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Books > Hindu > Sanskrit > Versified History of Sanskrit Poetics: The Soul is Rasa
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Versified History of Sanskrit Poetics: The Soul is Rasa
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Versified History of Sanskrit Poetics: The Soul is Rasa
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About the Author

Gaurapada began studying Sanskrit grammar in a traditional Indian environment: under the tutelage of his Grace Gopi- parana-dhana Prabhu, he completed the three- years course at Srimad bhagavata- vidta- pitham, in Govardhana: He learned jiva Gosvami’s grammatical treatise Hari- namamrta- vyakarana in depth and edited matsya avatara’s translation of it. In addition to his master’s degree in Sanskrit, Gaurapada holds a degree in science and is a certified chef.

Introduction

Poetry is the artistic use of words that evokes our mojo. Like other forms of art, poetry is meant to give us the astonishing sense of "wow". The poetic theory refined by Sanskrit rhetoricians, such as the Dhvani theory and the ornaments of meaning, also apply to other languages, given that the Sanskrit rhetoricians' methodology of analysis is universal. But Sanskrit is especially well-suited: It is the best medium for poetry because Sanskrit phonemes are distinctly pure, because Sanskrit is favourable for double meanings and because it is based on a rich tradition.

The highest aesthetic experience is a type of self-realization: Pandita-raja Jagannatha remarks: cid eva rasah, "The spirit soul is Rasa." The word rasa often means "aesthetic delight," but in this context Rasa means rapture: the mix of transcendental bliss and astonishment. It is up to us to take the steps to realize this.

Sanskrit poets wrote for scholars. Dr. Keith notes:

The neglect of Sanskrit Kavya is doubtless natural. The great poets of India wrote for audiences of experts; they were masters of the learning of their day, long trained in the use of language, and they aim to please by subtlety, not simplicity of effect. They had at their disposal a singularly beautiful speech, and they commanded elaborate and most effective metres. Under these circumstances it was inevitable that their works should be difficult, but of those who on that score pass them by it may fairly be said ardua dum metuunt amittunt vera viai.

This Latin maxim by Lucertius means: “They fear while it is arduous. They lose the true path.” Some Sanskrit rhetoricians promulgated secular poetry; others, such as Anandavardhana, Visvanatha Kaviraja and Pandita-raja Jagannatha, hinted that bhakti is the ultimate goal of life; and yet other theorists, including Rupa Gosvami and Kavi Karnapura, used poetry to promulgate bhakti, but in all instances the underlying purpose of studying poetry is to realize that symbolism is an essential aspect of life. The study of poetic expression makes us think outside the box, gives us a feel for symbolism and, with logical reasoning, enables us to read the signs in day-to-day life. God communicates indirectly and reciprocates in accordance with His dictum: ye yatha mam prapadyante tdms tathaiva bhajamy aham, "I serve them in the same way they devote themselves to Me" (Bhagavad-gita 4.11). Sanskrit poetics perfectly mixes art and philosophy.

Although his friends lead him to his beloved, if she does not recognize him as her lover she will view him like she views any other man, and so he could not possibly take pleasure with her. Similarly, even though the Lord is directly related to oneself, the soul, if His qualities are unnoticed His glory will remain imperceptible. On this analogy is established the usage of the term Pratyabhijna in philosophy.

Abhinavagupta explains: jnatasyapi visesato nirupanam anusandhanatmakam atra pratibhijnanam, na tu tad evedam ity etdvan-matram, "Pratyabhijna is not simply the ordinary recognition "That is that." Rather it is a realization involving a deeper understanding of what is known in a general way" (Locana 1.8). This was Abhinavagupta's comment on Anandavardhana's statement that a great poet is one who is able to recognize which sounds and which meanings can give rise to a first-rate implied sense. Ultimately, poets make us ponder over the nature of real love.

Like the Sanskrit language itself, Sanskrit poetics is very systematic. Rajasekhara says the knowledge of poetical theory is necessary to correctly interpret Vedic texts. In addition, he says poetics forms a seventh Vedanga (auxiliary branch of learning). The Upanisads and other scriptures on Vedanta philosophy are founded on poetic expression.

