Offering at the beginning of the pressing 736
144. The Hautra relating to the Offering at the beginning of the pressing 739
145. The Offering of the goblets of the Hotrakas 739
146. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the goblets of the Hotrakas 741
147. The Savaniya-ida 742
148. The consuming of Soma at the beginning of the pressing 742
149. The Offering of the balls 744
150. The offering of the Savitra cup 748
151. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Savitra cup 750
152. The taking up of the Vaisvadeva cup 750
153. The Vaisvadeva-Sastra 752
154. The Offering of the Vaisvadeva cup 755
155. The Offering of cooked rice to Soma 758
156. The Hautra relating to the Offering of cooked rice to Soma 764
157. The Offering of the Patnivata cup765
158. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Patnivata 769
159. The filling in of the Hotr’sgoblet 770
160. The Agnistoma-Stotra 772
161. The Agnimaruta Sastra 776
162. The Offering of the Hotr’s goblet 781
The Tail of the Sacrifice
163. The rites beginning with the Anuyajas and ending with the Offering of the Hariyojana 785
164. The Hautra relating to the rites ending with the offering of the Hariyojana 789
165. The partaking of the parched grains, etc. 790
166. The Audgatra relating to the consuming of the dhanas, etc. 801
167. The commencement of the Avabhrtha 801
168. The Audgatra relating to the Avabhrtha 808
169. The Avabhrtha-isti 809
170. The Hautra relating to the Avabhrtha-isti 821
171. The Udayaniya Isti 822
172. The Hautra relating to the Udayaniya Isti 826
173. The Audgatra relating to the Udayaniya Isti 826
174. The Offering of the anubandhya 827
175. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the anubandhya 832
176. The Audgatra relating to the Offering of the anubandhya 833
177. The Udavasaniya Isti 834
178. The Hautra relating to the Udavasaniya Isti837
179. The Audgatra relating to the Udavasaniya Isti 838
180. The Devika oblations 839
181. The Hautra relating to the Devika oblations 843
The Ekadasini 844-868
Index 869-894

Srautakosa (Encyclopedia of Vedic Sacrificial Ritual Sanskrit and English) (In Eight Volumes)(An Old Book)

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1958
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Srautakosa (Encyclopedia of Vedic Sacrificial Ritual Sanskrit and English) (In Eight Volumes)(An Old Book)

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From Volume I

Based on the Srautasutra belonging to the various Vedic Schools
The seven Havis-sacrifices together with the relevant Optional and Expiatory Rites and the Pitrmedha.

Preface

The Two Sections of the Srautakosa

A detailed statement regarding the scheme of the Srautakosa is embodied in the Preface to the Sanskrit Section, which is reproduced also in the present English Section. It will be seen from that statement that the English Section constitutes a necessary complement to the Sanskrit Section and that the two Sections together complete the Srautakosa. The Sanskrit Section comprises portions from the Samhitas, Brahmanas, and Aranyakas, relating to the various details of the Vedic sacrifices, which latter are arranged according to a specific plan. It also gives, under corresponding topics, the relevant portions from the, Baudhayana Srautasutra; The English Section closely follows the order of the treatment Of the Vedic sacrificial ritual adopted in the Sanskrit Section. •It first? Gives the literal translation in English of the Baudhayana Srautasutra as rearranged under various topics in the Sanskrit Section. The translation of each such portion from the BaudhSS relating to a sacrificial rite or a T group of rites is followed by the English translation of the portions from other Srautasutras relating to the corresponding rites or groups of rites. For reasons mentioned elsewhere, the Sanskrit originals of these portions from the Sutras (other than the BaudhSS) have not been included in the Sanskrit Section. While giving their English translation in the present Section, the following procedure has been adopted :

(i) After the BaudhSS, the other Srautasutras are treated in the following order: Bharadvaja, Apastamba, Satyasadha, Vaikhanasa, Manava, Varaha, Katyayana, Asvalayana, Sankhyayana, Latyayana, Drahyayana, Jaiminiya and Vaitana. Certain Grhya and other Sutras have also been taken into account wherever necessary.

(ii) Such portions from a particular Sutra, as agree with the corresponding portions from the BaudhSS _or any of the preceding Sutras, have not been translated. The aim has always been to draw attention to the points of divergence in respect of a sacrificial rite or a part of it to be found in different Sutras. The portions from the Srautasutras thus omitted in the translation have, however, been indicated by means of the sign (-). T Where there is complete identity between a particular Sutra on the one hand and the BaudhSS or any other preceding Sutra on the other, the sign (E) is used; where there is partial identity, the sign ( é ) is used. Though; there- fore, the Sutras other than the BaudhSS have not been translated in their entirety, it is quite possible, on account of the devices mentioned above, to reconstruct their whole ritual.

The English Section of the Srautakosa thus aims. at reproducing, in a systematic manner, all that the Srautasutras have to say about a particular ritual or a part of it. And the Sanskrit Section and the English Section together present, partly in Sanskrit and partly in English, the entire Vedic material pertaining to the various aspects of the complex sacrificial ritual, and thereby enable one to form a comparative estimate of the evolution of that ritual in the different Vedic schools.

