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The Student's Sanskrit English Dictionary
The Student's Sanskrit English Dictionary
Description
Preface

The Dictionary that is now offered to the public has been intended to supply a want; long felt by the student, of a Sanskrit-English Dictionary such as would meet all his ordinary requirements, and be at the same time within easy reach. Without dwelling, therefore, on the necessity of bringing out a work like this, I shall proceed to state student. With this object in view I have not thought it necessary to include Vedic words or Vedic senses of words, but have confined myself chiefly to what may be called the post-Vedic literature. But even this covers a very large field, as it includes Epics like the Ramayana, Mahabharata, the several Puranas, the Smriti literature, the several Darsanas or systems of philosophy, such as Nyaya Vedanta, Mimamsa &c, Grammar, Rhetoric, Poetry in all its branches, Dramatic literature, Mathematics Medicine Botany, Astronomy, Music, and such other technical or scientific branches of learning. Very few of the existing Dictionaries have tried to deal with and explain the innumerable technical terms pertaining to all the various branches of learning above specified, except perhaps the great Vachaspatya, which, too, However, Is Defective In Some Respects. Much Less Can a Dictionary like this, designed mainly for the University student, be expected to do so. It principally aims at serving as an aid to the student and the general reader, and embraces all words occurring in the general post-Vedic literature, i.e. Prose tales, Kavyas, Dramas, epics &c. it includes most of ordinary and more important terms in Grammar, Nyaya, Rhetoric, Law, Medicine, Astronomy, Mathematics, &c., but gives special prominence to the explanation of all important terms in the first three departments, as they are generally studied at College for University examinations. It omits Vedic words or Vedic senses of words, the names of authors and their works-which are too many to be noticed in a Dictionary-except the most important ones, the names of plants and trees except such as are noteworthy and met with in general literature, obscure or unimportant words or senses of words not generally used in classical literature, and simple derivatives from verbs, adjectives &c. which can be very easily formed by the student for himself. But these omissions will, it is hoped, not in any way lessen the usefulness of the Dictionary, as it gives in a small compass all that a student of Sanskrit will ordinarily require-perhaps even more in some-cases-during his School or College career.

Having thus explained the scope of the work, I shall say a few words with regard to its plan and arrangement. As will be seen from even a cursory glance at the contents, the chief feature of the Dictionary is that it gives quotations and references to the peculiar and noteworthy meanings of words, especially such as occur in books read by the student at School or College. It has been thought necessary to do so, because a student naturally expects that the Dictionary he uses will give appropriate equivalents for such words and expressions as have some peculiarity in use or meaning. Moreover, quotations and references from help the reader in determining any particular meaning of a word in a particular passage by enabling him to see and compare how the word is used elsewhere. In some cases these quotations might appear to be superfluous but to a student, especially a beginner, they are very useful as they supply him with illustrations of the uses of words, and firmly impress their meanings upon his mind.

Another noticeable feature of the Dictionary is that it gives explanations of the more important technical terms, particularly in Nyaya, Alankara, Grammar, Dramaturgy, with quotations in Sanskrit wherever necessary i.e.g. see the words &c. In the case of Alankaras I have chiefly drawn upon the Kavyaprakasa, though I have occasionally referred to the Chandraloka, Kuvalayananda and Rasagangadhara. In the explanation of Dramatic terms I have generally followed the Sahityadarpana. Similarly, striking phrases, some choice expressions and idioms or peculiar combinations of words, have been noticed under every word wherever necessary; i.e.g. see the words &c. Mythological allusions in the case of all important names have been briefly but clearly explained, so as to give the reader most of the facts connected with those personages; see &c. Etymology had not been generally given except where peculiar ar; e.g. see the words. The work also gives information about words though not of a technical nature, which it is believed, will be useful to the student; e.g. see the words Mandal, Manas, Veda, Hans. Some of the Nyayas or maxims such as are frequently used in illustrations, have been collected under the word Nyaya for easy reference. To add to the usefulness of the work, I have added at the end three Appendices. The first is on Sanskrit Prosody which gives in a clear and intelligible form all the common metres, with definitions, schemes in Ganas, and examples. In the preparation of this Appendix I have chiefly drawn upon the two popular works on Prosody, the Vrittaratnakara and Chhando-Manjari, but some common metres which are omitted therein have been added from the poems of Magha, Bharavi, Dandin, Bhatti &c. The second Appendix gives the dates, writings &c. cf some of the important Sanskrit writers, such as Kalidasa, Bhavabhuti, Bana &c. Here I have selected only those names about which something definite-something more than mere guesses and surmises-is known, and I have derived some hints from the Introduction of Vallabhadeva's Subhashitavali and Max Muller's India, for which my thanks are due to the authors. The third Appendix gives the most important names in the ancient Geography of India with identifications on the modern map wherever ascertained, and in this part of the work I have to cordially acknowledge the help I have derived from Cunningham. Ancient Geography, but particularly from Mr. Borooah's Essay prefixed to the third volume of his English-Sanskrit Dictionary. Thus this Dictionary aims at serving as a useful aid to the student of Sanskrit by giving him almost everything that he is likely to require for ordinary purposes, and with this view I have incorporated as much useful information as could to be given within the limits of the book.