Figurative usage is a main feature of poetics. This book is called "Versified" History of Sanskrit Poetics because it abounds in verses: The best stanzas of each poetical rhetorician are shown so that the history of the evolution of the concept of rasa is apparent. Moreover, in the section on Anandavardhana is a dissertation on the Dhvani theory and on its prototype, Sphota-vada, which are the apex of the philosophy of language. Other specialties lacking in previous books in the field of the history of Sanskrit poetics include citra-kavya diagrams, the evolution of the scripts, the rise of the concept of bhakti, the distinct contributions of Vaishnavas, a discussion on the mystical basis of poetics (the soul is Rasa), and comparisons between Sanskrit poetics and English poetics. The nectar of all related books is found here. Over and above that, the chapter on Pandita-raja Jagannatha and Appendix II, which include his best examples, constitute a succinct rendering of Rasa- gangadhara, the most influential treatise on Sanskrit poetics in modem times.

Contents

 

  INTRODUCTION 7
  PREAMBLE  
  The origin of poetry 19
  The poetical derivation of the term sloka 19
  The development of literature 25
  The greats of Sanskrit literature 26
  The definition of a masterpiece 28
  The secondary greats of Sanskrit literature 29
  The grandmasters of Sanskrit poetic theory 37
  The six schools of Sanskrit poetics 38
  The customary topics in a treatise on poetics 40
  Kashmir 43
  The purpose of poetry 50
  The evolution of the classification of bhakti 53
  Poetesses 54
  Anthologies 59
  One simile seen through the prism of Alankara 60
  The documented origins of Sanskrit poetic theory 62
  Panini 67
  The evolution of the scripts 72
  The possible influence of greek dramaturgy 80
  The Sanskrit language 88
  THE BEST THEORIES AND EXAMPLES OF THE POETICAL THEORISTS  
1 Bharata Muni (Natya-sastra) 91
  Eight rasas 95
  Four literary ornaments 97
  Ten gunas 101
  Thirty-six kavya-laksanas 104
  Table of the Kavya- Laksanas 107
  Differences between natya-rasa and kavya-rass 114
  The theme of each chapter 118
  Bharata's sons are cursed and come to Earth 123
  Two recensions 130
  Commentaries and tradition 133
2 Visnu-dharmottara Upapurana 135
3 Bhatti (Bhatti-kdvya) 137
4 Dandin (Kavyadarsa) 144
  Sequence of topics 150
  Ten gunas 153
  Ornaments of meaning 158
  Ornaments of sound 172
5 Medhavin 184
6 Bhamaha 187
  Sequence of topics 189
  Ornaments 196
7 Udbhata 202
  Ornaments of sound 205
  Ornaments of meaning 209
8 Vamana 217
  Sequence of topics 218
  Ritis and gunas 222
  Table of Vamana's Twenty gunas 227
  Ornaments 233
9 Rudrata 238
  Vakrokti 239
  Ritis and vrttis 241
  Yamaka 243
  Citra-kavya 247
  Ornaments of meaning 257
  Rasa 263
10 Anandavardhana (Dhvany-alokai 265
  First-rate poetry 275
  Second-rate poetry 279
  The origins of the concept of implied meaning 281
  Dhvani in grammar: The Kashmiris' burden of proof 285
  Patanjali's theory of Sphota 287
  Bhartrhari's theory of Sphota 298
  Philosophy influences poetic theory 319
  The Kashmiri Shaivite tradition 320
  The evolution of the Dhvani theory 339
  Miscellaneous topics 348
11 Bhatta Nayaka (Hrdaya-darpana) 349
12 Rajasekhara (Kavya-mimamsa) 359
13 Mukula Bhatta (Abhidha-vrtti-matrkd) 368
  Diagrams of figurative usage 370
14 Abhinavagupta 373
15 Dhananjaya 382
16 Kuntaka 388
17 Agni Purdna 396
18 Bhoja 404
  Sarasvati- Kanthabharana 406
  Sources 407
  Gunas 410
  Ornaments 415
  Rasa 423
  Srngara-prakasa 427
19 Rudra Bhatta 436
20 Ksemendra 439
21 Mahima Bhatta 445
22 Mammata 455
  Four theories of rasa Lollata 458
  Sankuka 460
  Nayaka 464
  Abhinavagupta 467
  Two meanings of rasa 471
  Ornaments of meaning 474
  Yamaka 476
  The two authors of Kavya- Prakasa 482
23 Ruyyaka 485
24 Hemacandra 493
25 Sridhara Svami 495
  Supplement on Laksmidhara 501
26 Vag- Bhata I 503
27 Vag- Bhata II 504
28 Jayadeva 506
29 Vopadeva 513
  The Grammatical treatises Post- Astadhyayi 517
  The purpose of writing the Mukta- Phala 520
  Sequence of topics 522
  Eighteen subdivision of Bhakti 527
  Supplement on Madhusudana Sarasvati 528
30 Vidyadhara 532
31 Vidyanatha 534
  Sequence of topics 537
32 Singa-bhupala 540
33 Visvanatha Kaviraja 546
  The kings of Orissa 548
  The meaning of Sahitya-darpana 551
  The derivation of the term srngara 552
  Illustrative examples 552
  The Sweetness os Dr. Kane 556
  The differences between Sahitya-darpana and Kavya- Prakasa 556
34 Bhanu Datta 559
35 Rupa Gosvami 566
36 Jiva Gosvami 571
37 Kavi Karnapura 577
  Yamaka 580
  Citra-kavya 582
  Rasa 585
38 Kesava Misra 591
39 Appaya Diksita 594
40 Pandita- Raja Jagannatha 600
  Definition of Poetry 612
  Four categories of Poetry 616
  Features of Rasa-gangiidhara 620
  Criticism 630
  Jagannatha and Nagesa 638
  Twelve theories of rasa 645
  The last great Sanskrit poet 655
41 Krishna Kavi (Mandara-maranda-campu) 661
42 Visvesvara Pandita (Alankiira-kaustubhay 667
43 Baladeva Vidyabhusana 669
  The Soul is Rasa 670
  AFTERWORD  
  Einstein's three stages of religion 677
  Synchronicity 685
  APPENDIX I  
  The best of Bhartrhari's three centuries 689
  Niti-sataka 691
  Srngara-sataka 694
  Vairagya-sataka 700
  A verse of vakrokti by Ratnakara 702
  APPENDIX II  
  Illustrative examples by Pandita-raja Jagannatha 705
  APPENDIX III  
  Mythology in Hinduism 747
  APPENDIX IV  
  COMPARISONS BETWEEN SANSKRIT POETICS AND ENGLISH POETICS 751
  Technical differences between English Poetics and Sanskrit Poetics 756
  APPENDIX V  
  Tribute to Kalidasa 763
  GLOSSARY 769
  SANSKRIT PRONUNCIATION GUIDE 777
  BIBLIOGRAPHY  
  Primary texts 781
  Translations and studies 787