The Vedic Ritual

It is proposed to include, in the last Volume of the Srautakosa, a fairly detailed essay on the various aspects of the theory and practice of Vedic sacrifice. A few general, observations may, however, be made at this stage. According to the ancient Purva Mimamsa tradition, the Veda is essentially kriyartha; that is to say, its main purpose is to lay down injunctions relating to the performance of sacrifice. The nature of sacrifice —which is, indeed, the only true Dharma—can, therefore, be adequately realised only through these Vedic injunctions. The Veda is claimed to be apauruseya. No human agency is believed to have been responsible for its creation. Naturally enough, sacrifice, which is supposed to be the principal subject-matter of the Veda, is also believed to be apauruseya. One cannot accordingly speak of the institution of sacrifice as having been devised by any human agency. Verily, it is as immemorial as the Veda itself. Traditionally, the study of the Veda is obligatory on all persons belonging to the first three social orders. So too is the performance of sacrifice which is enjoined by the Veda.

An important feature of the Vedic sacrificial ritual is that it is believed to aim at both the emancipation of the individual as well as the progress _of the society. Sacrifice not only conduces to the spiritual enlightenment and improvement of the sacrificer and the officiating priests, but it also proves to be a powerful means of promoting social solidarity and progress. In the history of the Vedic Aryans, there was a time when sacrifice had become the very centre of the social and cultural life of the entire community. 'It had, indeed, very significantly influenced almost every field of activity of the Vedic people. Naturally enough, therefore, the Vedic ritual constituted the main theme of a major portion of the Vedic literature. Though, according to the scriptures, only persons belonging to certain specific social orders were entitled to perform a sacrifice, so far as its actual performance was concerned, people belonging to all strata of the society were involved in it, in one way or another. Every responsible constituent of the Vedic community, accordingly, took a personal interest in the performance of a sacrifice-a fact which went a long way in promoting a kind of communal solidarity. The importance of Vedic sacrifice as a significant social force in the cultural history of ancient India can, therefore, be hardly overestimated. It may be further pointed out that it was the Vedic sacrificial ritual which had, in a sense, created the necessary background for the evolution of the philosophy of the Upanisads. A study of the institution of Vedic sacrifice is, therefore, very essential for a proper understanding and estimate of Vedic literature, religion and philosophy, and culture.

It is, however, not only from the point of view of the cultural history of ancient India that the study of Vedic ritual is important. Its study is important also from the larger anthropological point of view. For, the e ideology underlying the Vedic sacrifice marks a distinct stage in the evolution ‘of human thought as a whole.

Literature on Vedic Ritual

The literary basis of the Vedic ritual is, obviously, the Veda. The Veda comprises the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, and the Upanisads. The Upanisads, which form the concluding portion of the Veda (Vedanta), are, however, not directly related to ritual practices. After the Veda proper are to be mentioned, in the present context, the Srautasutras, which deal with the Vedic sacrifice in a systematic and detailed manner, strictly following the Samhitas and the Brahmanas including the Aranyakas. It is, therefore, customary to regard the Srautasutras as a component part of the Vedic literature, though they do not claim to be apauruseya.

A close study of the Vedic literature shows that the literary tradition of several Vedic schools has been lost in course of time. Nevertheless, the tradition of the Vedic ritual practices as such has been preserved, through the centuries, in a fairly complete form. The credit for this must in the main belong to the Srautasutras and the various works on Purva Mimamsa which had been produced from time to time.

There had also been produced practical manuals on ritual, called Prayogas, for the use of the priests officiating at different sacrifices. These manuals normally related themselves to specific Vedic schools. And the fact that, in a single Vedic school, there sometimes existed different traditions of ritual practices, as represented in these Prayogas, speaks for the wide sway which the institution of sacrifice generally held over the life of the people. Practical manuals like the Prayogas must certainly have been indispensable for the officiating priests, and they must have been written from very early times. There is, indeed, a view that some sort of Prayogas must have been in vogue even before the compilation of the Srautasutras proper.‘ On the other hand, it has been suggested that "the performance of sacrifices was taught as a practical art, and that the theoretic instruction supplied by the Brahmanas was conveyed orally in connection with such practical performances. That the latter was the case is sufficiently evident from the constant occurrence in the Brahmanas of demonstrative pronouns and particles_ of a ‘deictic’ force." “It is, however, difficult to believe that the knowledge of the ritual practices had been transmitted from the time of the Brahmanas to that of the Srautasutras only through oral tradition. The Srautasutras themselves seem to presuppose the existence of some written manuals. Like the Brahmanas, the Srautasutras also often use demonstrative pronouns.’ The reason for this must be traced to the normal practice of the earlier manuals which, even while committing the ritual practices to writing, presupposed the instructions of a theoretical character being given orally. Again, the Srautasutras, many times, prescribe suitable grammatical modifications (uha) in respect of certain yajus. In view of the difference between the spoken language and the scriptural language in the time of the Sutras, such complicated modifications could not have come down merely through oral tradition.

The Prayogas are at present available mostly in manuscript form. Very few Srauta Prayogas have been printed so far. The Prayogas are, no doubt, considerably helpful in the matter of the understanding of the Srautasutras; but they have to be used with some reservation. For, they often tend to effect modifications in the original rites, partly under the influence of other Vedic schools and partly on account of the chanced circumstances. A comparative study of the different Prayogas in relation to the corresponding Srautasutras, on the one hand, and the other Prayogas belonging to the same school, on the other, is an important but a vast subject, which demands independent treatment.

From Volume II

Preface

We have great pleasure in presenting to the public the second Part of the English Section of Srautakosa, Vol. I. It is highly gratifying for us that the First Part, which was published in 1958, has been unanimously received by scholars with approbation‘. While expressing our sincere thanks to all of them for their kind words of appreciation and encouragement, we would like to take this opportunity to consider certain suggestions made by some of them in the course of their reviews and private communications.