The arrangement of the work will be best understood from the 'Directions to the student" which follow. I have only to refer to one point-the use of the anusvara instead of nasals throughout. This practice, whatever may be said with regard to its correctness, is very convenient for purposes of printing, and will not, it is believed, affect the usefulness of the work. The several contrivances used to effect saving in space will be understood by the reader with very short practice.

Before concluding I must gratefully acknowledge the help that I have derived from different sources. And in doing so I must give the first place to the great Sanskrit Encyclopaedia, the Vachaspatya of Professor Taranatha Tarkavachaspati. Much of the general information given in this Dictionary has been derived from that work, though I have had to supplement it wherever defective. Several words and meanings not given in the existing Sanskrit-English Dictionaries, as also some quotations, have been borrowed from the same work. The Sanskrit-English Dictionary of Prof. Monier Williams is the next work to which I have been greatly indebted. I have constantly kept it by my side, and have freely utilized his renderings of some works, expressions &c. when I found them better than those I myself had to suggest. It has often rendered me in the explanation of words and expressions. And the last, but not the least, is the great German Worterbuch of Drs. Roth and Bothlingk. This great work abounds with references and quotations, but the works belonging to Vedic literature have been comparatively more copiously drawn upon by them than those belonging to the Vedic literature have been comparatively more copiously drawn upon by them than those belonging to the post-Vedic literature. A glance at the contents will show that I have drawn upon works seldom or not at all referred to by those scholars; such as the works of Bhavabhuti, Jagannath Pandit, Rajsekhara, Bana, the Kavyaprakasa, Sisupalvadha, Kiratarjaniya, Naishadhacharita, Sankara-Bhashya, Veni-Samhara &c. and the great majority of quotations and references is from my own collection. But I am free to acknowledge that I have availed myself of the quotations in that Dictionary where my own collection was defective. To these authors, as well as to the authors and Editors of several other works-to many to be here enumerated from which I have derived occasional help of one kind or another, my grateful thanks are due.

In conclusion I trust that "The Student's Sanskrit-English Dictionary" will be found useful not only by those for whom it is mainly intended, but by the general Sanskrit reader also. No work, howsoever carefully prepared, can pretend to be entirely free from defects, and my work cannot be an exception, especially as it has had to be carried through the Press in great haste. I have, therefore, to request such persons as will do me the honour to use this Dictionary, to be so good as to inform me if they discover any mistake, and also to make any suggestions for its improvement, and I shall be very glad to give them my best consideration in the second edition.

The Student's Sanskrit English Dictionary

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Preface

The Dictionary that is now offered to the public has been intended to supply a want; long felt by the student, of a Sanskrit-English Dictionary such as would meet all his ordinary requirements, and be at the same time within easy reach. Without dwelling, therefore, on the necessity of bringing out a work like this, I shall proceed to state student. With this object in view I have not thought it necessary to include Vedic words or Vedic senses of words, but have confined myself chiefly to what may be called the post-Vedic literature. But even this covers a very large field, as it includes Epics like the Ramayana, Mahabharata, the several Puranas, the Smriti literature, the several Darsanas or systems of philosophy, such as Nyaya Vedanta, Mimamsa &c, Grammar, Rhetoric, Poetry in all its branches, Dramatic literature, Mathematics Medicine Botany, Astronomy, Music, and such other technical or scientific branches of learning. Very few of the existing Dictionaries have tried to deal with and explain the innumerable technical terms pertaining to all the various branches of learning above specified, except perhaps the great Vachaspatya, which, too, However, Is Defective In Some Respects. Much Less Can a Dictionary like this, designed mainly for the University student, be expected to do so. It principally aims at serving as an aid to the student and the general reader, and embraces all words occurring in the general post-Vedic literature, i.e. Prose tales, Kavyas, Dramas, epics &c. it includes most of ordinary and more important terms in Grammar, Nyaya, Rhetoric, Law, Medicine, Astronomy, Mathematics, &c., but gives special prominence to the explanation of all important terms in the first three departments, as they are generally studied at College for University examinations. It omits Vedic words or Vedic senses of words, the names of authors and their works-which are too many to be noticed in a Dictionary-except the most important ones, the names of plants and trees except such as are noteworthy and met with in general literature, obscure or unimportant words or senses of words not generally used in classical literature, and simple derivatives from verbs, adjectives &c. which can be very easily formed by the student for himself. But these omissions will, it is hoped, not in any way lessen the usefulness of the Dictionary, as it gives in a small compass all that a student of Sanskrit will ordinarily require-perhaps even more in some-cases-during his School or College career.

Having thus explained the scope of the work, I shall say a few words with regard to its plan and arrangement. As will be seen from even a cursory glance at the contents, the chief feature of the Dictionary is that it gives quotations and references to the peculiar and noteworthy meanings of words, especially such as occur in books read by the student at School or College. It has been thought necessary to do so, because a student naturally expects that the Dictionary he uses will give appropriate equivalents for such words and expressions as have some peculiarity in use or meaning. Moreover, quotations and references from help the reader in determining any particular meaning of a word in a particular passage by enabling him to see and compare how the word is used elsewhere. In some cases these quotations might appear to be superfluous but to a student, especially a beginner, they are very useful as they supply him with illustrations of the uses of words, and firmly impress their meanings upon his mind.