Sample Pages




















Versified History of Sanskrit Poetics: The Soul is Rasa

Item Code:
NAN691
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Hardcover
Edition:
2017
ISBN:
9788184030433
Language:
English
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8.5 Inch X 5.5 Inch
Pages:
790
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Weight of the Book: 1.1 kg
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About the Author

Gaurapada began studying Sanskrit grammar in a traditional Indian environment: under the tutelage of his Grace Gopi- parana-dhana Prabhu, he completed the three- years course at Srimad bhagavata- vidta- pitham, in Govardhana: He learned jiva Gosvami’s grammatical treatise Hari- namamrta- vyakarana in depth and edited matsya avatara’s translation of it. In addition to his master’s degree in Sanskrit, Gaurapada holds a degree in science and is a certified chef.

Introduction

Poetry is the artistic use of words that evokes our mojo. Like other forms of art, poetry is meant to give us the astonishing sense of "wow". The poetic theory refined by Sanskrit rhetoricians, such as the Dhvani theory and the ornaments of meaning, also apply to other languages, given that the Sanskrit rhetoricians' methodology of analysis is universal. But Sanskrit is especially well-suited: It is the best medium for poetry because Sanskrit phonemes are distinctly pure, because Sanskrit is favourable for double meanings and because it is based on a rich tradition.

The highest aesthetic experience is a type of self-realization: Pandita-raja Jagannatha remarks: cid eva rasah, "The spirit soul is Rasa." The word rasa often means "aesthetic delight," but in this context Rasa means rapture: the mix of transcendental bliss and astonishment. It is up to us to take the steps to realize this.

Sanskrit poets wrote for scholars. Dr. Keith notes:

The neglect of Sanskrit Kavya is doubtless natural. The great poets of India wrote for audiences of experts; they were masters of the learning of their day, long trained in the use of language, and they aim to please by subtlety, not simplicity of effect. They had at their disposal a singularly beautiful speech, and they commanded elaborate and most effective metres. Under these circumstances it was inevitable that their works should be difficult, but of those who on that score pass them by it may fairly be said ardua dum metuunt amittunt vera viai.