In the English Section, Part I, verses or yajus occurring in a Sutra- text have not been translated. The reasons for this have already been given r in the Preface to that Part (p. 12). It was, however, suggested by one of` the reviewers that the translation of the entire verse or yajus•(irrespective of whether it was quoted in full or merely indicated by pratika in the Sutra- text) should have been given at each occurrence of that verse or yajus; for, such a translation, it was claimed, might throw some useful light on the true nature and significance of the rite with which that verse or yajus was connected. Without examining, at this stage, the validity of this claim in detail, we may say that, after careful consideration of the point, we thought it fit not to change our policy in this regard in this second Part of the first Volume. This decision was, no doubt, prompted, to a large extent, by practical considerations. To give the translation of entire verses or yajus would have meant considerable increase in the size of the Volume. It would have been necessary to repeat in full the translation of a particular verse or yajus as many times as that verse or yajus might occur in the different Sutra-texts. This would have further added to the size of the Volume. Moreover, as pointed out in the Preface of the first Part, translations of most of these verses and e yajus are now more or less easily available. There was another, perhaps more substantial, reason why the practice of reproducing only the pratikas of the mantras was continued. It was felt that a comparison of the rituals as given in the different Sutra- texts would be much facilitated by referring to the original verse or yajus rather than to its translation.

It was suggested by another reviewer that at least such verses and yajus, as are not traceable to any of the Samhitas or other Vedic texts but are known only from the.Sr2tras, should have been translated. This point had already occurred to us; but we did not accept it for two main reasons. Firstly, we thought that it would look a little odd if only some mantras were translated while a far larger number of them were represented through pratikas.

Secondly, the mantras occurring only in the Sutras often presented defective text and naturally involved many exegetical problems. We thought that the discussion of these problems, without which a translation was neither possible nor desirable, would not be quite apropos.

In the first Part, while giving; the translation of the various topically rearranged portions from the Baudhayana Srautasutra, the references to the original sutras relating to a particular topic as also to the sutras in the Dvaidha, the Karmanta, and the Prayascitta portions relevant to that topic were all given together at the beginning of that topic. It was suggested by one of the reviewers that the references to the different portions of the Sutra- texts should be given separately at the proper places so that the under- standing of the different portions of the Sutra-text might be facilitated. This suggestion has been accepted, and, accordingly, in this Part, the references to the different portions of the Baudhayana Srautasutra are given both at the beginning of a topic and also where the translations of the different portions begin.

The plan of this second Part otherwise closely follows that of the first. The pagination and the numbering of the chapters in this Part are in continuation of the first Part. The second Part accordingly begins with p. 539 and Chapter VII.

From Volume III

Based on the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the Baudhayanasrautasutra) Agnistoma with Pravargya

Preface

We have great pleasure in presenting to the world of scholars the First Part of the Sanskrit Section of the Second Volume of the Srautakosa. It may be recalled that the project of the Srautakosa is scheduled to consist of four Volumes in all. Volumes I-III, each comprising a Sanskrit Section and an English Section, will describe in detail the entire Vedic ritual partly through original texts and partly through English translations, while Volume IV will contain Mantra-register, glossary of technical terms, and charts and diagrams of the various sacrificial Viharas and implements. The Sanskrit Section and Part 1 of the English Section of the First Volume of the Srautakosa were published in 1958, and Part 2 of the English Section of that Volume was published by the end of 1962.

I now this First Part of the Sanskrit Section of Volume II of the Srautakosa is being brought out after an interval of over seven years. This delay, which is sincerely regretted, has been caused by many factors over which we hardly had any control. As a matter of fact, according to our plan, the whole of the Sanskrit Section of Volume II was to appear in a single book. It was, however, decided to divide the Section into two Parts, and first publish its First Part which deals with the Agnistoma. And this for two reasons 2 firstly, if the entire Sanskrit Section were to be published in a single book, that book would be too bulky; and, secondly-and this is perhaps more pertinent-the publication of the entire Section would have meant further delay since the subject-matter to be dealt with in the latter Part of the Section, namely, the six out of the seven Soma—sacrifices and the Ekahas which are characterized as the modified forms of Agnistoma, is found to be far too complicated and time—consuming.

In the preparation of the present Part of the Sanskrit Section of Volume II of the Srautakosa we have generally adopted the same pattern as in connection with the Sanskrit Section- of Volume I. This Part gives the Mantra- and Brahmana-portions from •all the available Vedic texts, arranged under different topics, as also the relevant portions from the Baudhayana Srautasutra. As before, the mantras have been reproduced without accents. The sacrifice dealt with in this Part is the Agnistoma—-the basic Soma—sacrif1ce——together with the Ekadasini and the Prayascittas, and the entire subject-matter has been presented in 3.81 significant sections. V It may be noted that, whereas the rituals described in the Sanskrit Section of Volume I were mainly based on two Vedas, namely, the Yajurveda and the Rgveda, those described in the present Part are based on three Vedas, namely, the Yajurveda, the Rgveda and the Samaveda. As for the Sanskrit Section of Volume I, so too for this Part, the Atharvaveda has been taken into account wherever necessary.

The duties of the Adhvaryu and his assistants are usually to be carried out in accordance with the Yajurveda, those of the Hotr and his assistants in accordance with the Rgveda, and those of the Udgatr and his assistants in accordance with the Samaveda. In some cases the Brahman and his assistants perform their duties according to the Atharvaveda. However, most of the rites in the Agnistoma——and for that matter of a any Soma-sacrifice—mainly involve the duties of the Adhvaryus, the Udgatrs, and the Hotrs, and are there- fore dealt with under separate sections relating to these latter. The duties of the Brahman have not been assigned separate sections.