Another noticeable feature of the Dictionary is that it gives explanations of the more important technical terms, particularly in Nyaya, Alankara, Grammar, Dramaturgy, with quotations in Sanskrit wherever necessary i.e.g. see the words &c. In the case of Alankaras I have chiefly drawn upon the Kavyaprakasa, though I have occasionally referred to the Chandraloka, Kuvalayananda and Rasagangadhara. In the explanation of Dramatic terms I have generally followed the Sahityadarpana. Similarly, striking phrases, some choice expressions and idioms or peculiar combinations of words, have been noticed under every word wherever necessary; i.e.g. see the words &c. Mythological allusions in the case of all important names have been briefly but clearly explained, so as to give the reader most of the facts connected with those personages; see &c. Etymology had not been generally given except where peculiar ar; e.g. see the words. The work also gives information about words though not of a technical nature, which it is believed, will be useful to the student; e.g. see the words Mandal, Manas, Veda, Hans. Some of the Nyayas or maxims such as are frequently used in illustrations, have been collected under the word Nyaya for easy reference. To add to the usefulness of the work, I have added at the end three Appendices. The first is on Sanskrit Prosody which gives in a clear and intelligible form all the common metres, with definitions, schemes in Ganas, and examples. In the preparation of this Appendix I have chiefly drawn upon the two popular works on Prosody, the Vrittaratnakara and Chhando-Manjari, but some common metres which are omitted therein have been added from the poems of Magha, Bharavi, Dandin, Bhatti &c. The second Appendix gives the dates, writings &c. cf some of the important Sanskrit writers, such as Kalidasa, Bhavabhuti, Bana &c. Here I have selected only those names about which something definite-something more than mere guesses and surmises-is known, and I have derived some hints from the Introduction of Vallabhadeva's Subhashitavali and Max Muller's India, for which my thanks are due to the authors. The third Appendix gives the most important names in the ancient Geography of India with identifications on the modern map wherever ascertained, and in this part of the work I have to cordially acknowledge the help I have derived from Cunningham. Ancient Geography, but particularly from Mr. Borooah's Essay prefixed to the third volume of his English-Sanskrit Dictionary. Thus this Dictionary aims at serving as a useful aid to the student of Sanskrit by giving him almost everything that he is likely to require for ordinary purposes, and with this view I have incorporated as much useful information as could to be given within the limits of the book.

The arrangement of the work will be best understood from the 'Directions to the student" which follow. I have only to refer to one point-the use of the anusvara instead of nasals throughout. This practice, whatever may be said with regard to its correctness, is very convenient for purposes of printing, and will not, it is believed, affect the usefulness of the work. The several contrivances used to effect saving in space will be understood by the reader with very short practice.

Before concluding I must gratefully acknowledge the help that I have derived from different sources. And in doing so I must give the first place to the great Sanskrit Encyclopaedia, the Vachaspatya of Professor Taranatha Tarkavachaspati. Much of the general information given in this Dictionary has been derived from that work, though I have had to supplement it wherever defective. Several words and meanings not given in the existing Sanskrit-English Dictionaries, as also some quotations, have been borrowed from the same work. The Sanskrit-English Dictionary of Prof. Monier Williams is the next work to which I have been greatly indebted. I have constantly kept it by my side, and have freely utilized his renderings of some works, expressions &c. when I found them better than those I myself had to suggest. It has often rendered me in the explanation of words and expressions. And the last, but not the least, is the great German Worterbuch of Drs. Roth and Bothlingk. This great work abounds with references and quotations, but the works belonging to Vedic literature have been comparatively more copiously drawn upon by them than those belonging to the Vedic literature have been comparatively more copiously drawn upon by them than those belonging to the post-Vedic literature. A glance at the contents will show that I have drawn upon works seldom or not at all referred to by those scholars; such as the works of Bhavabhuti, Jagannath Pandit, Rajsekhara, Bana, the Kavyaprakasa, Sisupalvadha, Kiratarjaniya, Naishadhacharita, Sankara-Bhashya, Veni-Samhara &c. and the great majority of quotations and references is from my own collection. But I am free to acknowledge that I have availed myself of the quotations in that Dictionary where my own collection was defective. To these authors, as well as to the authors and Editors of several other works-to many to be here enumerated from which I have derived occasional help of one kind or another, my grateful thanks are due.

In conclusion I trust that "The Student's Sanskrit-English Dictionary" will be found useful not only by those for whom it is mainly intended, but by the general Sanskrit reader also. No work, howsoever carefully prepared, can pretend to be entirely free from defects, and my work cannot be an exception, especially as it has had to be carried through the Press in great haste. I have, therefore, to request such persons as will do me the honour to use this Dictionary, to be so good as to inform me if they discover any mistake, and also to make any suggestions for its improvement, and I shall be very glad to give them my best consideration in the second edition.

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