This Latin maxim by Lucertius means: “They fear while it is arduous. They lose the true path.” Some Sanskrit rhetoricians promulgated secular poetry; others, such as Anandavardhana, Visvanatha Kaviraja and Pandita-raja Jagannatha, hinted that bhakti is the ultimate goal of life; and yet other theorists, including Rupa Gosvami and Kavi Karnapura, used poetry to promulgate bhakti, but in all instances the underlying purpose of studying poetry is to realize that symbolism is an essential aspect of life. The study of poetic expression makes us think outside the box, gives us a feel for symbolism and, with logical reasoning, enables us to read the signs in day-to-day life. God communicates indirectly and reciprocates in accordance with His dictum: ye yatha mam prapadyante tdms tathaiva bhajamy aham, "I serve them in the same way they devote themselves to Me" (Bhagavad-gita 4.11). Sanskrit poetics perfectly mixes art and philosophy.

Although his friends lead him to his beloved, if she does not recognize him as her lover she will view him like she views any other man, and so he could not possibly take pleasure with her. Similarly, even though the Lord is directly related to oneself, the soul, if His qualities are unnoticed His glory will remain imperceptible. On this analogy is established the usage of the term Pratyabhijna in philosophy.

Abhinavagupta explains: jnatasyapi visesato nirupanam anusandhanatmakam atra pratibhijnanam, na tu tad evedam ity etdvan-matram, "Pratyabhijna is not simply the ordinary recognition "That is that." Rather it is a realization involving a deeper understanding of what is known in a general way" (Locana 1.8). This was Abhinavagupta's comment on Anandavardhana's statement that a great poet is one who is able to recognize which sounds and which meanings can give rise to a first-rate implied sense. Ultimately, poets make us ponder over the nature of real love.

Like the Sanskrit language itself, Sanskrit poetics is very systematic. Rajasekhara says the knowledge of poetical theory is necessary to correctly interpret Vedic texts. In addition, he says poetics forms a seventh Vedanga (auxiliary branch of learning). The Upanisads and other scriptures on Vedanta philosophy are founded on poetic expression.

Figurative usage is a main feature of poetics. This book is called "Versified" History of Sanskrit Poetics because it abounds in verses: The best stanzas of each poetical rhetorician are shown so that the history of the evolution of the concept of rasa is apparent. Moreover, in the section on Anandavardhana is a dissertation on the Dhvani theory and on its prototype, Sphota-vada, which are the apex of the philosophy of language. Other specialties lacking in previous books in the field of the history of Sanskrit poetics include citra-kavya diagrams, the evolution of the scripts, the rise of the concept of bhakti, the distinct contributions of Vaishnavas, a discussion on the mystical basis of poetics (the soul is Rasa), and comparisons between Sanskrit poetics and English poetics. The nectar of all related books is found here. Over and above that, the chapter on Pandita-raja Jagannatha and Appendix II, which include his best examples, constitute a succinct rendering of Rasa- gangadhara, the most influential treatise on Sanskrit poetics in modem times.

Contents

 