In their L’Agnistoma’ Caland and Henry have described the ritual of the Agnistoma under a number of heads. These have, no doubt, been duly taken into account, but we think that our arrangement of the different sections is more convenient and appropriate.

As in the earlier volume, black type has been used for the Mantra- portion and a thinner one for the Brahmana—portion. Mantras or Mantra- like passages such as Praises etc, occurring within the Brahmana—portion, have been printed in black. Though the Brahmana belonging to a particular Veda generally confines itself to the treatment of the duties of the officiating priests connected with that Veda, it sometimes incidentally deals with the duties of the other groups of priests also. In such cases, portion, from the Vedic text, in which a particular subject —•is treated as a principal subject, is recorded first and that from the text, in which that subject is only incidentally dealt with, is reproduced later. For example, when the Taittiriya texts, whose principal theme is the Adhvaryava, incidentally deal with the Hautra, those Hautra portions from the Taittiriya texts are recorded only after the relevant Hautra portions from the Aitareya and the Sankhayana Brahman; s. As a rule, the Mantras are given first, and are then followed by the relevant Brahmana- portions. Sometimes it happens—and this, particularly in respect of the Taittiriya recession——that the Mantras to be reproduced in a particular section are scattered at two or more different places in the Taittiriya Samhita, and are also found in the Taittiriya Brahmana. Similar is the case with regard to the Brahmana—portions. In such cases, the Mantra and the Brahmana portions are reproduced intermixedly, generally in accordance with the order of the ritual. However, the Mantras always precede the relevant Brahmana portion.

The employment of Mantra from any Samhita is primarily governed by the relevant Brahmana—portion. When the Brahmana is not quite clear about the extent of any Mantra to be employed, one has naturally to `depend upon the Srautasutra belonging to that Vedic recension. When, however, there are more such Srautasutras than one, the problem becomes complicated. In such gases, it is natural and reasonable to honour the authority of the oldest of the Srauta sutras belonging to that recension. So far as the Taittiriya recension is concerned, we have followed the lead of the Baudhayana Srauta sutra in the matter of dividing the mantras from one another. The Taittiriya Brahmana has its own system of punctuation. It has been generally followed, except in the case of the Hautra-portion where a pause has been shown only at the end of a verse—half, and not at the end of a quarter-verse.] As in Volume I, here too the end of a Mantra is indicated by two vertical strokes.

With a view to reducing the bulk of the Volume, identical Mantra-portions have been shown simply b pratikas. Thus when a Mantra from the Maitrayani, the Kathaka, etc., is exactly indentical with that from the Taittiriya text which proceeds, it is indicated only by pratika. This practice was adopted also in Volume I. The manner of citing references as adopted in Volume I was that, in the case of the of the Rgveda and the Atharvaveda, the reference was given at the end of each Mantra, while in the case of the Yajurveda – Krsna and Sukla – it was given in an abbreviated form at the beginning. Only a minor change has been made in the present Part, namely, that the reference to a Mantra from the Sukla Yajurveda – Madhyandina and Kanva – has been given at the end of that Mantra as in the case of Mantras from the Rgveda and the Atharvaveda.

From Volume IV

The Other Six Forms of the Soma-sacrifice – also containing the Agnistoma Expiation-Rites

Preface

It is with a sense of modest fulfillment that I take up the pen to write this brief preface. For, with the publication of this Third Part of the English Section of the Second Volume of the Srautakosa, the great research project, which the Vaidika Samsodhana Mandala had initiated nearly forty years ago, is, to a large extent, now being brought to completion. I am particularly happy that I could include in this Part the Agnistoma Expiation- Rites which should have actually found place in Part II of the English Section of Volume II.

On this occasion, I remember with respectful gratitude all persons who had been associated with this project in one way or another through all these years.

In the preparation of this Part, I have, as usual, derived invaluable help from my long lime colleague Professor C. G. Kashikar, who is now rightly recognized as one of the leading exponents of the literature and practice of Vedic Ritual. However, our special relationship forbids any formal thanksgiving.

Thanks are due to the staff of the Vaidika Samsodhana Mandala for their ready cooperation.

From Volume V

Encyclopedia of Vedic Sacrificial Ritual comprising the two complementary Sections, namely, the Sanskrit Section and the English Section.

Preface

The English Section of the second volume of the Srautakosa differs from the English Section of the first volume in one very significant respect. % In the English Section of the first volume, the translation of the Baudh5yana-Srauta- sutra—as rearranged in the Sanskrit Section under various topics-was given in full and this was followed by the English translation of only such extracts from the corresponding portions of the other Srautasutras as showed some divergence in the details of the procedure of the relevant sacrificial rite or of a part of it. But this practice often proved to be inconvenient and also inadequate. It has, therefore, been decided henceforth to give under each topic the English translation of the entire pertinent portions from all the Smutasi2tms— the order of the Srautasutras adopted in the English Section of the first volume being retained. It may, however, be added that, even in the present English Section, the old practice has been followed at a few places in connection with the Latyayana-and the Drahyayana-Srautasutras.

The second volume of the Srautasutra deals with only one—and perhaps the most important-sacrifice, namely, the Agnistoma. As in the case of the first volume, the English Section, complementary to the Sanskrit Section of this volume, will also be published in two parts. The present first part covers sixty topics. THQ remaining topics, the conspectus, and the other ancillaries will be included in the second part.

The English Section of the first volume, it was felt, was rather loaded with words printed in italics. An attempt has now been made to avoid this as far as possible. Some other typographical changes also have been introduced for the sake of the facility of reading and comprehension. These can be easily detected.

For the nature and scope of the Srautasutra and other details of methodology and presentation, reference is invited to the prefaces to the two parts of the English Section of the first volume.

I have to acknowledge with gratitude the constant help which I have received in the preparation of this Section from my friend and colleague, Dr. C. G. Kashikar. He carefully went through the first draft of my work and made many useful suggestions. I must, however, hasten to add that the responsibility for the final presentation rests entirely with me. Another colleague on whom I have relied is Dr. V. V. Bhide. Dr. T. N. Dharmadhikari of the Vaidika Samsodhana Mandala bore a large share of the burden in the matter of the printing of the present part of the English Section. I sincerely thank him for his assistance.

From Volume VI

English Section (Based on the Srautasutras belonging to the various Vedic Schools) Part II – The Agnistoma (continued) and The Ekadasini.

Preface

This second part of the English Section of the second volume of the Srautakosa completes the treatment of the Agnistoma and the Ekadasini as presented in the various Srautasutras. However, much to my chagrin, it has not been possible to include in this part the expiatory rites relating to these sacrifices.

As pointed out in the Preface to the first part, in the English Section of the second volume of the Srautakosa, the English translation of the entire relevant portions from all the Srautasutras has been given under each topic.

The debt of gratitude which I owe to my friend and colleague, Dr. C. G. KASHIKAR, for the constant help which I have received from him in the preparation of this Section defies adequate acknowledgement. He carefully went through the first draft of my translation and made many useful suggestions. However, the responsibility for the final presentation is entirely mine.

I have also to thank my young colleagues at the Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit, University of Poona, for the Index. This Index covers both the parts of the English Section of the second volume. The BORI —Press deserves credit for the careful and expeditious printing of this part.

From Volume VII

(Based on the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the Baudhayanasrautasutra) The seven Havis-sacrifices together with the relevant Optional and Expiatory Rites and the Pitrmedha.

From Volume VIII

The seven Soma-sacrifices, subsequent to the Agnistoma

Introduction

The Second Part of the Srautakosa Vol. II (Sanskrit) is now being published The First Part was published in 1970. There are of course reasons which are responsible for the delay in publishing this Part. I may be allowed to explain the facts so far as my position as the Editor of the present Part is concerned.

I retired from the services of the Vaidika Samsodhana Mandala in October 1967 when the First Part of the Srautakosa Volume II (Sanskrit) was still under print. Even after my retirement, I looked through the proofs, wrote the preface and thus completed the Part. The Part was published on July 18th, 1970. I was indeed sorry to leave the Srautakosa project midway. After my retirement from the Mandala, Part I and II of Srautakosa Volume II (English) were edited by Dr. R. N. Dandekar and were published respectively in 1973 and 1982. I rendered to Dr. Dandekar whatever help he asked for, as he himself has mentioned in his prefatory Words. With these two parts the English rendering of the srautasutra - portions dealing with the Agnistoma and arranged topic wise was made available to scholars.

In order that the Sanskrit version of the Srautakosa may take a step forward, the authorities of the Mandala approached me in 1985 and asked me to prepare at least one more Part of Volume II, There was the Sastracudamani scheme brought into operation by the Central Education Ministry under which a retired teacher or Pandit could do teaching or research work in association with an institution of learning. The appointment was initially for two years and could be extended by one year. The scheme was in operation at the Mandala. In consideration of my long association with the Mandala and the Srautakosa project, I agreed to edit Part II of Srautakosa Volume II (Sanskrit) under that scheme. I had to work singly; the help of my former colleague at the Srautakosa project Dr. V. V. Bhide was no more available to me since he had unfortunately passed away in 1985. I commenced the editorial work in October 1986 and finished it in September 1989. The scheme of the present Part prepared by me was approved by the Advisory Committee.

The present Part deals with the six Somasamsthas subsequent to the Agnistoma which formed Part I. According to the original plan, the Srautakosa Volume II was to comprise the seven S0ma—sacrifices, the Ekahas and the Rajasuya. So even with this Part II, the originally planned Volume II (Sanskrit) has not become complete.

So far as the Mantra—Brahmana portions are concerned, the present Part II mainly follows the plan of Part I of Volume II. The Mantra; and Brahmana—portions in Part I Agnistoma which are collected from the various texts mentioned in the prefaces to Volumes I and II (Sanskrit) and arranged topic wise have been spread over 181 sections. Many of these pertain to the Adhvaryava together with Brahmanas and Yajamana; others deal with the Hautra and Audgatra. The Agnistoma serves as the norm for the six Soma-sacrifices treated in this Part and also for any Soma sacrifice-Ekaha, Ahina or Sutra. The second of the Soma sacrifices with which the present Part commences, namely, Atyagnistomo is not treated in the Brahmanas even though it is mentioned in some of them. It is treated by the authors of the Srautasutras. The 181 sections of Agnistoma have therefore been taken as the basis for the description of each of the subsequent sacrifices. Each of these sacrifices involves the offering of more and more Soma-cups in the third pressing and there- fore takes more and more sections. Besides the addition of Soma-cups, these sacrifices also involve certain modifications and additions to certain rites which are taken over from the Agnistoma. In such cases the sections involving the additions and alterations have found place in the treatment of each sacrifice. In such sections only the additions and alterations have been recorded. Other details which are contained in the corresponding section of Agnistoma are of course to be understood. It follows that even those sections out of 181, which may be absent in the procedure of any sacrifice are to be taken over from the Agnistoma.