  INTRODUCTION 7
  PREAMBLE  
  The origin of poetry 19
  The poetical derivation of the term sloka 19
  The development of literature 25
  The greats of Sanskrit literature 26
  The definition of a masterpiece 28
  The secondary greats of Sanskrit literature 29
  The grandmasters of Sanskrit poetic theory 37
  The six schools of Sanskrit poetics 38
  The customary topics in a treatise on poetics 40
  Kashmir 43
  The purpose of poetry 50
  The evolution of the classification of bhakti 53
  Poetesses 54
  Anthologies 59
  One simile seen through the prism of Alankara 60
  The documented origins of Sanskrit poetic theory 62
  Panini 67
  The evolution of the scripts 72
  The possible influence of greek dramaturgy 80
  The Sanskrit language 88
  THE BEST THEORIES AND EXAMPLES OF THE POETICAL THEORISTS  
1 Bharata Muni (Natya-sastra) 91
  Eight rasas 95
  Four literary ornaments 97
  Ten gunas 101
  Thirty-six kavya-laksanas 104
  Table of the Kavya- Laksanas 107
  Differences between natya-rasa and kavya-rass 114
  The theme of each chapter 118
  Bharata's sons are cursed and come to Earth 123
  Two recensions 130
  Commentaries and tradition 133
2 Visnu-dharmottara Upapurana 135
3 Bhatti (Bhatti-kdvya) 137
4 Dandin (Kavyadarsa) 144
  Sequence of topics 150
  Ten gunas 153
  Ornaments of meaning 158
  Ornaments of sound 172
5 Medhavin 184
6 Bhamaha 187
  Sequence of topics 189
  Ornaments 196
7 Udbhata 202
  Ornaments of sound 205
  Ornaments of meaning 209
8 Vamana 217
  Sequence of topics 218
  Ritis and gunas 222
  Table of Vamana's Twenty gunas 227
  Ornaments 233
9 Rudrata 238
  Vakrokti 239
  Ritis and vrttis 241
  Yamaka 243
  Citra-kavya 247
  Ornaments of meaning 257
  Rasa 263
10 Anandavardhana (Dhvany-alokai 265
  First-rate poetry 275
  Second-rate poetry 279
  The origins of the concept of implied meaning 281
  Dhvani in grammar: The Kashmiris' burden of proof 285
  Patanjali's theory of Sphota 287
  Bhartrhari's theory of Sphota 298
  Philosophy influences poetic theory 319
  The Kashmiri Shaivite tradition 320
  The evolution of the Dhvani theory 339
  Miscellaneous topics 348
11 Bhatta Nayaka (Hrdaya-darpana) 349
12 Rajasekhara (Kavya-mimamsa) 359
13 Mukula Bhatta (Abhidha-vrtti-matrkd) 368
  Diagrams of figurative usage 370
14 Abhinavagupta 373
15 Dhananjaya 382
16 Kuntaka 388
17 Agni Purdna 396
18 Bhoja 404
  Sarasvati- Kanthabharana 406
  Sources 407
  Gunas 410
  Ornaments 415
  Rasa 423
  Srngara-prakasa 427
19 Rudra Bhatta 436
20 Ksemendra 439
21 Mahima Bhatta 445
22 Mammata 455
  Four theories of rasa Lollata 458
  Sankuka 460
  Nayaka 464
  Abhinavagupta 467
  Two meanings of rasa 471
  Ornaments of meaning 474
  Yamaka 476
  The two authors of Kavya- Prakasa 482
23 Ruyyaka 485
24 Hemacandra 493
25 Sridhara Svami 495
  Supplement on Laksmidhara 501
26 Vag- Bhata I 503
27 Vag- Bhata II 504
28 Jayadeva 506
29 Vopadeva 513
  The Grammatical treatises Post- Astadhyayi 517
  The purpose of writing the Mukta- Phala 520
  Sequence of topics 522
  Eighteen subdivision of Bhakti 527
  Supplement on Madhusudana Sarasvati 528
30 Vidyadhara 532
31 Vidyanatha 534
  Sequence of topics 537
32 Singa-bhupala 540
33 Visvanatha Kaviraja 546
  The kings of Orissa 548
  The meaning of Sahitya-darpana 551
  The derivation of the term srngara 552
  Illustrative examples 552
  The Sweetness os Dr. Kane 556
  The differences between Sahitya-darpana and Kavya- Prakasa 556
34 Bhanu Datta 559
35 Rupa Gosvami 566
36 Jiva Gosvami 571
37 Kavi Karnapura 577
  Yamaka 580
  Citra-kavya 582
  Rasa 585
38 Kesava Misra 591
39 Appaya Diksita 594
40 Pandita- Raja Jagannatha 600
  Definition of Poetry 612
  Four categories of Poetry 616
  Features of Rasa-gangiidhara 620
  Criticism 630
  Jagannatha and Nagesa 638
  Twelve theories of rasa 645
  The last great Sanskrit poet 655
41 Krishna Kavi (Mandara-maranda-campu) 661
42 Visvesvara Pandita (Alankiira-kaustubhay 667
43 Baladeva Vidyabhusana 669
  The Soul is Rasa 670
  AFTERWORD  
  Einstein's three stages of religion 677
  Synchronicity 685
  APPENDIX I  
  The best of Bhartrhari's three centuries 689
  Niti-sataka 691
  Srngara-sataka 694
  Vairagya-sataka 700
  A verse of vakrokti by Ratnakara 702
  APPENDIX II  
  Illustrative examples by Pandita-raja Jagannatha 705
  APPENDIX III  
  Mythology in Hinduism 747
  APPENDIX IV  
  COMPARISONS BETWEEN SANSKRIT POETICS AND ENGLISH POETICS 751
  Technical differences between English Poetics and Sanskrit Poetics 756
  APPENDIX V  
  Tribute to Kalidasa 763
  GLOSSARY 769
  SANSKRIT PRONUNCIATION GUIDE 777
  BIBLIOGRAPHY  
  Primary texts 781
  Translations and studies 787

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