In extracting the material from the Brahmana -texts, it is the general policy to stick to the extraction of vidhi-elements as far as possible; arthavada -portions are generally ignored. In the present part the practice required to be modified a I little, that is to say, certain arthavada—sentences have been incorporated. This is particularly done in respect of the opening paragraph of a sacrifice in which the- Brahmanakara explained the origin of the sacrifice, laid down a myth or in some way tried to bring out the significance of the sacrifice. Therefore almost in all sacrifices the first section named as yagopakrama records such matter together with the preliminary instructions concerning the sacrifice. Further, in the sections pertaining to the Stotras and Sastras the place do related Brahmana sentences has been changed,. In Part I (Agnistoma) such a section commenced with the Stotra or Sastra itself and the Brahmana - sentences which have to say something to be done prior to the chanting of the Stotra or reciting of the Sastra, or to give instructions concerning the chanting or reciting, or to lay down certain accompanying rites followed the Stotra or Sastra_ In this Part all such Brahmanas -sentences have been reproduced at the beginning, and the Stotra or Sastra follows them.

Contents

Volume I

I. Setting up of the Sacred Fires 1-84
Conspectus 1
Preparation for the setting up of the sacred fires 5
Gopitr-sacrifice 26
Churning out the fire 30
Depositing of the fires in the fire-places 38
Sacrifices ancillary to the setting up of the sacred fires 53
Renewing and the third setting up of the sacred fires 71
Duties of the hotr in respect of the renewing of the sacred fires 78
Expiatory rites in connection with the setting up of the sacred fires 83
II. Agnihotra-Offering 85-198
Conspectus 85
Baudhayana 88
Bharadvaja 101
Apastamba 108
Satyasadha 120
Vaikhanasa 124
Manava 125
Varaha 129
Katyayana 131
Asvalayana 135
Sankhayana 138
Vaitana 142
Jaiminiya 144
Expiation-rites in connection with the Agnihotra 145
III. Optional (Kamya) Oblations 199-210
Conspectus 199
Jaya oblations and Abhyatana oblations 201
Rastrabhrt oblations 202
Samasta oblations 205
Caturhotrka oblations 205
IV. The New-Moon and the Full-Moon Sacrifices 211-501
Conspectus 211
The adding of fuel to the sacred fires 217
The driving away of the calves 226
The fetching of the sacrificial faggot and grass 230
The evening milking 242
The placing of the utensils and the carrying forth of the pranita waters 252
The pouring out of the oblation-material 264
From the pounding of grains to the placing of potsherds 272
The baking of the sacrificial cakes 285
The preparing of the altar 291
The cleansing of the ladles, the girding up of the sacrificer’s wife ad the taking up of clarified butter 302
The strewing of the sacrificial grass and the placing of the ladles 314
The placing of oblations 323
The putting of fire-sticks (with the samidhenis), the aghara libations, and the pravaras 329
The duties of the hotr: the recitation of the samidheni verses and allied rites 340
The prayaja and the ajyabhaga offerings 353
The duties of the hotr in connection with the prayaja and the ajyabhagaoffering 357
The principal offering and the svistakrt offering 362
The duties of the hotr in connection with the principal and the svistakrt offerings 370
Invocation of ida 372
The duties of the hotr in connection with the invocation of ida 385
The anvaharya cooked rice 389
The anuyaja, the suktavaka, and the samyuvaka 392
The duties of the hotr in connection with the anuyaja the suktavaka, and the samyuvaka 405
The patnisamyaja offerings 407
The duties of the hotr in connection with the patnisamyaja offerings 425
The Visnu-steps 428
Expiation-rites in connection with the New-moon and the Full-moon Sacrifices 436
Pindopitryajna 480
Expiation-rite in connection with the Pindapitryajna 499
The sacrifices to Vaimrdha Indra and to Aditi 500
V. The Offering of the First Fruits 502-515
Conspectus 502
The offering of the first fruits 503
Expiation-rites in connection with the Offering of the first fruits 514
VI. Optional New-Moon and Full-Moon Sacrifices 516-528
Sacrifice to Agni-Visnu 516
Sakamprasthayiya sacrifice 517
Sumand sacrifice 518
Daksayana sacrifice 519
Idadadha sacrifice 523
Catuscakra sacrifice 524
Sarvaseni sacrifice 525
Saunaka sacrifice 525
Vasistha sacrifice 526
Munyayana 526
Turayana 526
Dyavaprthivyor ayanam 526
Optional Sacrifices to be performed subsequent to the New-moon and the full-moon sacrifices 527
Appendix 529-535
Errata 536-537

Volume II

VII. Optional Sacrifices 539-645
Prefatory note 539
General rules regarding the Optional Sacrifices 542
Optional Sacrifices 547
VIII. The Caturmasyas 646-767
IX. The Optional and Other Forms of the Caturmasyas 768-769
X. The Animal-Sacrifice 770-876
XI. Optional Animal-Sacrifices 877-893
XII. Caturmasyas with Animal-Offerings 894-898
XIII. Sautramani 899-943
XIV. The General Rule 944-978
XV. The Pravaras 979-1032
XVI. The Pitrmedha 1033-1132
Addenda & Corrigenda 1133-1150
Supplement 1150-1158
Index of Important Words and Topics 1159

Volume IV

The Atyagnistoma 1-3
Ukthya 4-19
The Sodasin 20-44
Vajapeya 45-119
Atiratra 120-162
Aptoryama 163-182
Appendix I: Vadhula-Srautasutra, Vajapeya; Aptoryama 183-200
Appendix II: Agnistoma Expiation Rites; Baudhayan-Srautasutra 201-224
Appendix III: Agnistoma Expiation – Rites; Srautasutras other than Baudh SS
Bharadvaja SS 225-227
Apastamba SS 227-242
Satyasadha SS 242-245
Vaikhanasa SS 245-252
Manava SS 253-256
Varaha-Prayascitta 256-261
Vadhula SS 261-262
Katyayana SS 262-269
Asvalayana SS 269-273
Sankhayana SS 273-276
Atharvavedaprayascittani 276-280
Index 281-317

Volume V

Agnistoma
1. Choosing the officiating priests and asking for a place for sacrifice 1
2. Putting up the Pracinavamsa hall 17
3. The intermediate initiation-rite 18
4. Preparation of the Pravargva-utensils 28
5. The Apsudiksa and Diksaniyesti 47
6. The Hautra in the Diksaniyesti 65
7. The Audgatra in the Diksaniyesti 66
8. The initiation of the sacrificer 67
9. Going out on a journey and the Prayaniyesti 100
10. The Hautra relating to the Prayaniyesti 111
11. The Audgatra relating to the Prayaniyesti 112
12. Purchase of Soma 112
13. The Hautra relating to the purchase of Soma 144
14. The Atithyesti, etc. 145
15. The Hautra relating to the Atithyesti 164
16. The Audgatra relating to the Atithyesti 165
17. The procedure of the first forenoon Pravargya 166
18. The Hautra relating to the first forenoon Pravargya 189
19. The Audgatra relating to the first forenoon Pravargya191
20. The first forenoon Gharma-offering 192
21. The Hautra relating to the first forenoon Gharma-offering 210
22. The Audgatra relating to the first forenoon Gharma-offering 212
23. The first forenoon Upasad, etc. 214
24. The Hautra relating to the first forenoon Upasad 227
25. The Audgatra relating to the first forenoon Upasad 228
26. The first afternoon Pravargya 229
27. The Hautra relating to the first afternoon Pravargya231
28. The first afternoon Upasad, etc. 232
29. The Hautra relating to the first afternoon Upasad 233
30. The Audgatra relating to the first afternoon Upasad 234
31. The middle forenoon Pravargva and Upasad 234
32. The preparation of the Mahavedi and the pouring down (of earth) for the Uttaravedi 236
33. The middle afternoon Pravargya and Upasad 242
34. The last forenoon and afternoon Pravargya and Upasad 243
35. The disposal of the Pravargya 245
36. The Audgatra relating to the disposal of the Pravargya 265
37. From the carrying forth of the fire up to the setting in motion of the havirdhana-carts 266
38. The Hautra relating to the rites beginning with the carrying forth of the fire and ending with the setting in motion of the havirdhana-carts 278
39. The Audgatra relating to the carrying forth of the fire 279
40. The putting up of the Sadas, the Havirdhana, etc. 280
41. The Audgatra relating to the putting up of the Sadas and the Havirdhana 309
42. The formal carrying forth of Agni-Soma 312
43. The Hautra relating to the formal carrying forth of fire and Soma 330
44. The Audgatra relating to the formal carrying forth of fire and Soma 332
45. The offering of the omentum of the animal for Agni-Soma 333
46. The Hautra relating to the offering of the omentum of the animal for Agni-Soma 339
47. The pronouncing of the subrahmanys characterized by the mention of fathers and sons339
48. Taking up of the vasativari water 342
49. Offering of the pasupurodasa and the animal’s organs 345
50. The Hautra relating to the offering of the agnisomiya pasupurodasa 347
51. The carrying round of the vasativari water and the pronouncing of the subrahmanya characterized by the mention of the names of fathers and sons 350
The Morning-Pressing
52. The commencement of the day of pressing 358
53. The Prataranuvaka 376
54. The Audgatra relating to the commencement of the Soma-pressing 385
55. The taking up of water 386
56. The Audgatra relating to the taking up of water 399
57. The offering of the dadhigraha, the adabhya-cup, and the amsu-cup 400
58. The offering of the upamsu cup 410
59. The Soma-pressing 442
60. The offering of the antaryama cup 431

Volume VI

Agnistoma (Continued)
61. The taking up of Soma-juice in cups and vessels 437
62. The Audgatra relating to the taking up of the cups 452
63. The moving out for the Bahispavamana 454
64. The Bahispavamana-Stotra 559
65. Rites ending with the Offering of the omentum of the Savanjya animal 569
66. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the omentum of the Savanlya animal 481
67. The Audgatra relating to the offering of the omentum of the Savaniya animal 483
68. Entering into the Sada 483
69. The Offering of the Savanlya purodasas 501
70. The Hautra relating to the Savaniya purodasas 506
71. The procedure relating to the cups to the Divinity-pairs 508
72. The Hautra relating to the procedure in connection with the cups for the Divinity-pairs 520
73. The procedure relating to the Sukra and the Manthin 522
74. he Haurta relating to the procedure in connection with the Sukra and the Manthin cups 536
75. The procedure relating to the goblets of the Hotrakas 537
76. The Hautra relating to the procedure in connection with the goblets of the Hotrakas 541
77. The consuming of the Soma offered to the Divinity-pairs 543
78. The Savaniya-ida 550
79. The consuming of the Savanamukha Soma 553
80. The procedure relating to the Acchavaka’s goblet 560
81. The Hautra relating to the procedure in connection with the Acchavaka’s goblet 564
82. The procedure relating to the Rtu cups 566
83. The Hautra relating to the procedure in connection with the Rtu cups 575
84. The taking up of the Aindragna cup 576
85. The Ajya-Sastra 579
86. The procedure relating to the Offering of the Aindragna cup and the taking up of the Vaisvadeva cup 585
87. The first Ajya-Stotra 591
88. The Prauga-Sastra 594
89. The procedure relating to the Offering of the Vaisvadeva cup and the taking up of the Maitravaruna cup 596
90. The second Ajya-Stotra 600
91. The Maitravaruna-Sastra 601
92. The procedure relating to the offering of the Maitravaruna cup and the taking up of the Aindra cup 602
93. The third Ajya-Stotra 607
94. The Brahmanacchamsi-Sastra 608
95. The procedure relating to the Offering of the Aindra cup and the taking up of the Aindragna cup 609
96. The fourth Ajya-Stotra 613
97. The Acchavaka-Sastra 613
98. The procedure relating to the Offering of the Aindragna cup 614
The Midday-Pressing
99. The pressing out of Soma 619
100. The Laud by the Gravastut 625
101. The filling in of the cups 627
102. The moving out for the Madhyamdina Pavamana Stotra 631
103. The Madhyamdina Pavamana Stotra 634
104. The procedure relating to the Dadhigharma 637
105. The Hautra relating to the Dadhigharma 644
106. The offering of the Savaniya pasu-purodasa 645
107. The Hautra relating to the offering of the Savaniya pasu-purodasa 645
108. The offering of the Savaniya purodasas 646
109. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Savaniya purodasas 648
110. The Offering of the Sukra and the Manthin cups 649
111. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Sukra and the Manthin 652
112. The procedure relating to the goblets of the Hotrakas 652
113. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Hotrakas’ goblets 654
114. The Savaniya-ida 655
115. The consuming of the Savanamuha Soma 655
116. The Daksinas 658
117. The Marutvatiya Offering 679
118. The Hautra relating to the Marutvatiya Offering 681
119. The filling in of the third Marutvatiya cup682
120. The Marutvatiya-Sastra 683
121. The Offering of the Marutvatiya cup and the taking up of the Mahendra cup 686
122. The first Prstha-Stotra 690
123. The Niskevalya-Sastra 693
124. The Offering of the Mahendra cup and the taking up of the Aindra cup 698
125. The second Prstha-Stotra 702
126. The Maitravaruna-Sastra 703
127. The Offering of the Aindra cup and the taking up of the Aindra cup 704
128. The third Prstha-Stotra 705
129. The Brahmanacchamsi-Sastra 705
130. The Offering of the Aindra cup and the taking up of (another) Aindra cup 707
131. The fourth Prstha-Stotra 708
132. The Acchavaka-Sastra 708
133. The Offering of the Other Aindra cup 709
The Third Pressing
134. The pressing out of the Rjisa and the Offering of the Aditya cup 710
135. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Aditya cup 720
136. The taking up of the cups 721
137. The moving out for the Arbhava Pavamana 724
138. The Arbhava Pavamana-Stotra 727
139. The offering of the organs of the Savaniya animal 729
140. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the organs of the Savaniya animal 732
141. The Offering of the Svaniya animal 733
142. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Savaniya purodasas 735
143. The Offering at the beginning of the pressing 736
144. The Hautra relating to the Offering at the beginning of the pressing 739
145. The Offering of the goblets of the Hotrakas 739
146. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the goblets of the Hotrakas 741
147. The Savaniya-ida 742
148. The consuming of Soma at the beginning of the pressing 742
149. The Offering of the balls 744
150. The offering of the Savitra cup 748
151. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Savitra cup 750
152. The taking up of the Vaisvadeva cup 750
153. The Vaisvadeva-Sastra 752
154. The Offering of the Vaisvadeva cup 755
155. The Offering of cooked rice to Soma 758
156. The Hautra relating to the Offering of cooked rice to Soma 764
157. The Offering of the Patnivata cup765
158. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the Patnivata 769
159. The filling in of the Hotr’sgoblet 770
160. The Agnistoma-Stotra 772
161. The Agnimaruta Sastra 776
162. The Offering of the Hotr’s goblet 781
The Tail of the Sacrifice
163. The rites beginning with the Anuyajas and ending with the Offering of the Hariyojana 785
164. The Hautra relating to the rites ending with the offering of the Hariyojana 789
165. The partaking of the parched grains, etc. 790
166. The Audgatra relating to the consuming of the dhanas, etc. 801
167. The commencement of the Avabhrtha 801
168. The Audgatra relating to the Avabhrtha 808
169. The Avabhrtha-isti 809
170. The Hautra relating to the Avabhrtha-isti 821
171. The Udayaniya Isti 822
172. The Hautra relating to the Udayaniya Isti 826
173. The Audgatra relating to the Udayaniya Isti 826
174. The Offering of the anubandhya 827
175. The Hautra relating to the Offering of the anubandhya 832
176. The Audgatra relating to the Offering of the anubandhya 833
177. The Udavasaniya Isti 834
178. The Hautra relating to the Udavasaniya Isti837
179. The Audgatra relating to the Udavasaniya Isti 838
180. The Devika oblations 839
181. The Hautra relating to the Devika oblations 843
The Ekadasini 844-868
Index 869-894
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